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Harness the power of spices for health, Wellbeing and weight-loss

Kalpna Woolf

Text © Kalpna Woolf, 2015
Photography, design and layout © Pavilion Books Company Ltd, 2015
Photographer: Clare Winfield


Spice Yourself Slim Harness the power of spices for health, Wellbeing and weight-loss-Kalpna Woolf
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How Does It Work?
Spice Yourself Slim is a healthy, flavourful way of eating based on
centuries-old traditions of combining tasty spices with fresh ingredients
to lose weight and maintain energy. It is a simple way of eating for the
whole of your life. Most diets involve a ‘crash and burn’ timeframe but
this is exactly why most diets tend not to work in the long term. For so
long people have tried everything to lose weight or to maintain a good
weight through short quick-fix diets, and while these diets may help to
lose weight temporarily, statistics show that 95 per cent of dieters will
fail to maintain weight loss. Diets tend to make you change your
normal eating habits, deny yourself eating certain foods, and eat
boring, bland foods you don’t enjoy, or grapple with complicated meal
plans. Often, you have to eat these dishes on your own while everyone
around you is enjoying their meals. Dieting is thought of as a
temporary fix with an end date. It is not seen as lifestyle change, so
mentally most people are counting the days to when their diet is over.
However, research also shows that if you can enjoy your meals, feel
positive about the foods you are eating, because of their taste and
nutrition, and share them with family and friends, you are more likely
to succeed. Spice Yourself Slim is packed with recipes that you can
enjoy and will help you to be successful in your diet.
Each recipe uses simple, natural ingredients and combines them with
one or a combination of healthy spices to create wonderful low-fat
dishes. For example, try rubbing a tablespoon of sumac (a wonderful
Middle Eastern berry-coloured spice) into a few pieces of chicken then
stir-frying them with a little olive oil, and you will have a delicious,
zesty-flavoured chicken dish. The sumac doesn’t add any calories at all.
Alternatively, add cumin seeds to fresh vegetables before cooking and a
sprinkling of roasted ground cumin at the end, and you will have a
plate of food that will sing with aromas and tastes. You will also feel
good as the cumin contains iron and other vitamins.
Spice Yourself Slim will show you which spices you need. I have used
ten spices that are normally found in most kitchen storecupboards as
well as some exciting new spices which I hope you will enjoy trying.
....

Introduction
Spices are powerhouses of flavour and health and have the crucial
benefits of being calorie and fat free. Spice Yourself Slim shows you a
simple and healthy way of eating using the power of spices to enjoy
tasty food and to maintain good health. This is not an invented
contemporary fad. It has a strong foundation in centuries’ old
knowledge and traditions. This book seeks to unwrap the secret
mysteries of one of the oldest, most valued and most mystically
powerful food sources known to mankind – spices – and shows how
they can be incorporated into contemporary recipes that can have a
dramatic impact on not just our diets, but also on our health and lifestyle.

A tried and tested diet, Spice Yourself Slim guarantees weight loss
while allowing you to enjoy flavourful food at every meal. At a time
when Western tastes are ever more receptive to spices, not just Indian
(chilli, garam masala, turmeric, coriander), Chinese (Szechuan, fivespice,
star anise), Mexican (smoked chipotle chillies), and traditional
spices (cloves, cinnamon, fennel), but also the Middle Eastern spices
which are exciting metropolitan foodies (sumac, za’atar, ras el hanout),
we still know very little about them. This book unlocks their magic,
fusing traditional spice secrets with simple modern recipes for today.
We live in an age in which we can enjoy the best cuisines from around
the world. We all love eating food, and at the same time, we also want
to be slim and healthy, and be careful about what we eat. It has always
seemed that we can’t have it both ways, but this book is about how we
can have it all – eat delicious, tasty food and lose weight healthily.
....
My Personal Journey
Spices are in my DNA and this book is very much the story of my
personal food journey, learning about the remarkable health and
nutritional benefits of spices.
I was brought up eating Indian spices and good, wholesome homecooked
food. However, when I moved away from home, I moved away
from my ‘food roots’ too and was tempted by the growing proliferation
of fast food. Instant (no-cook, no-mess) food availability and the
addictive effect of high fat, high salt, sugars and colours. Result – I
soon began to feel and look tired and, horrifyingly, for someone who
had always been thin, began to put on weight. Even though I cut down
on calories and felt I was eating less… I was always hungry and still not
managing my weight well or feeling good.
Over the years I began to learn more about food and the effects of it on
our health, energy levels and, of course, our weight. I began to look
into the foods I was eating and wrote a diary of what triggered my
response to eating certain meals. I realised that I wanted to eat
healthily and feel full, to enjoy my food and to have a good relationship
with it, but I didn’t want to eat bland, flavourless and often insipidlooking
food or ‘diet’ foods. I wanted to eat food with lots of flavour, to
enjoy dishes from around the world, and I wanted to share foods with
my family. I discovered that when I balanced spices with healthy foods
my weight reduced and then stayed down.
So, Spice Yourself Slim is the story of the food journey I have travelled.
I have been fortunate to meet people from around the world through
my TV career, to go to fantastic places and explore foods from around
the world. Time and again I found that the food I loved in most
countries included scrumptious spices that were used to introduce
flavour but also gave the food health, well-being and nutritional benefits.

