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Making Mehndi Art with Easy-to-Follow Instructions, Patterns, and Projects

Brenda Abdoyan

1. Mehndi (Body painting) 2. Temporary tattoos
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Book Details
 152 p
 File Size 
 18,041 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 2012 by Brenda Abdoyan and Design Originals,, 800-457-9112,
 1970 Broad Street, East Petersburg,
 PA 17520. Photography by Brenda Abdoyan, Bajidoo, Inc.

About the Author
Brenda Abdoyan, a San Francisco-based child of the 1960s who considers
everything to be art, is principal artist and designer at Bajidoo, Inc., a jewelry
and design studio. Inspired by things from everyday life, she begins her creations
with realism and then sprinkles them with the spice of life. Recently, she won
top honors for the Designer Press Kit Award at a Craft and Hobby Association show.
She holds a degree in business administration and project management from the
University of Phoenix. After more than 20 years as a senior business analyst in
corporate America, she left it all to pursue her passion. Henna art was the road
that took her home. Her first YouTube video on henna tattoo design led to her
work being included in the March 2009 cable channel series My Art by Ovation
Television. From there, she has expanded her henna canvas to include leather,
wood, and bangles. Follow her at

A prudent question is one-half of wisdom. — Francis Bacon

My henna saga began with a trip to the Middle East in 2000. Unlike the henna
tattoo artist you may find on the beach in summer or in your favorite theme
parks, henna artists in the Middle East apply tattoos behind the blacked-out
windows of a beauty salon. The windows are blacked out to preserve the
modesty of the ladies inside; the henna application is a complete experience.
A friend (the sister of the man who would later become my husband) and I
entered the salon and were led up a dark, steep, narrow stairway. When we
reentered the light at the top of stairs, we were in another world. Aromas
assaulted us—cardamom spice in Arabic coffee (the essential oils used in henna
paste) and burning incense.

The room, which comprised the entire upper floor, had no stations where a
guest would sit in a specific chair for her henna application. Instead, the space
was nearly empty in the center with banks of ornately decorated pillows along
the sides. We simply sat on a mass of these overly soft pillows and the work began.

Since both my hands and feet were being done, four young girls worked
through the designs, one on each hand and each foot. These four girls talked and
giggled amongst themselves, only occasionally putting together a few words in
English to ask me questions about my prior experience with henna tattoos (at
that time, I had none). Something about those moments ignited a spark in me
that continues to burn.

While the use of henna for tattoos is difficult to trace, evidence shows that it
stretches back more than 5,000 years to the days of ancient Egypt when a henna
dye was used to stain the fingers and toes of the pharaohs prior to their
mummification. Henna tattooing has a long history among many Eastern
cultures. The designs tend to fall into four styles based on the region. The
Middle Eastern style in the Arab world features floral designs that do not follow
a distinctive pattern. In North Africa, henna tattoos are geometrical and follow
the shape of the wearer’s hands and feet. In India and Pakistan, the designs cover
more of the body, extending up arms and legs to give the impression of gloves or
more of the body, extending up arms and legs to give the impression of gloves or
stockings. Henna tattoos in Indonesia and southern Asia are often blocks of color
on the tips of the fingers and toes.

Many of the historical styles of henna tattoos remain popular today, but their
use has grown to include Celtic designs, Chinese characters, and American
Indian symbols. Because of the temporary nature of henna tattoos, many people
have begun experimenting with designs that express their individual styles and beliefs.

Culturally,  the most common modern reference to henna tattooing is its use in
the most common modern reference to henna tattooing is its use in
traditional Hindu wedding ceremonies. Intricate designs, known as Mehndi, are
applied to the bride’s hands and feet to symbolize her commitment to her
husband-to-be. Since the henna paste must remain on the skin for a couple of
days, it restricts the movements and tasks of the bride. Its application gives her
time to reflect on her upcoming marriage.

