Showing posts with label Wadsworth. Show all posts

Childhood and Adolescence

David R. Shaffer University of Georgia

Katherine Kipp Gainesville State College

Brief Contents

PART I INTRODUCTION TO DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
Chapter 1 Introduction to Developmental Psychology and Its Research Strategies
Chapter 2 Theories of Human Development
PART II BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 3 Hereditary Infl uences on Development
Chapter 4 Prenatal Development and Birth
Chapter 5 Infancy
Chapter 6 Physical Development: The Brain, Body, Motor Skills, and Sexual Development 199
PART III COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 7 Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Viewpoint
Chapter 8 Cognitive Development: Information-Processing Perspectives 
Chapter 9 Intelligence: Measuring Mental Performance 
Chapter 10 Development of Language and Communication Skills
PART IV SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 11 Emotional Development, Temperament, and Attachment 
Chapter 12 Development of the Self and Social Cognition 
Chapter 13 Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development
Chapter 14 Aggression, Altruism, and Moral Development 
PART V THE CONTEXT OF DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 15 The Context of Development

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Book Details
 Price
 4.00
 Pages
 785 p
 File Size 
 26,543 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN-13

 ISBN-10
 978-0-495-60171-5
 978-0-495-59688-2
 0-495-60171-3
 0-495-59688-4
 Copyright©   
 2010, 2007 Wadsworth,
 Cengage Learning 

About the Authors
DAVID R. SHAFFER is a Josiah Meigs Distinguished Professor Emeritus, past chair of
the Undergraduate program, the Life-Span Developmental Psychology program, and the
Social Psychology program at the University of Georgia, where he has taught courses in
human development to graduate and undergraduate students for the past 36 years. His
many research articles have addressed such topics as altruism, attitudes and persuasion,
moral development, sex roles and social behavior, self-disclosure, and social psychology
and the law. He has also served as associate editor for the Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, Personality and Social Bulletin, and Journal of Personality. In 1990 Dr. Shaffer received
the Josiah Meigs Award for Excellence in Instruction, the University of Georgia’s
highest instructional honor.

KATHERINE KIPP is a Professor of Psychology at Gainesville State College. She was
previously an Associate Professor of Psychology in the Life-Span Developmental Psychology
program and the Cognitive/Experimental Psychology program at the University of
Georgia, where she taught courses in developmental psychology to graduate and undergraduate
students for 16 years. Her research publications cover topics in cognitive development
such as memory development, cognitive inhibition, and attention; individual differences
in cognitive development, such as differences in attention-defi cit/hyperactivity
disorder and giftedness in children; and research on the teaching of psychology. She is a
member of the Society for Research in Child Development, the American Psychological
Association, the American Psychological Society, and the Society for the Teaching of
Psychology. She is the recipient of numerous teaching and mentoring awards and fellowships
at the University of Georgia. She is also the mother of twin 22-year-old daughters,
who have shared their developmental journey with her.

Preface
Our purpose in writing this book has been to produce a current and comprehensive
overview of child and adolescent development that refl ects the best theories, research,
and practical advice that developmentalists have to offer. Throughout our many years of
teaching, we have looked for a substantive developmental text that was also interesting,
accurate, up to date, and written in clear, concise language that an introductory student
could easily understand. At this level, a good text should talk “to” rather than “at” its
readers, anticipating their interests, questions, and concerns and treating them as active
participants in the learning process. In the fi eld of developmental psychology, a good
text should also stress the processes that underlie developmental change so that students
come away from the course with a fi rm understanding of the causes and complexities of
development. Finally, a good text is a relevant text—one that shows how the theory and
the research that students are asked to digest can be applied to real-life settings.
The present volume represents our attempt to accomplish all of these objectives.
We have tried to write a book that is both rigorous and applied—one that challenges students
to think about the fascinating process of developmental psychology, to share in the
excitement of our young and dynamic discipline, and to acquire a knowledge of developmental
principles that will serve them well in their roles as parents, teachers, nurses,
day-care workers, pediatricians, psychologists, or in any other capacity by which they
may one day infl uence the lives of developing persons.

