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A Comprehensive Reference to Herbs of Flavor and fragrance

Arthur O. Tucker & Thomas DeBaggio

Edited by Francesco DeBaggio
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Book Details
 1078 p
 File Size 
 8,292 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 by Arthur O. Tucker and Thomas DeBaggio

How to Use the Book
In this book we have attempted to update the lore of the past with current
horticultural practices from around the world to prepare you for the garden of
your life. The book is arranged in two large sections. The first section provides a
detailed overview of herb growing, harvesting, and preserving techniques.
The second section is an alphabetized listing intended to equip you with the
details to identify, understand, cultivate, care for, and use herbs of flavor and
fragrance. Each entry is filled with detailed descriptions and histories of
individual herbs. A typical entry provides the plant’s botanical name and family,
whether it is an annual or perennial, and its height, hardiness, light requirements,
water consumption, required soil type and pH. The plant’s name in various
languages is included, as is a history of the plant, its chemistry, how to propagate
the plant, and its culinary and landscape uses. A botanical key is given to
identify the plant, and its description includes its country of origin and various
data on the leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds.
Who We Are
We have known the thrill of discovery in the garden and share a longstanding
passion for cultivating the earth, and between us we have over eighty years of
dirty knees. Art is Dr. Tucker to his students and many others. He spends much
of his time in the highly technical milieu of a botanist who has specialized in the
identification and chemistry of herbs. He has published and lectured widely and
has a list of degrees that ends in a Ph.D. from Rutgers.
Tom had a more checkered career. He was a reformed journalist who since
1976 has been a commercial grower and seller of herb plants and has written for
numerous publications about herbs. While Art has familiarity with Latin, French,
German, and “Botanese,” Tom needed translations of all four. Tom’s expertise
was passed onto his son, Francesco, upon Tom’s diagnosis of Alzheimer’s, and
Francesco has continued the tradition.
We both marvel at the intense interest that Americans have shown recently in
herbs. Pollsters estimate that over 6 million U.S. households grow herbs and
they found that over half of the nation’s population recognized garlic, parsley,
dill, chives, and basil. Commercial growers responded to this increasing hunger
with record fresh herb harvests. All this interest helped to fuel new research and
made this book possible and more worthwhile.
Our aim has been to fill a gap between the highly technical scientific research
of herbs and the homey, anecdotal approach bathed in generalities. We set out to
compile diverse information and offer it in a single volume that will appeal to a
wide range of gardeners and specialists, from home gardeners to commercial
growers as well as professional horticulturists and academics. We think of this
book, in a modest way, as a modern, updated version of the great herbals of the
past. We hope that it will encourage more Americans, and others around the
globe, to successfully grow and enjoy these beautiful and useful plants.

THIS BOOK PROVIDES accurate information to help identify, grow, and use
hundreds of herbs. Although it draws heavily on scientific research from around
the world, it is tempered by personal gardening experience and written in a
simple understandable style.

No single book is big enough to describe all the plants called herbs, so we
have focused on herbs that are most common in home gardens, catalogs,
restaurants, and markets (or should be). For the purpose of this book, we define
an herb as any temperate climate herbaceous or woody plant used for flavor or
fragrance. This excludes a wide range of herbs for medicine, dyes, fibers,
insecticides, soap, and rubber.

We believe our range, while limited, remains wide. Old favorites, such as
basil, dill, parsley, coriander, lavender, mint, sage, rosemary, tarragon, and thyme
are included in detail and many species that have not reached a wide audience
are included. Among the unusual or hard to find herbs are rau r m or Vietnamese
cilantro (Persicaria odorata), which immigrated to the United States along with
the airlift of 140,000 Vietnamese in 1975. Another cilantro-flavored ethnic herb,
papaloquelite (Porophyllum ruderale subsp. macrocephalum), comes from south
of the border. This nine-foot marigold relative has been used in Mexican cooking
for centuries but only entered Texan cuisine around 1990.