Henna is like many things: What you get out of it is directly proportional to
what you put into it. While I started learning about henna in 2000, I only began
to work with henna paste at the beginning of 2008. Yes, you read that right. The
first henna tattoo I made was on my right foot. I sat on my patio and drew on my foot.

I did a terrible job. I made the paste wrong; it was too thin. I had no
coordination to create the images I had seen in books and online. I was
completely frustrated. Even worse, after all my trouble, my ugly little tattoo
image never even got dark! In no time at all I figured out that knowing the
history and traditions of henna was fulfilling on one level, but tattoos wouldn’t
just spring forth from my hands because I had studied so diligently. To find
fulfillment, I had to do more work in an entirely new direction.

This book is my way of helping you skip some or all of my frustration. I’ve
included an extensive section on making henna paste and applying it (page 12).
You will find information on the basic lines you’ll need to master before
creating beautiful tattoos. Don’t skip this section! The better control you have in
making the basic lines—which are the foundation of all henna tattoos—the
better your finished tattoos will look.
be able to adapt these designs. I’ve also included the templates I use to develop
new designs. Just follow the shape of the hand or foot to create your own unique
henna tattoos.

Finally, the stain left behind from the application of henna paste is not just
ideal for skin, but it also works well on other mediums, including wood and
leather. Henna designs applied to the latter may fade a bit, but they won’t wear
off like the henna tattoos applied to your skin! Check out some of my ideas for
henna on objects on page 98.
If you try henna tattooing and have difficulty, snap a picture and email it to
me at I will respond as quickly as I am able with some suggestions.

A random event on a short holiday was the spark that quickly caused a
firestorm of creativity deep in my heart. From the first instant that henna entered
my life, it was kismet. I hope this book provides a similar spark of passion in
you. So let’s get started making the paste and creating beautiful henna tattoos.
Brenda Abdoyan, Bajidoo, Inc.

Table of Contents

Making Henna Paste
Applying Henna Paste

Your First Tattoo
Finger Tattoo
Lace Glove

Additional Elements



The first step in mastering the art of henna tattoos
is to make sure you have the right materials on
hand. The items you’ll need to create your own
henna tattoos are not costly, but you’ll want to
have everything readily available before you get
started. After that, it’s practice, practice, practice!

Sams Teach Yourself : Seventh Edition

Laura Lemay, Rafe Coburn, Jennifer Kyrnin

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Book Details
 3.00 USD
 1471 p
 File Size
 46,653 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc   

About the Author
Rafe Colburn is an author and web developer with more than 15 years of
experience building websites. His other books include Special Edition Using
SQL and Sams Teach Yourself CGI in 24 Hours. You can read his blog at or find him on Twitter as @rafeco.
Jennifer Kyrnin is an author and web designer who has been working on the
Internet since 1995. Her other books include Sams Teach Yourself Bootstrap in
24 Hours, Sams Teach Yourself Responsive Web Design in 24 Hours, and Sams
Teach Yourself HTML5 Mobile Application Development in 24 Hours. She can
be found at or on Twitter as @htmljenn.
Laura Lemay is one of the world’s most popular authors on web development
topics. She is the original author of Sams Teach Yourself Web Publishing with
HTML, Sams Teach Yourself Java in 21 Days, and Sams Teach Yourself Perl in 21 Days.

Who Should Read This Book
Is this book for you? That depends:
If you’ve seen what’s out on the Web and you want to contribute your own
content, this book is for you.
If you work for a company that wants to create a website and you’re not
sure where to start, this book is for you.
If you’re an information developer, such as a technical writer, and you
want to learn how the Web can help you present your information online,
this book is for you.
If you’re just curious about how the Web works, some parts of this book
are for you, although you might be able to find what you need on the Web itself.
If you’ve created web pages before with text, images, and links, and
you’ve played with a table or two and set up a few simple forms, you may
be able to skim the first half of the book. The second half should still offer
you a lot of helpful information.