Table of Contents
PART I INTRODUCTION TO
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 1
Chapter 1 Introduction to Developmental 
Psychology and Its Research Strategies 1
Introduction to Developmental Psychology 2
What Is Development? 2
Research Strategies: Basic Methods and Designs 8
Research Methods in Child and Adolescent Development 8
Detecting Relationships: Correlational, Experimental, and Cross-Cultural Designs 19
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Gender Roles 26
Research Strategies and Studying Development 28
Research Designs for Studying Development 28
Ethical Considerations in Developmental Research 34
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Becoming a Wise Consumer of Developmental Research 36
Summary 37
Practice Quiz 38
Key Terms 39
Media Resources 39
Chapter 2 Theories of Human Development 41
The Nature of Scientifi c Theories 41
The Psychoanalytic Viewpoint 42
Freud’s Psychosexual Theory 42
Contributions and Criticisms of Freud’s Theory 43
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development 44
Contributions and Criticisms of Erikson’s Theory 45
Psychoanalytic Theory Beyond Freud and Erikson 46
The Learning Viewpoint 46
Watson’s Behaviorism 46
Skinner’s Operant Learning Theory 47
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory 48
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • An Example of Observational Learning 50
Contributions and Criticisms of Learning Theories 51
The Cognitive-Developmental Viewpoint 53
Piaget’s View of Intelligence and Intellectual Growth 54
Contributions and Criticisms of Piaget’s Viewpoint 55
Sociocultural Infl uences: Lev Vygotsky’s Viewpoint 56
The Information-Processing Viewpoint 57
Contributions and Criticisms of the Information-Processing Viewpoint 57
The Ethological and Evolutionary Viewpoints 58
Assumptions of Classical Ethology 58
Ethology and Human Development 59
Modern Evolutionary Theory 60
Contributions and Criticisms of Ethological and Evolutionary Viewpoints 61
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Is Altruism Part of Human Nature? 62
The Ecological Systems Viewpoint 62
Bronfenbrenner’s Contexts for Development 63
Contributions and Criticisms of Ecological Systems Theory 67
Themes in the Study of Human Development 68
The Nature/Nurture Theme 68
The Active/Passive Theme 69
The Continuity/Discontinuity Theme 69
The Holistic Nature of Development Theme 70
Summary 72
Practice Quiz 74
Key Terms 75
Media Resources 75
PART II BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS
OF DEVELOPMENT 77
Chapter 3 Hereditary Infl uences on Development 77
Principles of Hereditary Transmission 77
The Genetic Material 77
Growth of the Zygote and Production of Body Cells 78
The Germ (or Sex) Cells 79
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Crossing-Over and Chromosome
Segregation During Meiosis 80
Multiple Births 82
Male or Female? 83
What Do Genes Do? 83
How Are Genes Expressed? 84
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Examples of Dominant
and Recessive Traits in Human Heredity 86
Hereditary Disorders 89
Chromosomal Abnormalities 90
Genetic Abnormalities 92
Predicting, Detecting, and Treating Hereditary Disorders 93
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Ethical Issues Surrounding
Treatments for Hereditary Disorders 97
Hereditary Infl uences on Behavior 98
Behavioral Genetics 99
Theories of Heredity and Environment Interactions in Development 108
Contributions and Criticisms of the Behavioral Genetics Approach 112
Applying Developmental Themes to Hereditary Infl uences on Development 114
Summary 115
Practice Quiz 116
Key Terms 117
Media Resources 117
Chapter 4 Prenatal Development and Birth 119
From Conception to Birth 120
The Period of the Zygote 120
The Period of the Embryo 122
The Period of the Fetus 122
Potential Problems in Prenatal Development 126
Teratogens 126
Characteristics of the Pregnant Woman 138
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Fetal Programming Theory 139
Prevention of Birth Defects 143
Birth and the Perinatal Environment 144
The Birth Process 144
The Baby’s Experience 145
Labor and Delivery Medications 147
The Social Environment Surrounding Birth 147
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Cultural and Historical Variations in Birthing Practices 148
Potential Problems at Birth 151
Anoxia 151
Prematurity and Low Birth Weight 152
Reproductive Risk and Capacity for Recovery 155
Applying Developmental Themes to Prenatal Development and Birth 156
Summary 157
Practice Quiz 158
Key Terms 159
Media Resources 159
Chapter 5 Infancy 161
The Newborn’s Readiness for Life 161
Newborn Refl exes 162
Infant States 164
Developmental Changes in Infant States 164
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 166
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Methods of Soothing a Fussy Baby 167
Research Methods Used to Study the Infant’s Sensory and Perceptual Experiences 168
The Preference Method 169
The Habituation Method 169
The Method of Evoked Potentials 170
The High-Amplitude Sucking Method 170
Infant Sensory Capabilities 171
Hearing 171
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Causes and Consequences of Hearing Loss 173
Taste and Smell 174
Touch, Temperature, and Pain 174
Vision 175
Visual Perception in Infancy 176
Perception of Patterns and Forms 177
Perception of Three-Dimensional Space 179
Intermodal Perception 182
Are the Senses Integrated at Birth? 182
Development of Intermodal Perception 183
Explaining Intermodal Perception 184
Cultural Infl uences on Infant Perception 185
Basic Learning Processes in Infancy 186
Habituation: Early Evidence of Information-Processing and Memory 186
Classical Conditioning 187
Operant Conditioning 187
Newborn Imitation or Observational Learning 190
Applying Developmental Themes to Infant Development, Perception, and Learning 192
Summary 193
Practice Quiz 195
Key Terms 196
Media Resources 196
Chapter 6 Physical Development: 
The Brain, Body, Motor Skills, and Sexual Development 199
An Overview of Maturation and Growth 200
Changes in Height and Weight 200
Changes in Body Proportions 200
Skeletal Development 201
Muscular Development 202
Variations in Physical Development 202
Development of the Brain 203
Neural Development and Plasticity 203
Brain Differentiation and Growth 205
Motor Development 208
Basic Trends in Locomotor Development 209
Fine Motor Development 212
Psychological Implications of Early Motor Development 213
Beyond Infancy: Motor Development in Childhood and Adolescence 214
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Sports Participation and Self-Esteem among Adolescent
Females 216
Puberty: The Physical Transition from Child to Adult 217
The Adolescent Growth Spurt 217
Sexual Maturation 217
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Renegotiating the Parent-Child
Relationship During Adolescence 220
The Psychological Impacts of Puberty 222
Adolescent Body Image and Unhealthy Weight Control Strategies 222
Social Impacts of Pubertal Changes 226
Does Timing of Puberty Matter? 227
Adolescent Sexuality 228
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • The Origins of Sexual Orientation 230
Personal and Social Consequences of Adolescent Sexual Activity 233
Causes and Correlates of Physical Development 236
Biological Mechanisms 236
Environmental Infl uences 237
Applying Developmental Themes to Physical Development 241
Summary 243
Practice Quiz 245
Key Terms 245
Media Resources 246
PART III COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 249
Chapter 7 Cognitive Development: 
Piaget’s Theory and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Viewpoint 249
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development 249
What Is Intelligence? 250
How We Gain Knowledge: Cognitive Schemes and Cognitive Processes 250
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 253
The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 Years) 253
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Why Infants Know More about
Objects than Piaget Assumed 258
The Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 Years) and the Emergence of Symbolic Thought 261
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Play Is Serious Business 262
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Cognitive Development and Children’s Humor 267
The Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years) 272
The Formal-Operational Stage (11 to 12 Years and Beyond) 273
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Children’s Responses to a Hypothetical Proposition 274
An Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory 277
Piaget’s Contributions 278
Challenges to Piaget 278
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective 281
The Role of Culture in Intellectual Development 281
The Social Origins of Early Cognitive Competencies and the Zone of Proximal
Development 282
Implications for Education 288
The Role of Language in Cognitive Development 289
Vygotsky in Perspective: Summary and Evaluation 290
Applying Developmental Themes to Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories 293
Summary 294
Practice Quiz 295
Key Terms 296
Media Resources 297
Chapter 8 Cognitive Development: Information-Processing Perspectives 299
The Multistore Model 300
Development of the Multistore Model 302
Developmental Differences in “Hardware”: Information-Processing Capacity 302
Developmental Differences in “Software”: Strategies and What Children Know about
“Thinking” 303
The Development of Attention 311
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Attention-Defi cit/Hyperactivity Disorder 312
Development of Memory: Retaining and Retrieving Information 315
The Development of Event and Autobiographical Memory 316
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • What Happened to Our Early Childhood
Memories? 317
Children as Eyewitnesses 319
The Development of Memory Strategies 322
Delevopment of Other Cognitive Skills 328
Analogical Reasoning 328
Arithmetic Skills 331
Evaluating the Information-Processing Perspective 336
Applying Developmental Themes to Information-Processing Perspectives 337
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Some Educational Implications of Information-
Processing Research 338
Summary 339
Practice Quiz 340
Key Terms 341
Media Resources 341
Chapter 9 Intelligence: Measuring Mental Performance 343
What Is Intelligence? 343
Psychometric Views of Intelligence 344
A Modern Information-Processing Viewpoint 348
