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 – Volume in the Wiley Handbooks in Cognitive Neuroscience –

Edited by
Robin A. Murphy and
Robert C. Honey

Learning, Psychology of. | Cognitive learning theory. | Cognitive neuroscience.
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 9781118650851 (ePub)
 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 

About the Contributors
Robert C. Honey, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, UK
Robin A. Murphy, Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University, UK
Helen M. Nasser, Brooklyn College, City University of New York, USA
Andrew R. Delamater, Brooklyn College, City University of New York, USA
Nicola C. Byrom, Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University, UK
Tzu‐Ching E. Lin, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, UK
David N. George, Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK
Mike Le Pelley, School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Australia
Tom Beesley, School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Australia
Oren Griffiths, School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Australia
Zohar Bronfman, School of Psychology, Tel‐Aviv University, Israel
Simona Ginsburg, Natural Science Department, The Open University of Israel, Israel
Eva Jablonka, The Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas, 
Tel‐Aviv University, Israel
David J. Sanderson, Department of Psychology, Durham University, UK
Dominic M. Dwyer, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, UK
Matthew E. Mundy, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Australia
Paulo F. Carvalho, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, USA
Robert L. Goldstone, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, USA
Rosie Cowell, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, 
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Tim Bussey, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, Canada
Lisa Saksida, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, Canada
Robert J. McDonald, Department of Neuroscience/Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Canada
Nancy S. Hong, Department of Neuroscience/Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Canada
Anthony McGregor, Department of Psychology, Durham University, UK
Charlotte Bonardi, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, UK
Timothy H. C. Cheung, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, USA
Esther Mondragón, Centre for Computational and Animal Learning Research, UK
Shu K. E. Tam, University of Oxford, UK
Irina Baetu, School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Australia
Andy G. Baker, Department of Psychology, McGill University, Canada
Nura W. Lingawi, Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Australia
Amir Dezfouli, Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Australia
Bernard W. Balleine, Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Australia
Claire M. Gillan, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK; and
Department of Psychology, New York University, USA
Gonzalo P. Urcelay, Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, 
University of Leicester, UK
Trevor W. Robbins, Department of Psychology, New York University and 
University of Cambridge, UK
Katharina Pittner, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
Kathrin Cohen Kadosh, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK
Jennifer Y. F. Lau, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, UK
Ian McLaren, School of Psychology, University of Exeter, UK
Frederick Verbruggen, School of Psychology, University of Exeter, UK
Caroline Catmur, Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, UK
Clare Press, Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, UK
Cecilia Heyes, All Souls College, University of Oxford, UK
Kim Plunkett, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK
Gerhard Jocham, Centre for Behavioral Brain Sciences, Otto‐von‐Guericke‐ University, Germany
Erie Boorman, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford,
UK; and Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, UK
Tim Behrens, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK; and Nuffield
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, UK.

This handbook provides a cohesive overview of the study of associative learning as
it is approached from the stance of scientists with complementary interests in its theoretical
analysis and biological basis. These interests have been pursued by studying
humans and animals, and the content of this handbook reflects this fact. Wiley, the
publishers of this series of handbooks, gave us free rein in determining the overarching
focus of this book, associative learning, and the specific topics that would be
included. We have taken full advantage of this latitude and thank them for their
support throughout the editorial process. Our choice of topics was determined by a
combination of their enduring significance and contemporary relevance. The contributors
then chose themselves, as it were, on the basis of their expertise. Inevitably,
there has been some bias in our choices, and we have made only a limited attempt to
cover all of the domains of research that have resulted in significant scientific progress.
However, we hope that you will be as interested to read the contributions that we
have selected as we were to receive them. It remains for us to express our thanks to
the contributors who have followed, fortunately not slavishly, their individual remits
and who have collectively produced a handbook that we hope will be of interest to a
broad readership. Finally, we would like to thank Laurence Errington for generating
the comprehensive subject index, which provides the reader with an effective tool for
negotiating the volume as a whole.