The Encyclopedia of Herbs grew from our frustration with the superficial
treatment of our favorite herbs and the gross errors about them in many popular
herb books (a recent one erroneously claimed that dill “resembles fennel in
appearance and aroma”). We have spent years searching for thorough, unbiased
research to dispel many cultivation myths perpetuated by four centuries of

The most interesting data we uncovered was not in the popular press but in
small circulation technical books and journals where scientists use shorthand and
jargon to communicate with each other. This is one of the first times that most of
these research findings have been available in a non-scientific venue.
We rely on botanists and agricultural scientists for an understanding of herbs
and their cultivation, and we believe that their research provides useful
guidelines, but it is not infallible and should not be read as the last word on the
subject. Every spring brings new revelations to the observant gardener, as well as
to the careful scientists.

The first edition of this book, entitled The Big Book of Herbs and published by
Interweave Press, was extremely well received, earning awards from both the
International Herb Association (2001 Book Awards) and The Herb Society of
America (Gertrude B. Foster Award, 2004). However, in the intervening years,
amounting to almost a decade of newly published literature, new information has
emerged (e.g., absinthism was probably due to adulterants, not the content of
thujones) and scientific names have changed (e.g., vetiver is now Chrysopogon
zizanioides). In addition, we found a number of typographical errors or species
that we had inadvertently excluded (e.g., Agastache scrophulariifolia). Other
sections (e.g., Pelargonium) have been completely revamped. We thank all those
conscientious readers who wrote to us with these enlightenments and hope that
this book will be your ultimate reference on culinary and fragrant herbs for years to come.

Many readers, from gardeners to academics, also wrote to thank us for
including the references. Actually, this is not just academic show-and-tell or
some sort of weird academic compulsive disorder; it protects us legally. Pay
particular attention to our wording in the following chapters. In accordance with
the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, we may freely (1) quote scientific
literature, (2) quote ethnic or historic literature, or (3) cite how we personally use
herbs. However, as soon as we use terms like “recommend,” “prescribe,” or
show advocacy for consumption for herbs that are not GRAS (Generally
Recognized As Safe) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, then we (and
the publisher) are legally liable. Readers should pay particular attention to this
when advocating herbs like sassafras, which is not GRAS and has been shown to
be a pre-hepatocarcinogen; while you may not accept the scientific literature,
you are legally liable if you advocate its consumption and somebody does
develop liver cancer (which may not even be related to the consumption of
sassafras). In our litigious society today, this warning is not just scientific
arrogance, and even if you win a legal suit, you still have to pay lawyers in most
states and go through the hassle and time. When we make a statement, such as
garlic being antifungal, we have cited scientific papers to support that statement.
Herbs also fight a long uphill battle to prove their efficacy. Popular medical
journals will publish poorly conducted research that shows negative effects, and
the popular press will subsequently seize upon this, disregarding the many other
well-conducted positive studies. We also hope that these references will prompt
readers to locate the original scientific literature from their libraries and
investigate a topic further to make their own well-informed decisions, and if we
have inspired at least one student to research a topic further, then we have

Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Plant Identification
Chapter 2. What’s in a Name?
Chapter 3. The Flavors and Fragrances of Herbs
Chapter 4. How to Maximize Flavor and Fragrance
Chapter 5. How to Create the Best Growing Conditions
Chapter 6. Container Cultivation
Chapter 7. Propagation and Planting
Chapter 8. Keeping Herbs Healthy
Chapter 9. The Harvest
Herb Profiles
Aloysia citriodora
Anethum graveolens
Anthriscus cerefolium
Armoracia rusticana
Asarum canadense
Bergera koenigii
Borago officinalis
Calendula officinalis
Capparis spinosa
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Cedronella canariensis
Chamaemelum nobile
Chrysopogon zizanioides
Citrus hystrix
Coriandrum sativum
Crocus sativus
Cryptotaenia japonica
Cuminum cyminum
Cunila origanoides
Cymbopogon citratus
Dysphania ambrosioides
Eryngium foetidum
Foeniculum vulgare
Geranium macrorrhizum
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Hedeoma pulegioides
Helichrysum italicum
Houttuynia cordata
Humulus lupulus
Hyssopus officinalis
Inula helenium
Juniperus communis
Laurus nobilis
Levisticum officinale
Limnophila chinensis subsp. aromatica
Lindera benzoin
Litsea glaucescens
Melissa officinalis
Myrrhis odorata
Myrtus communis
Nepeta cataria
Nigella sativa
Oenanthe javanica
Papaver somniferum
Perilla frutescens
Persea borbonia
Persicaria odorata
Petroselinum crispum
Phyla scaberrima
Pimpinella anisum
Poliomintha bustamanta
Porophyllum ruderale subsp. macrocephalum
Rhus coriaria
Rosmarinus officinalis
Ruta graveolens
Sanguisorba minor
Sassafras albidum
Sesamum orientale
Solidago odora
Stevia rebaudiana
Tagetes lucida
Trachyspermum ammi
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Umbellularia californica
Valeriana officinalis
Wasabia japonica
Zingiber mioga
Selected References

Illustrations copyright © 2000 by Marjorie C. Leggitt.
Frontispiece: Wasabia japonica. Opposite: Geranium macrorrhizum.