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences 350
How Is Intelligence Measured? 351
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale 351
The Wechsler Scales 352
Group Tests of Mental Performance 353
Newer Approaches to Intelligence Testing 354
Assessing Infant Intelligence 354
Stability of IQ in Childhood and Adolescence 355
What Do Intelligence Tests Predict? 357
IQ as a Predictor of Scholastic Achievement 357
IQ as a Predictor of Vocational Outcomes 358
IQ as a Predictor of Health, Adjustment, and Life Satisfaction 358
Factors That Infl uence IQ Scores 362
The Evidence for Heredity 362
The Evidence for Environment 362
The Evidence for the Transaction of Heredity and Environment 363
Social and Cultural Correlates of Intellectual Performance 364
Home Environment and IQ 364
Social-Class and Ethnic Differences in IQ 367
Why Do Groups Differ in Intellectual Performance? 368
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Do Socioeconomic Differences Explain Ethnic
Differences in IQ? 372
Improving Cognitive Performance Through Compensatory Education 373
Long-Term Follow-Ups 374
The Importance of Parental Involvement 374
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • An Effective Compensatory
Intervention for Families 375
The Importance of Intervening Early 376
Creativity and Special Talents 377
What Is Creativity? 377
The Psychometric Perspective 377
The Multicomponent (or Confl uence) Perspective 378
Applying Developmental Themes to Intelligence and Creativity 381
Summary 381
Practice Quiz 383
Key Terms 384
Media Resources 384
Chapter 10 Development of Language and Communication Skills 387
Five Components of Language 388
Phonology 388
Morphology 388
Semantics 389
Syntax 389
Pragmatics 389
Theories of Language Development 390
The Learning (or Empiricist) Perspective 390
The Nativist Perspective 391
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • On the “Invention” of Language by Children 394
The Interactionist Perspective 395
The Prelinguistic Period: Before Language 399
Early Reactions to Speech 399
What Do Prelinguistic Infants Know about Language and Communication? 401
The Holophrase Period: One Word at a Time 402
Early Semantics: Building a Vocabulary 403
Attaching Meaning to Words 404
When a Word Is More than a Word 407
The Telegraphic Period: From Holophrases to Simple Sentences 408
A Semantic Analysis of Telegraphic Speech 409
The Pragmatics of Early Speech 409
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Learning a
Gestural Language 410
Language Learning During the Preschool Period 412
Grammatical Development 412
Semantic Development 415
Development of Pragmatics and Communication Skills 416
Language Learning During Middle Childhood and Adolescence 417
Later Syntactic Development 417
Semantics and Metalinguistic Awareness 417
Further Development of Communication Skills 418
Bilingualism: Challenges and Consequences of Learning Two Languages 421
Applying Developmental Themes to Language Acquisition 423
Summary 424
Practice Quiz 426
Key Terms 427
Media Resources 427
PART IV SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT 429
Chapter 11 Emotional Development, Temperament, and Attachment 429
Emotional Development 430
Displaying Emotions: The Development (and Control) of Emotional Expressions 430
Recognizing and Interpreting Emotions 436
Emotions and Early Social Development 438
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Assessing Emotional Competence in Young Children 439
Temperament and Development 440
Hereditary and Environmental Infl uences on Temperament 441
Stability of Temperament 442
Early Temperamental Profi les and Later Development 443
Attachment and Development 445
Attachments as Reciprocal Relationships 446
How Do Infants Become Attached? 447
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Combating Stranger Anxiety: Some Helpful
Hints for Caregivers, Doctors, and Child-Care Professionals 452
Individual Differences in Attachment Quality 455
Fathers as Caregivers 458
Factors That Infl uence Attachment Security 459
Attachment and Later Development 464
Working Moms, Day Care, and Early Emotional Development 468
Diversity in Family Life and Attachment 471
Applying Developmental Themes to Emotional Development, Temperament,
and Attachment 473
Summary 473
Practice Quiz 475
Key Terms 475
Media Resources 476
Chapter 12 Development of the Self and Social Cognition 479
Development of the Self-Concept 479
Self-Differentiation in Infancy 480
Self-Recognition in Infancy 480
Who Am I? Responses of Preschool Children 483
Conceptions of Self in Middle Childhood and Adolescence 484
Cultural Infl uences on the Self-Concept 486
Self-Esteem: The Evaluative Component of Self 487
Origins and Development of Self-Esteem 487
Social Contributors to Self-Esteem 491
Development of Achievement Motivation and Academic Self-Concepts 494
Early Origins of Achievement Motivation 495
Achievement Motivation During Middle Childhood and Adolescence 496
Beyond Achievement Motivation: Development of Achievement Attributions 500
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Helping the Helpless to Achieve 504
Who Am I to Be?: Forging an Identity 504
Developmental Trends in Identity Formation 505
How Painful Is Identity Formation? 506
Infl uences on Identity Formation 507
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Exploring Identity in an Online World 508
Identity Formation among Minority Youth 509
The Other Side of Social Cognition: Knowing about Others 511
Age Trends in Person Perception 512
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Racial Categorization and Racism in Young
Children 513
Theories of Social-Cognitive Development 515
Applying Developmental Themes to the Development of the Self and Social Cognition 520
Summary 520
Practice Quiz 522
Key Terms 522
Media Resources 523
Chapter 13 Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development 525
Defi ning Sex and Gender 525
Categorizing Males and Females: Gender-Role Standards 527
Some Facts and Fictions about Sex Differences 528
Actual Psychological Differences Between the Sexes 528
Cultural Myths 531
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Do Gender Stereotypes Infl uence Children’s Memory? 532
Do Cultural Myths Contribute to Sex Differences in Ability (and Vocational Opportunity)? 533
Developmental Trends in Gender Typing 535
Development of the Gender Concept 535
Development of Gender-Role Stereotypes 535
Development of Gender-Typed Behavior 538
Theories of Gender Typing and Gender-Role Development 542
Evolutionary Theory 542
Money and Ehrhardt’s Biosocial Theory of Gender Differentiation and
Development 544
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Is Biology Destiny? Sex Assignment Catastrophes 547
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory 548
Social Learning Theory 549
Kohlberg’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory 551
An Integrative Theory 554
Psychological Androgyny: A Prescription for the 21st Century? 556
Do Androgynous People Really Exist? 556
Are There Advantages to Being Androgynous? 556
Applications: On Changing Gender Role Attitudes and Behavior 558
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Combating Gender Stereotypes with Cognitive
Interventions 559
Applying Developmental Themes to Sex Differences and Gender Role Development 560
Summary 561
Practice Quiz 562
Key Terms 563
Media Resources 563
Chapter 14 Aggression, Altruism, and Moral Development 565
The Development of Aggression 565
Origins of Aggression in Infancy 566
Developmental Trends in Aggression 566
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • How Girls Are More Aggressive Than Boys 568
Individual Differences in Aggressive Behavior 569
Cultural and Subcultural Infl uences on Aggression 573
Coercive Home Environments: Breeding Grounds for Aggression 574
Methods of Controlling Aggression in Young Children 576
Altruism: Development of the Prosocial Self 578
Origins of Altruism 578
Developmental Trends in Altruism 579
Sex Differences in Altruism 579
Social-Cognitive and Affective Contributors to Altruism 579
Cultural and Social Infl uences on Altruism 582
Moral Development: Affective, Cognitive, and Behavioral Components 584
How Developmentalists Look at Morality 585
The Affective Component of Moral Development 585
The Cognitive Component of Moral Development 586
The Behavioral Component of Moral Development 597
How Consistent Are Moral Conduct and Moral Character? 597
Learning to Resist Temptation 597
Who Raises Children Who Are Morally Mature? 600
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • How Should I Discipline My Children? 602
Applying Developmental Themes to the Development of Aggression, Altruism, and
Morality 604
Summary 604
Practice Quiz 606
Key Terms 606
Media Resources 607
PART V THE CONTEXT OF DEVELOPMENT 609
Chapter 15 The Context of Development 609
Parental Socialization During Childhood and Adolescence 609
Two Major Dimensions of Parenting 610
Four Patterns of Parenting 610
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Parenting Styles and Developmental Outcomes 612
Peers as Agents of Socialization 613
Who Is a Peer and What Functions Do Peers Serve? 614
The Development of Peer Sociability 614
Peer Acceptance and Popularity 618
School as a Socialization Agent 620
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Should Preschoolers Attend School? 620
Determinants of Effective Schooling 621
The Effects of Television on Child Development 627
Development of Television Literacy 628
Some Potentially Undesirable Effects of Television 629
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Do The Mighty Morphin Power Rangers Promote Children’s Aggression? 630
Television as an Educational Tool 634
Child Development in the Computer Age 636
Computers in the Classroom 636
Beyond the Classroom: Benefi ts of Internet Exposure 637
Concerns about Computers 639
Final Thoughts on the Context of Development 641
Applying Developmental Themes to the Context of Development 643
Summary 644
Practice Quiz 646
Key Terms 646
Media Resources 647
Church, synagogue Child School Family Day-care center
Peers Doctor’s office
Neighborhood play area Community health and welfare services
Mass media Friends of family Neighbors Legal services
School board
MESOSYSTEM
MACROSYSTEM
Broadideology, laws,andcustomsofone's culture,subculture, or socialclass
EXOSYSTEM
Extended family
MICROSYSTEM
Workplace Time
CHRONOSYSTEM
(Changes in persons or environments over time)
Appendix A–1
Glossary G–1
References R–1
Index I–1