Table of Contents
About the Contributors vii
Preface x
1 The Cognitive Neuroscience of Learning: Introduction and Intent 1
Robert C. Honey and Robin A. Murphy
Part I Associative Learning 5
2 The Determining Conditions for Pavlovian Learning: Psychological
and Neurobiological Considerations 7
Helen M. Nasser and Andrew R. Delamater
3 Learning to Be Ready: Dopamine and Associative Computations 47
Nicola C. Byrom and Robin A. Murphy
4 Learning About Stimuli That Are Present and Those That Are Not:
Separable Acquisition Processes for Direct and Mediated Learning 69
Tzu‐Ching E. Lin and Robert C. Honey
5 Neural Substrates of Learning and Attentive Processes 86
David N. George
6 Associative Learning and Derived Attention in Humans 114
Mike Le Pelley, Tom Beesley, and Oren Griffiths
7 The Epigenetics of Neural Learning 136
Zohar Bronfman, Simona Ginsburg, and Eva Jablonka
Part II Associative Representations
Memory, Recognition, and Perception 177
8 Associative and Nonassociative Processes in Rodent Recognition Memory 179
David J. Sanderson
9 Perceptual Learning: Representations and Their Development 201
Dominic M. Dwyer and Matthew E. Mundy
vi Contents
10 Human Perceptual Learning and Categorization 223
Paulo F. Carvalho and Robert L. Goldstone
11 Computational and Functional Specialization of Memory 249
Rosie Cowell, Tim Bussey, and Lisa Saksida
Space and Time 283
12 Mechanisms of Contextual Conditioning: Some Thoughts on Excitatory
and Inhibitory Context Conditioning 285
Robert J. McDonald and Nancy S. Hong
13 The Relation Between Spatial and Nonspatial Learning 313
Anthony McGregor
14 Timing and Conditioning: Theoretical Issues 348
Charlotte Bonardi, Timothy H. C. Cheung, Esther Mondragón,
and Shu K. E. Tam
15 Human Learning About Causation 380
Irina Baetu and Andy G. Baker
Part III Associative Perspectives on the Human Condition 409
16 The Psychological and Physiological Mechanisms of Habit Formation 411
Nura W. Lingawi, Amir Dezfouli, and Bernard W. Balleine
17 An Associative Account of Avoidance 442
Claire M. Gillan, Gonzalo P. Urcelay, and Trevor W. Robbins
18 Child and Adolescent Anxiety: Does Fear Conditioning Play a Role? 468
Katharina Pittner, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh, and Jennifer Y. F. Lau
19 Association, Inhibition, and Action 489
Ian McLaren and Frederick Verbruggen
20 Mirror Neurons from Associative Learning 515
Caroline Catmur, Clare Press, and Cecilia Heyes
21 Associative Approaches to Lexical Development 538
Kim Plunkett
22 Neuroscience of Value‐Guided Choice 554
Gerhard Jocham, Erie Boorman, and Tim Behrens
Index 592


This edition first published 2016

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Edited by
Bernard Wood
The George Washington University

Executive Editor
Amanda Henry
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Editorial Assistant
Kevin Hatala
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
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Preface and Acknowledgments
Not long ago the only information a student needed in order to do well in a course about
human evolution was an appreciation of general evolutionary principles, a familiarity with a
relatively sparse fossil record and its context, and knowledge of a few simple analytical methods.
But times have changed. The fossil record has grown exponentially, imaging techniques
allow researchers to capture previously unavailable gross morphological and microstructural
evidence in previously unimaginable quantities, analytical methods have burgeoned in scope
and complexity, phylogeny reconstruction is more sophisticated, molecular biology has revolutionized
our understanding of genetics, evolutionary history, modern human variation, and
development, and a host of different advances in biology, chemistry, earth sciences, and physics
have enriched evidence about the biotic, climatic, and temporal context of the hominin
fossil record. In short, the fossil evidence and the range of methods used to study human evolution
have grown by several orders of magnitude in the past six decades. Yet there is no single
reference source where students can go to find out about topics as diverse as sagittal crest,
Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Saint-Césaire, sampling with replacement, the Sangiran Dome,
sapropel, savanna, and satellite imagery.

The Wiley Blackwell Student Dictionary of Human Evolution is based on the principles that
were used to determine the content of the Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution,
but the layout and content are deliberately different and new. We used our combined student
and teaching experience to cull the entries in the Encyclopedia, select the ones most relevant to
students, and then rewrite them with an emphasis on explaining the relevance of each entry to
studies of human evolution. We are indebted to all the editors and contributors who were
involved in the assembly of the Encyclopedia, for without that as a template, our task would
have been much more difficult.

Kelvin Matthews at Wiley Blackwell, and Nik Prowse, our freelance copy editor and project
manager, made substantial and important contributions to any success this student dictionary
enjoys. We are also grateful to those who helped us improve the text. Laurel Poolman, a George
Washington University undergraduate archeology major, read through an early draft and
alerted us to topics we needed to explain more clearly or where we needed to do a better job of
explaining why they were included in the Dictionary. After BW and AH responded to these
suggestions the revised text was read in its entirety by two students in George Washington
University’s hominid paleobiology graduate program, Kevin Hatala and Laura Reyes. Their
comments were invaluable, in terms of both catching errors and making many constructive
suggestions for improvement. Charlotte Krohn’s help with the final stages of preparing
the manuscript is greatly appreciated. However, despite the best efforts of Laurel, Kevin, and
Laura, in a project like this errors will have been made. If you see one, please contact us
(, and we will make sure it is corrected in later editions.
Bernard Wood
Amanda Henry
July 2014

Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution
This comprehensive A to Z encyclopedia provides extensive coverage of important scientific
terms related to improving our understanding of how we evolved. Specifically, the 5,000 entries
cover evidence and methods used to investigate the relationships among the living great apes,
evidence about what makes the behavior of modern humans distinctive, and evidence about
the evolutionary history of that distinctiveness, as well as information about modern methods
used to trace the recent evolutionary history of modern human populations. This text provides
a resource for everyone involved in the study of human evolution.

Visit the companion site to browse additional references
and updates from this comprehensive encyclopedia.