Table of Contents
PART I: Getting Started
LESSON 1: What Is Web Publishing?
Thinking Like a Web Publisher
The Web Is a Hypertext Information System
The Web Is Cross-Platform
The Web Is Distributed
The Web Is Dynamic
The Web Is Interactive
Web Browsers
What the Browser Does
An Overview of Some Popular Browsers
Web Servers
Uniform Resource Locators
Defining Web Publishing Broadly
Quiz Answers
LESSON 2: Getting Your Tools in Order
Anatomy of a Website
Setting Up Your Computer for Web Publishing
Text Editors
A Web Browser
Using the Google Chrome Developer Tools
What Do You Want to Do on the Web?
Wireframing Your Website
What’s Wireframing, and Why Do I Need It?
Hints for Wireframing
Web Hosting
Using a Content-Management Application
Setting Up Your Own Web Hosting
Quiz Answers
LESSON 3: Introducing HTML and CSS
What HTML Is (And What It Isn’t)
HTML Describes the Structure of a Page
HTML Does Not Describe Page Layout
Why It Works This Way
How Markup Works
What HTML Files Look Like
Text Formatting and HTML
HTML Attributes
Using the style Attribute
Including Styles in Tags
A Short History of HTML Standards
The Current and Evolving Standard: HTML5
Quiz Answers
PART II: Creating Web Pages
LESSON 4: Learning the Basics of HTML
Structuring Your HTML
The <html> Tag
The <head> Tag
The <body> Tag
The Title
Quiz Answers
LESSON 5: Organizing Information with Lists
Lists: An Overview
Numbered Lists
Customizing Ordered Lists
Unordered Lists
Customizing Unordered Lists
Definition Lists
Nesting Lists
Other Uses for Lists
Quiz Answers
LESSON 6: Working with Links
Creating Links
The Link Tag: <a>
Linking Local Pages Using Relative and Absolute Pathnames
Absolute Pathnames
Should You Use Relative or Absolute Pathnames?
Links to Other Documents on the Web
Linking to Specific Places Within Documents
Creating Links and Anchors
The name Attribute of the <a> Tag
Linking to Elements in the Same Document
Anatomy of a URL
Parts of URLs
Special Characters in URLs
The rel Attribute
Kinds of URLs
Anonymous FTP
Non-Anonymous FTP
Quiz Answers
PART III: Doing More with HTML and CSS
LESSON 7: Formatting Text with HTML and CSS
Character-Level Elements
Semantic HTML Tags
Changes to Physical Style Tags in HTML5
Character Formatting Using CSS
The Text Decoration Property
Font Properties
Preformatted Text
Horizontal Rules (or Thematic Breaks)
Attributes of the <hr> Tag
Line Break
Special Characters
Character Encoding
Character Entities for Special Characters
Character Entities for Reserved Characters
Fonts and Font Sizes
Quiz Answers
LESSON 8: Using CSS to Style a Site
Including Style Sheets in a Page
Creating Page-Level Styles
Creating Sitewide Style Sheets
Contextual Selectors
Classes and IDs
What Cascading Means
Units of Measure
Specifying Colors
Editing Styles with Developer Tools
Using Color
The Box Model
Margins and Padding
Controlling Size and Element Display
More Selectors
Attribute Selectors
The <body> Tag
Quiz Answers
LESSON 9: Using Images on Your Web Pages
Images on the Web
Image Formats
Inline Images in HTML: The <img> Tag
Adding Alternative Text to Images
Images and Text
Text and Image Alignment
Wrapping Text Next to Images
Adjusting the Space Around Images
Images and Links
Other Neat Tricks with Images
Image Dimensions and Scaling
Image Backgrounds
Using Images as Bullets
What Is an Imagemap?
Getting an Image
Determining Your Coordinates
The <map> and <area> Tags
The usemap Attribute
Image Etiquette
Quiz Answers
LESSON 10: Building Tables
Creating Tables
Table Parts
The <table> Element
Summarizing the Table
Rows and Cells
Empty Cells
Sizing Tables, Borders, and Cells
Setting Table Widths
Changing Table Borders
Cell Padding
Cell Spacing
Column Widths
Table and Cell Color
Aligning Your Table Content
Table Alignment
Cell and Caption Alignment
Spanning Multiple Rows or Columns
More Advanced Table Enhancements
Grouping and Aligning Columns
Grouping and Aligning Rows
How Tables Are Used
Quiz Answers
LESSON 11: Using CSS to Position Elements on the Page
Positioning Schemes
Relative Positioning
Absolute Positioning
Positioning Properties
Positioning Properties and Height and Width