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  • We Believe in Theoretical Eclecticism
  • The Best Information about Human Development Comes from Systematic Research
  • A Strong “Process” Orientation
  • A Strong “Contextual” Orientation
  • Human Development Is a Holistic Process
  • A Developmental Text Should Be a Resource Book for Students—One That Refl ects Current Knowledge

CONNECTING MIND, RESEARCH, AND EVERYDAY EXPERIENCE

E. Bruce Goldstein

Brief Contents

Introduction to Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Neuroscience 
Perception
Attention
Short-Term and Working Memory
Long-Term Memory: Structure 
Long-Term Memory: Encoding and Retrieval
Everyday Memory and Memory Errors
Knowledge
Visual Imagery
Language
Problem Solving
Reasoning and Decision Making

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Book Details
 Price
 3.00
 Pages
 472 p
 File Size 
 24,274 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN-13
 ISBN-10
 9780840033550
 0-8400-3355-9
 Copyright©   
 2011, 2008 Wadsworth,
 Cengage Learning

About the Author
E. BRUCE GOLDSTEIN is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the
University of Pittsburgh and Adjunct Professor of Psychology at the
University of Arizona. He has received the Chancellor’s Distinguished
Teaching Award from the University of Pittsburgh for his classroom
teaching and textbook writing. He received his bachelor’s degree in
chemical engineering from Tufts University and his PhD in experimental
psychology from Brown University. He was a post-doctoral fellow in
the Biology Department at Harvard University before joining the faculty
at the University of Pittsburgh. Bruce has published papers on a
wide variety of topics, including retinal and cortical physiology, visual
attention, and the perception of pictures. He is the author of Sensation
and Perception, 8th edition (Wadsworth, 2010) and is the editor of the
Blackwell Handbook of Perception (Blackwell, 2001) and the twovolume
Sage Encyclopedia of Perception (Sage, 2010).