Table of Contents
Preface and Acknowledgments vi
Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution viii
Hominin Fossil Abbreviations ix
A................................................................. 1
B............................................................... 27
C............................................................... 47
D............................................................... 86
E............................................................. 103
F............................................................. 124
G............................................................. 144
H............................................................ 166
I.............................................................. 200
J.............................................................. 209
K............................................................. 212
L............................................................. 227
M............................................................ 249
N............................................................. 288
O............................................................ 300
P............................................................. 318
Q............................................................. 364
R............................................................. 366
S.............................................................. 380
T............................................................. 419
U............................................................. 442
V............................................................. 447
W............................................................ 453
X............................................................. 458
Y............................................................. 459
Z............................................................. 460


This edition first published 2015 © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

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Theory and Practice

Markham J. Geller

Ancient Cultures
These enjoyable, straightforward surveys of key themes in ancient culture are ideal for anyone new to the study of the ancient world. Each book reveals the excitement of discovering the diverse lifestyles, ideals, and beliefs of ancient peoples.

1. Medicine, Assyro-Babylonian. 2. Medicine, Assyro-Babylonian–Philosophy. 3. Medicine, Assyro-Babylonian–Methodology. 4. Magic, Assyro-Babylonian.
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 2010 Markham J. Geller 

Introduction to Babylonian
Medicine and Magic
If a man has pain in his kidney, his groin constantly hurts him, and his
urine is white like donkey-urine, and later on his urine shows blood, that
man suffers from “discharge” (mus.û-disease). You boil 2 shekels of myrrh,
2 shekels of baluhhu-resin, (and) 2 sila-measures of vinegar together in a
jug; cool it and mix it in equal measure in pressed oil. You pour half into
his urethra via a copper tube, half mix in premium beer, you leave it out
overnight and he drinks it on an empty stomach and he will get better.
Babylonian recipe for disease of the kidneys, BAM 7 35
[If a] man has intestinal colic, he constantly scratches himself, he retains
wind in his anus, food and fluids are regurgitated (and) he suffers from
constipation of the rectum – its “redness” is raised and troubles him [without]
giving him relief – you desiccate a lion skin and mix it with lion fat,
you dry (it) a second time, crush and mix it in cedar oil, make a pessary
and insert it into his anus.
Babylonian recipe for disease of the anus, BAM 7 151

Medicine today is technological and scientific, often making it difficult
to cast our minds back to earlier ages when medicine was less understood
and less successful. Actually, we need not go back very far in
time, since any physician trained in medicine before the discovery of
penicillin would attest to how relatively unsophisticated medicine still
was, even by the middle of the twentieth century. As one physician
recalls, After the discovery of modern life-saving drugs, therapy dramatically
improved in most aspects of medicine, to the extent that medicine has
made more rapid and successful progress during the past 60 years than
in the entire cumulative previous history of Western medicine, from
Galen to the twentieth century.
Nevertheless, we do not yet have the answers to all medical questions,
and in some significant areas we are hardly better informed about human
behavior and medical practice than were ancient and medieval practitioners.
Medicine remains an art, and tracing back the history of this art can
help us better understand the processes of discovery and treatment.
Let us take one example, the problem of diet and health. Obesity has
recently been recognized as one of the scourges of modern times, with
little overall consensus as to how one should understand and act upon the
issues involved. According to one expert, our modern ideas of diet were
developed and promoted after the Second World War by the American
Heart Association, based upon studies comparing cholesterol and heart
attack rates in countries around the world. The research concluded that
high levels of fat in modern diets were specifically responsible for obesity
and heart disease, and recommended a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet.1
After a low-fat diet did not have the anticipated effect, new diets were
introduced to improve health and reduce obesity, one requiring total fat
restriction while another recommended exactly the opposite, a high-fat
low-carbohydrate diet. Subsequent studies embraced contradictory
advice, advocating diets based upon a theory of “good” and “bad” fats as
well as “good” and “bad” carbohydrates (Agatston 2003: 16–21).
Our modern scientific world dispenses a great deal of confusing information
about health and prevention of disease, which is a trait modern
medicine shares with its ancient counterpart. Moreover, diets and trendy
medications tend to be the obsessions of wealthier classes in society, and
this situation hardly differs from antiquity, when the best medical advice
was only on offer to those patients who could afford the costly services.
When we turn to ancient Babylonian medicine, one question often
asked is whether any part of Babylonian medicine was actually effective.
Did it work? We have hundreds of drugs cited in Babylonian medical
recipes, in addition to long lists of plants and minerals used for medicinal
purposes, often with descriptions of the drugs and of the diseases for
which they could be used. We have no idea, however, how such data was
compiled, since there were no clinical trials. How would ancient physicians
know which plants were effective against which diseases? We can
surmise that plants were identified over a very long period, perhaps
going back to Neolithic times, and the use of such plants was determined
by a hit-or-miss means of trying something to see what happens, and
then keeping careful records of the results. The crucial point was to
remember, later on, if the drug seemed to work.
One redeeming feature of Babylonian medicine is the lack of surgery,
because of the substantial risks involved. Almost all Babylonian
medical texts are limited to pharmacological preparations administered
mostly as potions, salves, ointments, fumigations, or suppositories.
Surgery would have been dangerous without either proper
antiseptics or anesthesia, nor is there any firm evidence from Babylonia
of bloodletting. For this reason, the Babylonian physician probably
caused less harm to his patient than his later colleagues in medieval