An earlier edition of this volume was published as The Big Book of Herbs
(Interweave Press, 2000).
Published in 2009 by Timber Press, Inc.

The Haseltine Building
133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450
Portland, Oregon 97204-3527

2 The Quadrant
135 Salusbury Road
London NW6 6RJ

100 Medicinal Herbs and How to Use Them


with photos by Shawn Linehan
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Book Details
 582 p
 File Size 
 18,939 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 978-1-60469-662-2 (hardcover)
 978-1-60469-733-9 (pbk.)
 2015 by JJ Pursell 

About the Author
Dr. JJ Pursell is a board certified naturopathic physician and licensed
acupuncturist and has worked with medicinal herbs for more than 20 years.
Having spent many hours on her father’s flower farm, her love of plants
began at an early age. She began working at herb farms and herb shoppes,
which inspired her to enroll in graduate studies in health and medicine. While
in school, having returned to the urban life, she missed the plants and the
community that an herb shoppe offers. During school she decided to open
The Herb Shoppe while finishing her degree in Portland, Oregon. She has
taught and trained with herbalists all over the world but prefers the practice of
close-to-home grown western herbs.
The Herb Shoppe focuses on offering the most vital organic herbs
available, while sustaining local growers. Over the years, The Herb Shoppe
has received countless words of thanks for all it has to offer and has been
asked by many patrons to open shoppes in other parts of the country. The
Herb Shoppe’s second location is in Brooklyn, New York. With the
continued success of both businesses, The Herb Shoppe is now available for
franchise for those who are passionate about community and herbal medicine.
The Herb Shoppe was voted “the best apothecary in Portland” by
Willamette Week and was written up in Portland Monthly magazine and The
L Magazine in New York City. JJ and her shoppe have been featured in
several blogs and Tumblr sites, including Gardenista, White & Warren
Inspired, Kale and Coriander, Portland Healing Project, PoppySwap, and Girl
Gift Gather. JJ appeared on “Green Living,” a BCAT television show in
Brooklyn; the “Bread and Roses” radio show on Portland’s KBOO; and
“Wise Woman Radio” with Susun Weed. She is also included in the book
Curing Canine Cancer and contributed to the new edition of Hot Pants: A Do
It Yourself Gynecology and Herbal Remedies. She has her own YouTube
channel for those who want to learn more about making herbal medicine.

As a child I was always drawn to plants, leaves, flowers, and such.
I used to collect acorns as prized possessions, and my imaginary
friends were talking trees. Although many of us grow up and often
get distracted from our true callings in life, I was fortunate to have
the plants persistently remind me of the work I was meant to do.
For me, herbalism is a way of life. It is walking with intention
every day and giving thanks to the bounty that is all around us,
sustaining us. While modern medicine has propelled us into drastic
healing measures, herbs continue to create opportunities to return
to a gentler approach to health and wellness.
A long time ago, I heard a story about how plants came to help
people. A few years later I was walking in the woods and suddenly
realized I’d become quite lost. After wandering for hours, I sat
down to calm myself and noticed the most beautiful grove of trees.
Looking up at them, I felt the warm sun on my face and then felt
what seemed like a mother’s embrace. As the trees comforted me, I
remembered the story and took out my notebook to write it down.
This is the story I remembered.

A long, long time ago, we used to be all one—the humans, the animals, the
rock people, the water, the wind, the plants, and everything else that was on
the Earth. Together we formed one tribe and shared the same language. We
were able to communicate and keep the balances of nature in check through a
relationship of mutual respect and boundaries.
Then a man killed a bear, and everything changed drastically. This direct
act of taking a life upset the balance of the world and great grief settled over the land.