Preface to Instructors
The Evolution of a Cognitive Psychology Textbook
This book is the culmination of a process that began in 2002, when I decided to write
the fi rst edition of this book. From a survey of more than 500 instructors and my
conversations with colleagues, it became apparent that many teachers were looking
for a text that not only covers the fi eld of cognitive psychology but is also accessible
to students. From my teaching of cognitive psychology, it also became apparent that
many students perceive cognitive psychology as being too abstract and theoretical, and
not connected to everyday experience. With this information in hand, I set out to write
a book that would tell the story of cognitive psychology in a concrete way that would
help students appreciate the connections between empirical research, the principles of
cognitive psychology, and everyday experience.
I did a number of things to achieve this result. I started by including about a dozen
real-life examples per chapter, and neuropsychological case studies where appropriate. To
provide students with fi rsthand experience with the phenomena of cognitive psychology,
I included more than 40 Demonstrations—easy-to-do mini-experiments that were contained
within the narrative of the text—as well as 20 additional suggestions of things to
try, throughout the chapters. The Demonstrations in this edition are listed on page xxii.
Students also received access to more than 45 online CogLab experiments that they
could run themselves, and then compare their data to the class average and to the results of
the original experiments from the literature. In order to ensure that students not only know
the results of experiments but also appreciate how these results were obtained, I described
experiments in detail, so students would understand what the experimenter and participants
were doing. In addition, most of these descriptions were supported by illustrations
such as pictures of stimuli, diagrams of the experimental design, or graphs of the results.
The fi rst edition (2005) therefore combined many elements designed to achieve
the goal of covering the basic principles of cognitive psychology in a way that students
would fi nd interesting and easy to understand. My goal was for students to come away
feeling excited about the fi eld of cognitive psychology.
The acceptance of the fi rst edition was gratifying, but one thing I’ve learned from
years of teaching and textbook writing is that there are always explanations that can
be clarifi ed, new pedagogical techniques to try, and new research and ideas to describe.
With this in mind as I began preparing the second edition (2008), I elicited feedback
from students in my classes and received more than 1,500 written responses indicating
areas in the fi rst edition that could be improved. In addition, I also received feedback
from instructors who had used the fi rst edition. This feedback was the starting point
for the second edition, so in addition to updating the book, I revised many sections that
students and instructors had fl agged as needing clarifi cation.

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Cognitive Psychology 2
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: STUDYING THE MIND 5
What Is the Mind? 5
Studying the Mind: Early Work in Cognitive Psychology 6
ABANDONING THE STUDY OF THE MIND 9
Watson Founds Behaviorism 9
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning 10
Setting the Stage for the Reemergence of the Mind in Psychology 11
THE REBIRTH OF THE STUDY OF THE MIND 12
Introduction of the Digital Computer 12
Conferences on Artificial Intelligence and Information Theory 13
RESEARCHING THE MIND 15
Memory Consolidation From a Behavioral Perspective 15
Memory Consolidation From a Physiological Perspective 16
Models of the Mind 17
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: LEARNING FROM THIS BOOK 17
TEST YOURSELF 1.1 18
CHAPTER SUMMARY 19
THINK ABOUT IT 19
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 20
KEY TERMS 20
MEDIA RESOURCES 21

CHAPTER 2
Cognitive Neuroscience 22
NEURONS: THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 25
The Microstructure of the Brain: Neurons 25
The Signals That Travel in Neurons 27
METHOD: Recording From a Neuron 28
LOCALIZATION OF FUNCTION 29
Localization for Perception 30
METHOD: Brain Imaging 30
Localization for Language 33
METHOD: Event-Related Potential 34
TEST YOURSELF 2.1 36
DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING IN THE BRAIN 36
REPRESENTATION IN THE BRAIN 37
Representing a Tree: Feature Detectors 38
The Neural Code for Faces 39
The Neural Code for Memory 41
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: “MIND READING” BY MEASURING BRAIN ACTIVITY 41
TEST YOURSELF 2.2 43
CHAPTER SUMMARY 43
THINK ABOUT IT 44
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 44
KEY TERMS 45
MEDIA RESOURCES 45

CHAPTER 3
Perception 46
THE NATURE OF PERCEPTION 49
PERCEPTION STARTS AT THE RECEPTORS: BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING 50
Bottom-Up Processing: Physiological 50
Bottom-Up Processing: Behavioral 51
BEYOND BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING 52
Perception Depends on Additional Information 52
Perceiving Size: Taking Distance Into Account 53
DEMONSTRATION: Two Quarters 54
Perceiving Odor Intensity: Taking Sniffing Into Account 56
TEST YOURSELF 3.1 56
USING KNOWLEDGE: TOP-DOWN PROCESSING 57
Helmholtz’s Theory of Unconscious Inference 57
The Gestalt Laws of Organization 58
DEMONSTRATION: Finding Faces in a Landscape 60
The Gestalt “Laws” Are “Heuristics” 62
Taking Regularities in the Environment Into Account 63
DEMONSTRATION: Shape From Shading 63
DEMONSTRATION: Visualizing Scenes and Objects 65
TEST YOURSELF 3.2 66
NEURONS AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT 66
Designing a Perceiving Machine 67
The Human “Perceiving Machine” 67
Experience-Dependent Plasticity 68
REACHING FOR A CUP: THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PERCEIVING
AND TAKING ACTION 69
Movement Facilitates Perception 70
The Interaction of Perception and Action 70
The Physiology of Perception and Action 71
METHOD: Brain Ablation 71
METHOD: Dissociations in Neuropsychology 73
Picking Up a Coffee Cup and Other Behaviors 74
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: MIRROR NEURONS 75
TEST YOURSELF 3.3 76
CHAPTER SUMMARY 77
THINK ABOUT IT 77
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 78
KEY TERMS 79
MEDIA RESOURCES 79