Dissection and Disease Taxonomy
As we go back in time, the relationship between magic and medicine
alters considerably, although not fundamentally. The technological basis
for what we know as modern medicine has a long and tedious history,
which actually made precious little advancement over many centuries.
The major breakthrough leading to a scientific understanding of medicine
came relatively late, in the fifteenth century, with dissection of the
human body providing more precise knowledge of human anatomy.
Meanwhile, autopsies were primarily an academic exercise, carried out
exceptionally by some noted Greek physicians in Alexandria in the third
century BC (von Staden 1998: 52). There are various practical reasons
why the taboo of cutting open the human body was usually observed,
even by Galen. First, before the invention of rubber gloves, dissection
could have been dangerous since the researcher could easily contract a
disease which had been the patient’s cause of death (see Geller 2007:
187f.). Second, religious taboos no doubt played an important role,
since disfiguring the human body was thought to have affected how the
soul might appear in the afterlife. In Homer, for instance, the soldier in
Hades is seen with his battle scars (Bernstein 1993: 30, 65). Apart from
the taboo itself, the most probable reason for the lack of interest in
dissection in ancient and medieval medicine was the fact that knowledge
of internal anatomy did not actually help in healing the patient. Knowing
where the organs were located and how the blood circulated were important
discoveries in themselves, but how did one convert this knowledge
into effective treatment?
It is not particularly easy to classify diseases within Babylonian medicine,
although they fall generally within similar categories in Hippocratic
medicine. Some diseases are simply associated with parts of the body,
such as head disease, tooth disease, eye disease, nose disease, even foot
disease, as well as kidney disease and anus disease. Baldness was treated
as a disease. There are varieties of skin diseases, including rashes and
pocks, as well as leprosy-like conditions affecting the nose and mouth,
but it is impossible to diagnose these conditions according to modern
disease terminology.
A major development in understanding disease only came with the
discovery of morbid anatomy in the eighteenth century in Padua and at
St George’s Hospital, London, where physicians began to realize that
autopsies after diagnosis could provide important clues to diagnosing
disease correctly (Porter 1997: 263f.). It took centuries, however, for this
idea to develop from the days of Egyptian mummification, which was the
last period when dissections were carried out on a regular basis as part
of embalming, or from third-century BC Alexandria, where a few Greek
physicians practiced vivisection on prisoners.
What this effectively means is that ancient and medieval medicine
had much in common, and that the fundamental relationship between
doctor and patient remained fairly constant over the centuries. The relationship
between magic and medicine – the psychological and technical
approaches to healing – was always present and was constantly evolving.
We will see that although real technological advancement in medicine
was slow in developing, knowledge about disease and healing improved
over time, and theories about disease and healing were changing as well.
Not every new idea is an advancement or an improvement on what
came before, but the complex relationship between magic and medicine
is usually affected by new theories of healing, or even by skepticism
towards accepted theories.
Another factor determining how magic and medicine relate to each
other is the complex relationship between doctor and patient, in the
ancient world as in our own society. Within Mesopotamia, there is much
we do not know about this relationship. Was the doctor paid, and how
much? What was his status within society? Would men and women be
treated by the same doctor? Was medical help readily available? How
many doctors were there within a community, or was medicine only
available to the royal household and those closely associated with either
the palace or temple? Although there is much here that we would like to
know but will probably never know, it is possible to make some reasonable
assumptions based upon the data which we have. But first, it is
important to clarify the nature of our sources.

Table of Contents
List of Illustrations viii
List of Abbreviations x
Acknowledgments xii
Introduction to Babylonian Medicine and Magic 1

1 Medicine as Science 11
2 Who Did What to Whom? 43
3 The Politics of Medicine 56
4 Medicine as Literature 89
5 Medicine and Philosophy 118
6 Medical Training: MD or PhD? 130
7 Uruk Medical Commentaries 141
8 Medicine and Magic as Independent Approaches to Healing 161

Appendix: An Edition of a Medical Commentary 168
Notes 177
References 202
Subject Index 211
Selective Index of Akkadian and Greek Words 217
Index of Akkadian Personal Names 220


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Second Edition

Mathew Attokaran

Subjects: LCSH: Flavoring essences. | Coloring matter in food. | Natural foods. |
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About the Author
Mathew Attokaran (formerly A.G. Mathew) was born in Kerala State in India.
He studied for his MSc in Oils, Fats, and Aromatics and was awarded his PhD in Food
Chemistry. For over 28 years he carried out research on Food Science and Technology
in the Central Food Technology Research Institute, Mysore, and National Institute for
Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR), Trivandrum, before moving
into industry. During his career he has guided PhD students and published over
200 scientific papers.
Many of Dr Attokaran’s research findings have been developed into viable technologies,
which have been effectively utilized in industry. His team developed the highly
successful two‐stage process for preparing the spice oleoresin.
Twice he has been the leader of the Indian Delegation for the International
Standards Organization (ISO) Committee meetings on Spices and Condiments held
in Hungary (1983) and in France (1986) and was also the President of the Essential
Oils Association of India for two terms. He has widely traveled in the United States,
Europe, and Asia, visiting centers of research and industry as well as participating in
numerous international
conferences. Dr Attokaran has served on Short‐term Missions
for three United Nations agencies: the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations, Rome; the United Nations Industrial Development Organization,
Vienna; and the International Trade Centre, of the United Nations and World Trade
Organization, Geneva.
He is happily married and lives with his wife in Cochin, where he recently retired
as the Technical Director of Plant Lipids Limited. He has two daughters and five
grandchildren. Dr Attokaran can be reached at