Nesting Absolutely Positioned Elements
Dynamic Overlays
Fixed Positioning
Controlling Stacking
Creating Drop-Down Menus
Quiz Answers
LESSON 12: Designing Forms
Understanding Form and Function
Using the <form> Tag
Using the <label> Tag
Creating Form Controls with the <input> Tag
Creating Text Controls
Adding Options to Text Fields with datalist
Using the New HTML5 Controls
Creating Password Controls
Creating Submit Buttons
Creating Reset Buttons
Creating Check Box Controls
Creating Radio Buttons
Using Images as Submit Buttons
Creating Generic Buttons
Hidden Form Fields
The File Upload Control
Using Other Form Controls
Using the button Element
Creating Large Text-Entry Fields with textarea
Creating Menus with select and option
Grouping Controls with fieldset and legend
Changing the Default Form Navigation
Using Access Keys
Creating disabled and readonly Controls
Displaying Updates with progress and meter
Applying Cascading Style Sheet Properties to Form Elements
Planning Your Forms
Quiz Answers
LESSON 13: Structuring a Page with HTML5
A Short History of HTML Page Layout
Laying Out a Page in HTML5
HTML5 Structural Tags
The Page Outline
Elements with Their Own Outlines
Using HTML5 Structural Elements
Polyfill Scripts
Quiz Answers
LESSON 14: Integrating Multimedia: Video and Sound
Embedding Video the Simple Way
Advantages and Disadvantages of Hosting Videos on External Sites
Uploading Videos to YouTube
Customizing the Video Player
Other Services
Hosting Your Own Video
Video and Container Formats
Converting Video to H.264
Embedding Video Using <video>
The <video> Tag
Using the <source> Element
Embedding Flash Using the <object> Tag
Alternative Content for the <object> Tag
The <embed> Tag
Embedding Flash Movies Using SWFObject
Flash Video Players
JW Player
Using Flowplayer
Using the <object> Tag with the <video> Tag
Embedding Audio in Your Pages
The <audio> Tag
Flash Audio Players
Quiz Answers
LESSON 15: Advanced CSS: Page Layout in CSS
Laying Out the Page
The Problems with Layout Tables
Writing HTML with Structure
Writing a Layout Style Sheet
The Floated Columns Layout Technique
The Role of CSS in Web Design
Style Sheet Organization
Site-Wide Style Sheets
Quiz Answers
LESSON 16: Using Responsive Web Design
What Is Responsive Web Design?
History of Responsive Web Design
Why RWD Is Important
RWD Is More Than Just Changing the Number of Columns
Mobile Devices Should Come First
Mobile First
Affecting the Viewport
Planning a Responsive Website
Check Your Analytics
Try the Site with Your Own Phone
Decide What Content Is Critical
Writing Media Queries
Media Types
Media Features
Building a Style Sheet with Media Queries
Understanding the Mechanics of RWD
Adjusting the Layout
Making Images and Videos Responsive
Building Responsive Tables
Responsive Web Design Best Practices
Give Everyone the Best Experience
Use the Best Breakpoints for Your Website, Not for Devices
Be Flexible But Think Small
Quiz Answers
PART IV: Using JavaScript and jQuery
LESSON 17: Introducing JavaScript
Why Would You Want to Use JavaScript?
Ease of Use
Improving Performance
Integration with the Browser
The <script> Tag
The Structure of a JavaScript Script
The src Attribute
JavaScript and the Chrome Development Tools
The JavaScript Language
Operators and Expressions
Control Structures
Data Types
The JavaScript Environment
Quiz Answers
LESSON 18: Using jQuery
What Are JavaScript Libraries?
Getting Started with jQuery
Your First jQuery Script
Selecting Elements from the Document
Binding Events
Modifying Styles on the Page
Hiding and Showing Elements
Retrieving and Changing Style Sheet Properties
Modifying Content on the Page
Manipulating Classes
Manipulating Form Values
Manipulating Attributes Directly
Adding and Removing Content
Special Effects
AJAX and jQuery
Using AJAX to Load External Data
Quiz Answers
LESSON 19: Using JavaScript in Your Pages
Validating Forms with JavaScript
Hiding and Showing Content
The Same Code with jQuery
Adding New Content to a Page
Quiz Answers
LESSON 20: Working with Frames and Linked Windows
What Are Frames?
Why Were Frames Removed from HTML5?