CHAPTER 4
Attention 80
SELECTIVE ATTENTION 83
Selective Attention as Filtering 83
DEMONSTRATION: Focusing on One Message 84
METHOD: Dichotic Listening 84
Cognitive Resources, Cognitive Load, and Task-Irrelevant Stimuli 87
METHOD: Flanker Compatibility Task 88
DEMONSTRATION: The Stroop Effect 89
TEST YOURSELF 4.1 90
DIVIDED ATTENTION 91
Divided Attention Can Be Achieved With Practice: Automatic Processing 91
Divided Attention When Tasks Are Harder: Controlled Processing 92
DEMONSTRATION: Detecting a Target 93
Distractions While Driving 94
ATTENTION AND VISUAL PERCEPTION 95
Inattentional Blindness 95
Change Detection 96
DEMONSTRATION: Change Detection 96
TEST YOURSELF 4.2 98
OVERT ATTENTION: ATTENDING BY MOVING OUR EYES 98
Eye Movements, Attention, and Perception 98
DEMONSTRATION: Looking for a Face in the Crowd 99
Bottom-Up Determinants of Eye Movements 100
Top-Down Determinants of Eye Movements 100
COVERT ATTENTION: DIRECTING ATTENTION WITHOUT
EYE MOVEMENTS 102
Location-Based Attention 102
METHOD: Precueing 102
Object-Based Attention 103
FEATURE INTEGRATION THEORY 104
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF ATTENTION 106
Covert Attention Enhances Neural Responding 106
Attentional Processing Is Distributed Across the Cortex 107
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: ATTENTION IN SOCIAL SITUATIONS—
THE CASE OF AUTISM 109
TEST YOURSELF 4.3 110
CHAPTER SUMMARY 111
THINK ABOUT IT 111
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 112
KEY TERMS 112
MEDIA RESOURCES 113

CHAPTER 5
Short-Term and Working Memory 114
THE IMPORTANCE OF MEMORY IN OUR LIVES 116
STUDYING MEMORY 117
SENSORY MEMORY 120
The Sparkler’s Trail and the Projector’s Shutter 120
Sperling’s Experiment: Measuring the Capacity and Duration
of the Sensory Store 121
SHORT-TERM MEMORY 123
METHOD: Recall 123
What Is the Duration of Short-Term Memory? 124
DEMONSTRATION: Remembering Three Letters 124
What Is the Capacity of Short-Term Memory? 125
DEMONSTRATION: Digit Span 125
DEMONSTRATION: Remembering Letters 126
How Is Information Coded in Short-Term Memory? 128
DEMONSTRATION: Recalling Visual Patterns 128
TEST YOURSELF 5.1 129
WORKING MEMORY 130
DEMONSTRATION: Reading Text and Remembering Numbers 131
The Phonological Loop 133
DEMONSTRATION: Word Length Effect 133
DEMONSTRATION: Articulatory Suppression 133
The Visuospatial Sketch Pad 134
DEMONSTRATION: Comparing Objects 134
DEMONSTRATION: Holding a Spatial Stimulus in the Mind 135
The Central Executive 136
The Episodic Buffer 136
TEST YOURSELF 5.2 137
WORKING MEMORY AND THE BRAIN 137
The Effect of Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex 138
Prefrontal Neurons That Hold Information 139
Brain Activation in Humans 140
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: THE ADVANTAGES OF HAVING
A MORE EFFICIENT WORKING MEMORY 141
METHOD: Reading Span 142
TEST YOURSELF 5.3 142
CHAPTER SUMMARY 143
THINK ABOUT IT 144
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 144
KEY TERMS 144
MEDIA RESOURCES 145

CHAPTER 6
Long-Term Memory: Structure 146
DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN LONG-TERM MEMORY AND SHORT-TERM MEMORY 149
Long-Term and Short-Term Processes 149
DEMONSTRATION: Serial Position 151
Serial Position Curve 151
Coding in Long-Term Memory 153
METHOD: Recognition Memory 154
DEMONSTRATION: Reading a Passage 154
Locating Short- and Long-Term Memory in the Brain 155
Types of Long-Term Memory 156
TEST YOURSELF 6.1 157
EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY (EXPLICIT) 157
Distinguishing Between Episodic and Semantic Memory 157
The Separation of Episodic and Semantic Memories 158
Connections Between Episodic and Semantic Memories 159
PRIMING, PROCEDURAL MEMORY, AND CONDITIONING (IMPLICIT) 161
Priming 161
METHOD: Avoiding Explicit Remembering in a Priming Experiment 161
Procedural Memory 164
DEMONSTRATION: Mirror Drawing 164
Classical Conditioning 165
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: MEMORY LOSS IN THE MOVIES 165
TEST YOURSELF 6.2 167
CHAPTER SUMMARY 167
THINK ABOUT IT 168
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 168
KEY TERMS 169
MEDIA RESOURCES 169