Ever since man began adding crushed roots, fruits, and leaves to food with a view to
improving its organoleptic appeal, the search for more and more diverse flavors has continued.
In addition, consumers want their food to be pleasing to the eye. It was soon
evident that some plant materials gave a good color to the food. One of the distinctive
features of humans that differentiates us from other animals is our innovative approach
to improving the quality of our food. This enabled the production of such plant materials
into ground, crushed, distilled, and extracted forms so as to obtain the flavor and color in
convenient and effective forms, in order to be used as excellent natural additives.
With the development of modern chemistry, synthetic chemical molecules capable
of producing delicious flavors and attractive colors started to emerge. But as man
became more and more conscious of his own physiology and the interference of external
molecules, leading to allergies, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, a decisive step back to
natural substances was taken. After all, the human body is a biological engine and
compatibility with bio‐derived materials is only natural.
A survey (Food Technology, IFT, 2010, April) of the top ten food trends reported that
blending foods and drinks with naturally rich nutrients is the second most popular trend,
and avoidance of chemical additives and artificial colors is the fifth most important
trend that Americans now seek.
It was Ernest Guenther who pioneered the production of a six‐volume treatise,
The Essential Oils, which covers the largest group of natural aroma and flavor materials
used in food. Even after 60 years, the volumes are widely consulted by food scientists
and technologists. Brian M. Lawrence continued the great tradition of reviews in the
form of “Progress in Essential Oils,” which appears in the journal Perfumer and
Flavorist. While the aroma‐contributing natural flavors of essential oils are well
treated, the same cannot be said with regards to nonvolatile natural flavors.
There are many books on spices, but only a few deal with the chemical constituents
that are referred to in this book. For spices and other materials, the compilation by Albert
Y. Leung and Steven Foster, Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, is indeed a
very valuable one. There are some good books and reviews on food colors. Nevertheless,
the author believes that there is room for a book that includes all the available natural
food flavors and colorants with adequate coverage of plant products, tips on extraction
procedures, the chemistry of active principles, guidance on analytical methods, and links
to regulatory bodies. This book is designed to assist people associated with food science,
technology, and industry to realize the newfound dream of consumers for a return to
natural substances that can be added to food to improve its appeal.
Almost all the products dealt with in this book may indeed be familiar to ordinary
people. However, their scientific significance, methods of production, and recognition
in food laws are matters that laypeople will not be fully conversant with and will be a
great help to students, researchers, and those in the industry.
The book is divided into three parts. Part I deals with matters connected with analysis,
general properties, and techniques. Part II describes the various natural flavors and
colorants that are available. Part III covers the future prospects that can be pursued by
research workers and manufacturers.
Mathew Attokaran