What About Iframes?
Working with Linked Windows
Browsing Context Keywords
The <base> Tag
Inline Frames
Opening Linked Windows with JavaScript
Quiz Answers
PART V: Designing for Everyone
LESSON 21: Designing for the Mobile Web
People Browse Differently on Mobile Phones
Standards Compliance and the Mobile Web
Progressive Enhancement
Validating Your Pages
Writing for the Mobile Web
Write Clearly and Be Brief
Organize Your Pages for Quick Scanning
Make Each Page Stand on Its Own
Be Careful with Emphasis
Don’t Use Browser-Specific Terminology
Spell Check and Proofread Your Pages
Design and Page Layout
Use Headings as Headings
Group Related Information Visually
Use a Consistent Layout
Using Links
Mobile Users Tap; They Don’t Click
Use Link Menus with Descriptive Text
Use Links in Text
Avoid the “Here” Syndrome
To Link or Not to Link
Using Images and Multimedia
Don’t Overuse Images
Keep Images Small
Watch Out for Assumptions About Your Visitors’ Hardware
Don’t Make Your Videos Annoying
Avoid Flash
Making the Most of CSS and JavaScript
Put Your CSS and JavaScript in External Files
Location Matters
Shrink Your CSS and JavaScript
Take Advantage of Mobile Features
Make Phone Calls
Other Good Habits and Hints for Mobile Web Design
Link Back to Home
Don’t Split Topics Across Pages
Sign Your Pages
One Final Secret to Mobile Web Design
Quiz Answers
LESSON 22: Designing for User Experience
Considering User Experience Level
Add a Search Engine
Use Concise, Sensible URLs
Navigation Provides Context
Are Your Users Tourists or Regulars?
Determining User Preferences
What Is Accessibility?
Common Myths Regarding Accessibility
Section 508
Alternative Browsers
Writing Accessible HTML
Images and Multimedia
Designing for Accessibility
Using Color
Take Advantage of All HTML Tags
Validating Your Sites for Accessibility
Quiz Answers
PART VI: Going Live on the Web
LESSON 23: How to Publish Your Site
What Does a Web Server Do?
Other Things Web Servers Do
How to Find Web Hosting
Using a Web Server Provided by Your School or Work
Using a Commercial Web Host
Commercial Web Builders
Setting Up Your Own Server
Free Hosting
Organizing Your HTML Files for Publishing
Questions to Ask Your Webmaster
Keeping Your Files Organized with Directories
Having a Default Index File and Correct Filenames
Publishing Your Files
Moving Files Between Systems
I Can’t Access the Server
I Can’t Access Files
I Can’t Access Images
My Links Don’t Work
My Files Are Being Displayed Incorrectly
Promoting Your Web Pages
Getting Links from Other Sites
Content Marketing Through Guest Posting
Promoting Your Site Through Social Media
Creating a Facebook Page for Your Site
Site Indexes and Search Engines
Business Cards, Letterhead, Brochures, and Advertisements
Finding Out Who’s Viewing Your Web Pages
Log Files
Google Analytics
Quiz Answers
LESSON 24: Taking Advantage of the Server
How PHP Works
Getting PHP to Run on Your Computer
The PHP Language
Conditional Statements
PHP Conditional Operators
foreach Loops
for Loops
while and do...while Loops
Controlling Loop Execution
Built-In Functions
User-Defined Functions
Returning Values
Processing Forms
Handling Parameters with Multiple Values
Presenting the Form
Using PHP Includes
Choosing Which Include Function to Use
Expanding Your Knowledge of PHP
Database Connectivity
Regular Expressions
Sending Mail
Object-Oriented PHP
Cookies and Sessions
File Uploads
Other Application Platforms
Microsoft ASP.NET
Java EE
Ruby on Rails
Quiz Answers
LESSON 25: Search Engines and SEO
What Is SEO?
Why You Need SEO
What About Social Media?
You Can Do Your Own SEO
Why Don’t Search Engines Find Sites Without SEO?
How Search Engines Work
Microsoft Bing
Don’t Forget International Searches
SEO Techniques
Is Your Site “Friendly?”
Using Keywords and Keyword Research
Creating Content for Customers Is the Best SEO
Myths and Facts About SEO
Tools for Tracking and Managing SEO
Using Sitemaps
The robots.txt File
Understanding Canonical Links
Redirecting Duplicate Content
Checking How Your Site Looks to Search Engines
Tracking Your SEO Efforts
Paying for Links
Quiz Answers