CHAPTER 7
Long-Term Memory: Encoding and Retrieval 170
ENCODING: GETTING INFORMATION INTO LONG-TERM MEMORY 173
Maintenance Rehearsal and Elaborative Rehearsal 173
Levels-of-Processing Theory 174
DEMONSTRATION: Remembering Lists 174
METHOD: Varying Depth of Processing 175
Research Showing That Encoding Influences Retrieval 176
DEMONSTRATION: Reading a List 178
TEST YOURSELF 7.1 181
RETRIEVAL: GETTING INFORMATION OUT OF MEMORY 181
Retrieval Cues 182
METHOD: Cued Recall 182
Matching Conditions of Encoding and Retrieval 183
TEST YOURSELF 7.2 186
HOW TO STUDY MORE EFFECTIVELY 187
Elaborate 187
Generate and Test 188
Organize 188
Take Breaks 188
Match Learning and Testing Conditions 189
Avoid “Illusions of Learning” 189
MEMORY AND THE BRAIN 190
Experiences Cause Changes at the Synapse 190
Where Does Memory Occur in the Brain? 191
Forming Memories in the Brain: The Process of Consolidation 193
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: ARE MEMORIES EVER “PERMANENT”? 195
TEST YOURSELF 7.3 198
CHAPTER SUMMARY 198
THINK ABOUT IT 199
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 200
KEY TERMS 200
MEDIA RESOURCES 201

CHAPTER 8
Everyday Memory and Memory Errors 202
AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY: WHAT HAS HAPPENED IN MY LIFE 205
The Multidimensional Nature of AM 205
Memory Over the Life Span 206
MEMORY FOR “EXCEPTIONAL” EVENTS 208
Memory and Emotion 208
Flashbulb Memories 208
METHOD: Repeated Recall 209
TEST YOURSELF 8.1 213
THE CONSTRUCTIVE NATURE OF MEMORY 213
Bartlett’s “War of the Ghosts” Experiment 213
Source Monitoring and Source Monitoring Errors 214
METHOD: Testing for Source Monitoring 216
How Real-World Knowledge Affects Memory 217
DEMONSTRATION: Reading Sentences 217
DEMONSTRATION: Memory for a List 220
Taking Stock: The Pluses and Minuses of Construction 221
TEST YOURSELF 8.2 222
MEMORY CAN BE MODIFIED OR CREATED BY SUGGESTION 222
The Misinformation Effect 222
METHOD: Presenting Misleading Postevent Information 223
Creating False Memories for Early Events in People’s Lives 225
WHY DO PEOPLE MAKE ERRORS IN EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY? 226
Errors of Eyewitness Identification 227
The Crime Scene and Afterward 227
What Is Being Done? 231
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: MEMORIES OF CHILDHOOD ABUSE 233
TEST YOURSELF 8.3 234
CHAPTER SUMMARY 234
THINK ABOUT IT 235
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 236
KEY TERMS 236
MEDIA RESOURCES 237
DEMONSTRATION: Reading Sentences (continued) 237

CHAPTER 9
Knowledge 238
HOW ARE OBJECTS PLACED INTO CATEGORIES? 241
Why Definitions Don’t Work for Categories 241
The Prototype Approach: Finding the Average Case 243
DEMONSTRATION: Family Resemblance 244
METHOD: Sentence Verification Technique 244
The Exemplar Approach: Thinking About Examples 246
Which Approach Works Better: Prototypes or Exemplars? 246
IS THERE A PSYCHOLOGICALLY “PRIVILEGED” LEVEL
OF CATEGORIES? 247
Rosch’s Approach: What’s Special About Basic Level Categories? 247
DEMONSTRATION: Listing Common Features 248
DEMONSTRATION: Naming Things 248
How Knowledge Can Affect Categorization 249
TEST YOURSELF 9.1 249
REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CATEGORIES:
SEMANTIC NETWORKS 250
Introduction to Semantic Networks: Collins and Quillian’s Hierarchical Model 250
METHOD: Lexical Decision Task 252
Criticism of the Collins and Quillian Model 253
The Collins and Loftus Model: Personal Experience Affects Networks 253
Assessment of Semantic Network Theories 254
REPRESENTING CONCEPTS IN NETWORKS:
THE CONNECTIONIST APPROACH 255
What Is a Connectionist Model? 255
How Are Concepts Represented in a Connectionist Network? 257
DEMONSTRATION: Activation of Property Units in a Connectionist Network 257
CATEGORIES AND THE BRAIN 260
Specific or Distributed Activity? 260
Category Information in Single Neurons 260
Neuropsychology of Categories 262
Brain Scanning and Categories 262
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: CATEGORIZATION IN INFANTS 263
METHOD: Familiarization/Novelty Preference Procedure 263
TEST YOURSELF 9.2 265
CHAPTER SUMMARY 265
THINK ABOUT IT 266
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 266
KEY TERMS 267
MEDIA RESOURCES 267

CHAPTER 10
Visual Imagery 268
DEMONSTRATION: Experiencing Imagery 270
IMAGERY IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 271
Early Ideas About Imagery 271
Imagery and the Cognitive Revolution 271
METHOD: Paired-Associate Learning 272
IMAGERY AND PERCEPTION: DO THEY SHARE
THE SAME MECHANISMS? 272
Kosslyn’s Mental Scanning Experiments 273
DEMONSTRATION: Mental Scanning 273
The Imagery Debate: Is Imagery Spatial or Propositional? 274
Comparing Imagery and Perception 276
Is There a Way to Resolve the Imagery Debate? 278
TEST YOURSELF 10.1 279
IMAGERY AND THE BRAIN 279
Imagery Neurons in the Brain 279
Brain Imaging 280
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation 281
METHOD: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) 282
Neuropsychological Case Studies 282
Conclusions From the Imagery Debate 285
USING IMAGERY TO IMPROVE MEMORY 286
Placing Images at Locations 286
DEMONSTRATION: Method of Loci 286
Associating Images With Words 287
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: MENTAL REPRESENTATION
OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS 287
DEMONSTRATION: Mechanical Problems 287
TEST YOURSELF 10.2 289
CHAPTER SUMMARY 289
THINK ABOUT IT 290
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 290
KEY TERMS 291
MEDIA RESOURCES 291