Table of Contents
About the Author viii
Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
Part I General 1
Chapter 1. Analytical Considerations 3
Chapter 2. Flavors 12
Chapter 3. Spices 14
Chapter 4. Essential Oils 17
Chapter 5. Food Colors 20
Chapter 6. Preparation of Plant Material for Extraction 23
Chapter 7. Methods of Extraction of Essential Oils 26
Chapter 8. Solvent Extraction 31
Chapter 9. Supercritical Fluid Extraction 35
Chapter 10. Homogenization of Extracts 37
Chapter 11. Suspension in Solids 42
Chapter 12. Deterioration during Storage and Processing 45
Part II Individual Flavors and Colorants 49
Chapter 13. Ajwain (Bishop’s Weed) 51
Chapter 14. Allspice (Pimenta) 53
Chapter 15. Aniseed 58
Chapter 16. Anka Red Fungus 61
Chapter 17. Annatto 63
Chapter 18. Asafoetida 68
Chapter 19. Basil 71
Chapter 20. Bay Leaf (Laurel) 74
Chapter 21. Beet Root 77
Chapter 22. Bergamot Mint 80
Chapter 23. Black Cumin 82
Chapter 24. Black Pepper 85
Chapter 25. Capsicum 92
Chapter 26. Caramel 100
Chapter 27. Caraway 103
Chapter 28. Cardamom 106
Chapter 29. Carob Pod 112
Chapter 30. Carrot 115
Chapter 31. Cassia 119
Chapter 32. Celery Seed 123
Chapter 33. Chicory 128
Chapter 34. Cinnamon 130
Chapter 35. Cinnamon Leaf 133
Chapter 36. Clove 136
Chapter 37. Clove Leaf 141
Chapter 38. Coca Leaf 143
Chapter 39. Cochineal 145
Chapter 40. Cocoa 149
Chapter 41. Coffee 152
Chapter 42. Colored Vegetables 156
Chapter 43. Coriander 160
Chapter 44. Coriander Leaf 163
Chapter 45. Cumin 165
Chapter 46. Curry Leaf 168
Chapter 47. Date 172
Chapter 48. Davana 175
Chapter 49. Dill 180
Chapter 50. Fennel 184
Chapter 51. Fenugreek 188
Chapter 52. Galangal: Greater 192
Chapter 53. Galangal: Kaempferia 196
Chapter 54. Galangal: Lesser 198
Chapter 55. Garcinia Fruit 200
Chapter 56. Garlic 204
Chapter 57. Ginger 209
Chapter 58. Grape 215
Chapter 59. Grapefruit 219
Chapter 60. Green Leaves 223
Chapter 61. Hops 229
Chapter 62. Hyssop 233
Chapter 63. Japanese Mint 235
Chapter 64. Juniper Berry 240
Chapter 65. Kokam 244
Chapter 66. Kola Nut 247
Chapter 67. Large Cardamom 249
Chapter 68. Lemon 251
Chapter 69. Lemongrass 255
Chapter 70. Licorice 259
Chapter 71. Lime 262
Chapter 72. Long Pepper 266
Chapter 73. Lovage 268
Chapter 74. Mace 271
Chapter 75. Mandarin 274
Chapter 76. Marigold 277
Chapter 77. Marjoram 282
Chapter 78. Mustard 285
Chapter 79. Nutmeg 289
Chapter 80. Onion 294
Chapter 81. Orange 298
Chapter 82. Oregano 303
Chapter 83. Paprika 305
Chapter 84. Parsley 312
Chapter 85. Peppermint 315
Chapter 86. Red Sandalwood 318
Chapter 87. Rosemary 321
Chapter 88. Saffron 325
Chapter 89. Sage 329
Chapter 90. Savory (Sweet Summer) 332
Chapter 91. Spearmint 334
Chapter 92. Star Anise 337
Chapter 93. Stevia 340
Chapter 94. Sweet Flag (Calamus) 343
Chapter 95. Tamarind 346
Chapter 96. Tarragon 349
Chapter 97. Tea 351
Chapter 98. Thyme 354
Chapter 99. Tomato 357
Chapter 100. Turmeric 360
Chapter 101. Vanilla 368
Part III Future Needs 375
Chapter 102. Opportunities with Natural Flavors 377
Chapter 103. Opportunities with Natural Colorants 383
Index of Systematic Biological Names 388
Subject Index 390


Acknowledgments for the Second Edition
I wish to thank profusely (Dr) Sreeraj Gopi, Sherin Mathew, Binu Paul, (Dr) L.P. Srikrishna,
Robin George, and Mercy Thomas for valuable scientific inputs. I also thank Neelu Thomas
for the digital structure of steviol and Moby Paul for the word processing.
Mathew Attokaran

Edited by D. S. Dunn, J. S. Halonen, and R. A. Smith

This edition first published 2008

1. Critical thinking–Study and teaching. 2. Thought and thinking–Study and teaching. 3. Psychology–Study and teaching.
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About the Editors
Dana S. Dunn, a social psychologist, is professor of psychology and director of the Learning
in Common Curriculum at Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA. He received his PhD
from the University of Virginia, having graduated previously with a BA in psychology
from Carnegie Mellon University. A Fellow of the American Psychological Association,
Dunn is active in the Society for the Teaching of Psychology, and served as the Chair of
Moravian’s Department of Psychology from 1995 to 2001. He writes frequently about his
areas of research interest: the teaching of psychology, social psychology, and rehabilitation
psychology. Dunn is the author of five previous books—The Practical Researcher: A Student
Guide to Conducting Psychological Research, Statistics and Data Analysis for the Behavioral
Sciences, A Short Guide to Writing about Psychology, Research Methods for Social Psychology,
and Psychology Applied to Modern Life (with Wayne Weiten, Margaret Lloyd, and Elizabeth
Y. Hammer)—and the coeditor of three others—Measuring Up: Educational Assessment
Challenges and Practices for Psychology (with Chandra M. Mehrotra and Jane S. Halonen),
Best Practices for Teaching Introduction to Psychology (with Stephen L. Chew), and Best
Practices for Teaching Statistics and Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences (with
Randolph Smith and Bernard C. Beins).

Jane S. Halonen, a clinical psychologist by training, is Dean of Arts and Sciences at the
University of West Florida. Jane began her career at Alverno College, an institution widely
recognized as a leader in higher education assessment. She served as Director of the School
of Psychology at James Madison University from 1998 to 2002. She received her bachelor’s
degree from Butler University and her advanced degrees from the University of
Wisconsin-Milwaukee. A Fellow of the American Psychological Association’s Division 2
(Teaching), she has served as both president of the division and associate editor of its
journal, Teaching of Psychology. Named an Eminent Woman in Psychology by the APA in
2002, her service contributions to the teaching community have been recognized by
Division 2, which named its Early Career Achievement award in her honor. The award is
given annually to the most compelling national candidate in the first five years of an
academic career. Jane has been an academic consultant to universities on critical thinking
and faculty development as well as a department reviewer for nearly two dozen psychology
departments. She served on the steering committees of both the St. Mary’s Conference
and the Psychology Partnerships Project, both national forums to address quality in undergraduate
programs. She has been involved with every project undertaken by the American
Psychological Association to help establish student performance standards since the initial
project on high school student learning outcomes. She has authored and collaborated on
a variety of publications, including Your Guide to College Success, a first year experience
textbook coauthored with John Santrock, which is going into its seventh edition. She
codirects the annual international Improving University Teaching Conference with Peter
Seldin. Jane is completing her final year as Chief Reader in managing the Advanced
Placement Psychology Reading.