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Over the past decade, the Web has become completely integrated into the fabric
of society. Most businesses have websites, and it’s unusual to see a commercial
on television that doesn’t display a URL. The simple fact that most people know
what a URL is speaks volumes. People who didn’t know what the Internet was
several years ago are now reconnecting with their high school friends on Facebook.
Perhaps the greatest thing about the Web is that you don’t have to be a big
company to publish things on it. The only things you need to create your own
website are a computer with access to the Internet and the willingness to learn.
Obviously, the reason you’re reading this is that you have an interest in web
publishing. Perhaps you need to learn about it for work, or you’re looking for a
new means of self-expression, or you want to post baby pictures on the Web so
that your relatives all over the country can stay up-to-date. The question is, how
do you get started?
There’s more than enough information on the Web about how to publish
websites like a seasoned professional. There are tutorials, reference sites, tons of
examples, and free tools to make it easier to publish on the Web. However, the
advantage of reading this book instead is that all the information you need to
build websites is organized in one place and presented in an orderly fashion. It
has everything you need to master HTML, publish sites to a server on the Web,
create graphics for use on the Web, and keep your sites running smoothly.
But wait, there’s more. Other books on how to create web pages just teach you
the basic technical details, such as how to produce a boldface word. In this book,
you’ll also learn why you should be producing a particular effect and when you
should use it. In addition, this book provides hints, suggestions, and examples of
how to structure your overall website, not just the words on each page. This
book won’t just teach you how to create a website—it’ll teach you how to create
a great website and how to get people to come visit it.
In this book, examples are written in valid HTML5 and CSS3 using tags that
work in all current browsers wherever possible. Exceptions and caveats are
noted whenever I use tags that are obsolete or not included in HTML5.

What You Need Before You Start
There are lots of books about how to use the Web. This book isn’t one of them.
We’re assuming that if you’re reading this book, you already have a working
connection to the Internet, you have a modern web browser such as Chrome,
Safari, Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer version 10, or Microsoft Edge, and that
you’re familiar with the basics of how the Web and the Internet work. You
should also have at least a passing acquaintance with some other elements of the
Internet, such as email and FTP, because we refer to them in general terms in this book.
In other words, you need to have used the Web to provide content for the Web. If
you meet this one simple qualification, read on!
Many of the screenshots in this book are made on a Macintosh computer, but
you can do all the work on Windows or a Linux machine if that’s what you use.
You should just be familiar with how your operating system works and where
common programs are located.

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