CHAPTER 11
Language 292
WHAT IS LANGUAGE? 294
The Creativity of Human Language 295
The Universality of Language 295
Studying Language 295
PERCEIVING WORDS, PHONEMES, AND LETTERS 297
Components of Words 297
Perceiving Spoken Phonemes and Words, and Written Letters 297
METHOD: Word Superiority Effect 300
UNDERSTANDING WORDS 300
The Word Frequency Effect 301
DEMONSTRATION: Lexical Decision Task 301
Lexical Ambiguity 301
METHOD: Lexical Priming 302
TEST YOURSELF 11.1 303
UNDERSTANDING SENTENCES 304
Parsing and a Trip Down the Garden Path 304
The Syntax-First Approach to Parsing 305
DEMONSTRATION: Late Closure 305
The Interactionist Approach to Parsing 306
UNDERSTANDING TEXT AND STORIES 309
Making Inferences 309
DEMONSTRATION: Making Up a Story 309
Situation Models 311
PRODUCING LANGUAGE: CONVERSATIONS 314
Semantic Coordination 315
Syntactic Coordination 315
METHOD: Syntactic Priming 316
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: CULTURE, LANGUAGE,
AND COGNITION 317
TEST YOURSELF 11.2 320
CHAPTER SUMMARY 320
THINK ABOUT IT 321
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 321
KEY TERMS 323
MEDIA RESOURCES 323
DEMONSTRATION: Answers to Late Closure Demonstration 323

CHAPTER 12
Problem Solving 324
WHAT IS A PROBLEM? 326
THE GESTALT APPROACH: PROBLEM SOLVING AS REPRESENTATION
AND RESTRUCTURING 327
Representing a Problem in the Mind 327
Restructuring and Insight 327
DEMONSTRATION: Two Insight Problems 328
Obstacles to Problem Solving 329
DEMONSTRATION: The Candle Problem 329
MODERN RESEARCH ON PROBLEM SOLVING:
THE INFORMATION-PROCESSING APPROACH 331
Newell and Simon’s Approach 332
DEMONSTRATION: Tower of Hanoi Problem 332
The Importance of How a Problem Is Stated 335
DEMONSTRATION: The Mutilated Checkerboard Problem 337
METHOD: Think-Aloud Protocol 338
TEST YOURSELF 12.1 339
USING ANALOGIES TO SOLVE PROBLEMS 340
Analogical Transfer 340
Analogical Problem Solving and the Duncker Radiation Problem 340
DEMONSTRATION: Duncker’s Radiation Problem 340
Analogical Encoding 344
Analogy in the Real World 345
METHOD: In Vivo Problem-Solving Research 345
HOW EXPERTS SOLVE PROBLEMS 346
Differences Between How Experts and Novices Solve Problems 346
Expertise Is Only an Advantage in the Expert’s Specialty 348
CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING 348
DEMONSTRATION: Creating an Object 350
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: DOES LARGE WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY
RESULT IN BETTER PROBLEM SOLVING? IT DEPENDS! 351
TEST YOURSELF 12.2 353
CHAPTER SUMMARY 354
THINK ABOUT IT 354
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 355
KEY TERMS 355
MEDIA RESOURCES 355

CHAPTER 13
Reasoning and Decision Making 358
DEDUCTIVE REASONING: SYLLOGISMS AND LOGIC 361
Validity and Truth in Syllogisms 361
Conditional Syllogisms 362
Conditional Reasoning: The Wason Four-Card Problem 364
DEMONSTRATION: Wason Four-Card Problem 364
What Has the Wason Problem Taught Us? 367
TEST YOURSELF 13.1 368
INDUCTIVE REASONING: REACHING CONCLUSIONS FROM EVIDENCE 368
The Nature of Inductive Reasoning 368
The Availability Heuristic 369
DEMONSTRATION: Which Is More Prevalent? 369
The Representativeness Heuristic 371
DEMONSTRATION: Judging Occupations 371
DEMONSTRATION: Description of a Person 372
DEMONSTRATION: Male and Female Births 373
The Confirmation Bias 374
TEST YOURSELF 13.2 374
DECISION MAKING: CHOOSING AMONG ALTERNATIVES 375
The Utility Approach to Decisions 375
How Emotions Affect Decisions 377
People Inaccurately Predict Their Emotions 378
Incidental Emotions Affect Decisions 379
Decisions Can Depend on How Choices Are Presented 379
DEMONSTRATION: What Would You Do? 380
Justification in Decision Making 381
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THINKING 382
Effect of Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex 382
Neuroeconomics: The Neural Basis of Decision Making 384
SOMETHING TO CONSIDER: IS WHAT IS GOOD FOR YOU
ALSO GOOD FOR ME? 385
DEMONSTRATION: A Personal Health Decision 385
TEST YOURSELF 13.3 386
CHAPTER SUMMARY 386
THINK ABOUT IT 387
IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE 388
KEY TERMS 389
MEDIA RESOURCES 389
Glossary 391
References 411
Name Index 429
Subject Index 435


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Retained Features
All of the features described above were well received by students and instructors, and
so are continued in this new third edition. Additional pedagogical features that have
been retained from previous editions include Test Yourself sections, which help students
review the material, and Think About It questions, which ask students to consider questions
that go beyond the material.
Method sections, which were introduced in the second edition, highlight the ingenious
methods cognitive psychologists have devised to study the mind. The 27 Method
sections, which are integrated into the text, describe methods such as brain imaging,
lexical priming, and think-aloud protocols. This not only highlights the importance of
the method, but makes it easier to return to its description when it is referred to later in
the text. See page xxii for a list of Methods.
The end-of-chapter Something to Consider sections describe cutting-edge or controversial
research. A few examples of topics covered in this section are “Attention
in Social Situations—the Case of Autism,” “Are Memories Ever ‘Permanent’?” and
“Culture, Language, and Cognition.” If You Want to Know More includes brief descriptions
of interesting topics that are related to the chapter but could not be discussed in
detail in the text for space reasons. A few references are provided to help students begin
exploring this additional material. Chapter Summaries provided succinct outlines of the
chapters, without serving as a substitute for reading the chapters.
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