Randolph A. Smith is currently Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at
Lamar University. He taught at Kennesaw State University from 2003 to 2007; prior to
that time, he spent 26 years at Ouachita Baptist University (Arkadelphia, AR). Randy is a
Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Divisions 1 and 2) and has filled a
variety of positions within the Society for the Teaching of Psychology. Currently, he is
editor of Teaching of Psychology, a post he has held since 1997. He is coauthor (with Steve
Davis) of a research methods textbook (The Psychologist as Detective: An Introduction to
Conducting Research in Psychology) and a combined statistics/research methods text (An
Introduction to Statistics and Research Methods: Becoming a Psychological Detective). In addition,
he has authored a critical thinking book (Challenging Your Preconceptions: Thinking
Critically About Psychology) and has edited the Instructor’s Manual for Wayne Weiten’s
introductory psychology text. Randy has more than 50 publications, including books,
journal articles, and book chapters. In addition, he has given over 100 presentations and
has supervised almost 150 undergraduate conference presentations. Randy’s interests and
research revolve around the scholarship of teaching of psychology. He was a cofounder of
the Southwestern Conference for Teachers of Psychology and the Arkansas Symposium for
Psychology Students, a student research conference that has existed for more than 20
years. He was a participant in the St. Mary’s Conference in 1991 and on the Steering
Committee for the Psychology Partnerships Project in 1999. Randy is also a member of
the American Psychological Society, Psi Chi, and the Southwestern Psychological
Association (where he served as President in 1990–91). He earned his bachelor’s degree
from the University of Houston and his doctorate from Texas Tech University.

Critical thinking is not one activity; rather, the term refers to a collection of thinking skills
that advance intellectual focus, motivation, and engagement with new ideas (Halonen &
Gray, 2000). These thinking skills include the ability to recognize patterns; to solve problems
in practical, creative, or scientific ways; to engage in psychological reasoning; and to
adopt different perspectives when evaluating ideas or issues. Teaching students to think
critically in or outside the classroom improves their abilities to observe, infer, question,
decide, develop new ideas, and analyze arguments.
The goal of teaching critical thinking to psychology students is to refine their abilities
to describe, predict, explain, and control behavior. Teachers need relevant tools and classroom
strategies for enhancing students’ critical thinking abilities in psychology. Our handbook
contains a variety of scholarly perspectives aimed at teaching faculty how to teach
critical thinking to students regardless of the course level or content area in psychology. As
well as asking our authors to provide strategies and ideas for improving critical thinking
pedagogy in the discipline, we asked them to discuss how to assess critical thinking within
the context covered in their contributions.
This edited handbook is a scholarly yet pedagogically practical attempt to teach critical
thinking skills in the context of the discipline of psychology. Our authors provide a showcase
for best practices for teaching critical thinking issues in psychology courses taught at
four-year colleges and universities, two-year colleges, and high schools. The chapters and
short reports in this book grew out of professional presentations delivered at the September
30–October 1, 2005 conference, Engaging Minds: Best Practices in Teaching Critical
Thinking Across the Psychology Curriculum, which was held in Atlanta, GA. The conference
was sponsored by the Society for the Teaching of Psychology (STP), the National Institute
on the Teaching of Psychology (NIToP), and the Kennesaw State University Center for
Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL).
What’s new about teaching critical thinking? The chapters and reports herein reveal
innovations on various pedagogical fronts, including:
1 New materials and perspectives. The book offers novel, nontraditional approaches to
teaching critical thinking, including strategies, tactics, diversity issues, service
learning, and the use of case studies.
2 New course delivery formats. Faculty can create online course materials to foster
critical thinking within a diverse student audience.
3 A focus on assessment. Authors place specific emphasis on how to both teach and
assess critical thinking in the classroom. Discussion also focuses on issues of wider
program assessment.
4 Critical thinking in course contexts. Contributors discuss ways to use critical thinking
in the psychology classroom from the introductory psychology course into mid
and upper level course offerings, including statistics and research methods courses,
cognitive psychology, and capstone offerings.
5 Developmental perspectives on critical thinking. Students’ stages of social and
intellectual development—their “readiness”—for learning different types of critical
thinking are explored.
6 Teaching critical thinking through student-generated research. Critical thinking has a
purpose, especially the practice of creating, conducting, and evaluating empirical
research in psychology.