The bear clan came together to discuss what needed to be done. Because
such an act had never before happened, most of the bears were unsure of how
to proceed. The young warrior bears wanted to take immediate action and get
revenge. They wanted to use the force they had never used in battle to kill
man and wipe him from existence. They thought that such swift action would
result in a return of balance and harmony. The elders listened and finally
agreed to let the warrior bears do as they wished.

The warrior bears set out to make a bow and arrow, just as man had done.
They asked a young birch tree for an offering to make a strong and sturdy
bow. And after they had stripped the bark and shaped the bow, they went
looking for the right bowstring to complete it. They tried many things, all of
which were not strong enough and quickly broke. They approached the elders
and asked, “What did man use for his bowstring?” The elders’ gentle eyes
looked upon them lovingly, for even though they agreed to let the warrior
bears proceed, they knew this path was not the way to peace. Despite this,
they said, “The man used dead bear intestine as the string for his bow,
because it is strong and filled with tension.” At this, the warrior bears all
looked frightened and confused about what to do next.

Then one of the eldest bears offered up his body so the warrior bears
could continue on this path. It was his time, he said, to go with the setting
sun. And he did. And the warrior bears gave thanks and used his intestines to
make bowstrings. After all the bows were finished, the warrior bears wanted
to practice using them. What happened next was more disappointment. As the
bears pulled back the bowstrings, each one snapped under the sharpness of their claws.

What were they to do? One bear suggested they cut off all their claws so
that they might use their bows. But at this notion, the elders asked everyone
to gather together for another meeting. For this meeting, they called upon
every creature of the Earth—the other animals, the plant people, the water
people, the creepy crawlies, the wind, grandmother moon, grandfather sky,
and Mother Earth herself.

They asked for everyone to think about what was the best course of
action. The warrior bears continued to argue that by eliminating man, the
world would be returned to peace and balance. They asked for everyone to
join them to accomplish this task. Surprisingly, everyone was in agreement—
everyone, that is, but the plant people. The plants asked the wise old ginseng
for his advice. The old ginseng pondered a moment and then said that he
would meditate for three days in a cave in the mountains. After the three days
he would know what was best for the world.
So up went the wise old ginseng to meditate in the cave in the mountains.
And although this was a quiet place, each day the mosquito would buzz up to
the ginseng and ask, “What are you going to do? How are we going to help?
What is your decision?” And each day, ginseng would reply, “When I am
done with my meditation, I will know what is best for the world.” Those
mosquitos can be so annoying.

After three days, the wise old ginseng descended from the cave. Once
again, everyone gathered, anxiously awaiting his thoughts. After a slow, deep
breath, the old ginseng said, “Although we are one with the world, we cannot
be one with this decision. We the plant people must help man, for they are
naïve and, like children, need healing and guidance. From this day forth,
plants will offer themselves to man in hopes of creating balance in their
health by healing them.”

Table of Contents
The Way of the Herbalist
An Ancient Medicine
Plants to Pharmaceuticals
The Cardiovascular System
The Respiratory System
The Gastrointestinal System
The Endocrine System
Getting to Know the Plants: How to Read the Plant Directory
Balsam fir
Balsam poplar
Black cohosh
Black haw
Black walnut
Blessed thistle
Blue flag
Blue vervain
Couch grass
Culver’s root
False unicorn
Goat’s rue
Grand cactus
Gravel root
Greater celandine
Horny goat weed
Horse chestnut
Jamaican dogwood
Lady’s slipper
Lemon balm
Oregon grape
Purple loosestrife
Queen of the meadow
Red clover
Red root
Self heal
Skunk cabbage
Solomon’s seal
Squaw vine
St. John’s wort
Sweet violet
White oak
Wild carrot
Wild cherry
Wild yam
Wood betony
Yellow dock
Creating an Herbalist’s Kitchen
Formulating Herbal Blends
Delivering the Herbs: Herbal Applications
Bumps, Bruises, and Other Childhood Conditions
Fatigue and Brain Function
Female Complaints
Inflammation and Pain
Respiratory Ailments
Skin Conditions
Stress and Adrenal Problems
Tummy Complaints and Irritable Bowels
Metric Conversions
Herbal Suppliers
Photo Credits
About the Author

Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc.

Timber Press
The Haseltine Building
133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450
Portland, Oregon 97204-3527

Cover design by Laken Wright
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