7 Critical thinking and scientific literacy. How can critical thinking help our students
become more scientifically aware and literate?
8 Writing and critical thinking. The role of critical thinking in learning and using
APA-style writing, as well as improving writing generally, is considered.
Who will benefit from using this book? This book is aimed at educators—teachers,
researchers, and graduate students—who teach critical thinking in psychology or who
want to insert critical thinking activities into their teaching of the discipline. The added
value found in this handbook is the diversity of approaches to teaching critical thinking found within it.
Dana S. Dunn, Jane S. Halonen,
and Randolph A. Smith

Table of Contents
List of Contributors xi
About the Editors xiii
Foreword xv
Diane F. Halpern
Preface xvii
Dana S. Dunn, Jane S. Halonen, and Randolph A. Smith
Acknowledgments xix
1 Engaging Minds: Introducing Best Practices in
Teaching Critical Thinking in Psychology 1
Dana S. Dunn, Jane S. Halonen, and Randolph A. Smith
Part I The Case for Teaching Critical Thinking in Psychology 9
2 Critical Thinking: Needed Now More Than Ever 11
Carole Wade
3 Have We Demystified Critical Thinking? 23
Natalie Kerr Lawrence, Sherry L. Serdikoff, Tracy E. Zinn,
and Suzanne C. Baker
4 Are They Ready Yet? Developmental Issues in Teaching Thinking 35
Laird R. O. Edman
5 Simple Strategies for Teaching Your Students to Think Critically 49
William Buskist and Jessica G. Irons
Part II Assessing Critical Thinking 59
6 Measure for Measure: The Challenge of Assessing Critical Thinking 61
Jane S. Halonen
7 Programmatic Assessment of Critical Thinking 77
Kevin J. Apple, Sherry L. Serdikoff, Monica J. Reis-Bergan,
and Kenneth E. Barron
8 A Process Approach to Thinking Critically About Complex Concepts 89
Stacie M. Spencer and Marin Gillis
Part III Critical Thinking in Critical Psychology Courses 99
9 Integrating Critical Thinking with Course Content 101
David W. Carroll, Allen H. Keniston, and Blaine F. Peden
10 Critical Thinking on Contemporary Issues 117
Susan L. O’Donnell, Alisha L. Francis, and Sherrie L. Mahurin
11 The Repertory Grid as a Heuristic Tool in Teaching
Undergraduate Psychology 127
Joseph A. Mayo
12 Critical Thinking in Critical Courses: Principles and Applications 137
Janet E. Kuebli, Richard D. Harvey, and James H. Korn
13 Teaching Critical Thinking in Statistics and Research Methods 149
Bryan K. Saville, Tracy E. Zinn, Natalie Kerr Lawrence,
Kenneth E. Barron, and Jeffrey Andre
Part IV Integrating Critical Thinking Across the Psychology Curriculum 161
14 Writing as Critical Thinking 163
Dana S. Dunn and Randolph A. Smith
15 Using Service Learning to Promote Critical Thinking
in the Psychology Curriculum 175
Elizabeth Yost Hammer
16 Beyond Standard Lectures: Supporting the Development
of Critical Thinking in Cognitive Psychology Courses 183
Jordan P. Lippman, Trina C. Kershaw,
James W. Pellegrino, and Stellan Ohlsson
17 Why We Believe: Fostering Critical Thought
and Scientific Literacy in Research Methods 199
Bernard C. Beins
18 Teaching Critical Thinking About Difficult Topics 211
Paul C. Smith and Kris Vasquez
Part V Thinking Critical Beyond the Classroom 223
19 Thinking Critically About Careers in Psychology 225
Deborah S. Briihl, Claudia J. Stanny, Kiersten A. Jarvis,
Maria Darcy, and Ronald W. Belter
Part VI Critical Briefings: Short Reports on Critical Thinking 235
1 Best and Worst: Learning to Think Like a Psychologist 237
Dana Gross
2 Personal Mission Statements as Tools for Developing
Writing and Reflection Skills 241
Lawrence Benjamin Lewis and Elizabeth Yost Hammer
3 A Module-Based Research Project: Modeling Critical
Thinking in Psychology 247
Nina Lamson and Katherine Kipp
4 Effectively Using Literature Circles in the Psychology Classroom 251
Rebecca Wenrich Wheeler
5 Introducing Controversial Issues in Psychology
Through Debate and Reflection 257
Sherri B. Lantinga
6 The Critical Thinking Lab: Developing Student Skills
Through Practical Application 263
Todd J. Wilkinson, Bryan J. Dik, and Andrew P. Tix
7 Encouraging Students to Think Critically About Psychotherapy:
Overcoming Naïve Realism 267
Scott O. Lilienfeld, Jeffrey M. Lohr, and Bunmi O. Olatunji
8 Effectiveness of a Web-Based Critical Thinking Module 273
Beth Dietz-Uhler
9 An Introductory Exercise for Promoting Critical
Thinking About Psychological Measurement 277
Jeffrey D. Holmes
Author Index 281
Subject Index 290


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Set in 10.5/12.5pt Adobe Garamond by SPi Publisher Services, Pondicherry, India
Printed in Singapore by Markono Print Media Pte Ltd
1 2008
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