My journey takes me from my Indian roots to traditional British
cooking, to university where I was studying Russian and went to Soviet
Russia, and then travelling myself to experience cuisines first hand in
Iran, Vietnam and Italy, and to enjoying foods from Thailand, Morocco,
Mexico, the Mediterranean, the Far East and West Africa.
I use spices every day – I love the tastes, flavours and the good feeling
I get from just cooking a meal with them. A sprinkle of freshly roasted
and ground cumin makes a dull plate of vegetables sing. When I add
turmeric to a dish, I love the rich colour and I am instantly transported
to the bustling markets of Marrakesh where turmeric powder is piled
high in large sacks. Spices are sumptuous in colour, taste and history.
Their history evokes wonderful journeys across deserts, land and sea
from faraway exotic lands and worth so high a price as to have been
used as a legal tender in many countries.
Spice are eaten and enjoyed all over the world, and relished not only
because of their taste but because they also carry the stories of their
health powers from one generation to another. My mother, other
members of my family and many Indian people I know, still use
remedies made from spices for many ailments and for strength. For
instance, if anyone has a bad tummy, everyone rushes for the carom
seeds which are mixed with a sprinkling of salt and swallowed down
with a little warm water: an age-old remedy going as far back as my
great, great, grandmother.
Recently, I was in Vietnam and I was talking to some young people in a
restaurant. Their stories about using spices for ailments and for their
general health benefits were so similar to mine. Even in that country,
mothers use oil made from cloves for toothache – an ancient remedy
that has been used for centuries.
These are all family anecdotes, but now scientific research findings are
revealing the health properties of spices. For example, turmeric has
been used for years by Asian families and in Ayurvedic medicine as an
anti-inflammatory, but now research is showing that an active
compound in turmeric, curcumin, could potentially help in reducing
inflammation.
This project has been a secret passion of mine for years. I love the
alchemy of spices, which are often misunderstood by people, who are
overwhelmed by the number of spices required to make a meal.
Through my experience, I hope to demystify spices and show how they
can be easily incorporated into our daily eating habits, as well as to
explain their health benefits at a time when changing national tastes
mean that there has never been a greater public appetite to understand
and learn how to cook with them and to master their magic allure.


Table of Contents

Introduction

How Does It Work?
The Power of Spices
Key Spices
Spice Rubs
Start the Day: Breakfasts
Simple Spicetastic Lunches
Effortless Dinners
Meals to Share and to Impress
Spicetacular Sides
Tantalising Sweet Treats
Drinks
14-Day Meal Plan

Index
Acknowledgements

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Spice Yourself Slim Harness the power of spices for health, Wellbeing and weight-loss-Kalpna Woolf
....
First published as Hardback and eBook in the United Kingdom in 2016 by
Pavilion
1 Gower Street
London
WC1E 6HD

The moral rights of the author have been asserted.
This book can be ordered direct from the publisher at www.pavilionbooks.com

a Complete guide to the natural health-boosting benefits of everyday spices

Michelle Robson-Garth, BHSc

Letter to the Reader

Dear Reader, I hope with this book you see your spice rack in a whole new light
and develop a deeper appreciation for spices and their therapeutic attributes. I
want you to discover the beneficial role spices can have in improving your
health, your diet, and your palate. Spices (and culinary herbs) can have a large
application in your diet, health, and wellness. Some of the spices you may know,
while others might be completely new to you. I hope you enjoy this book.
Best wishes, Michelle Robson-Garth

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The Top 10 Reasons You Should
Add Some Spice to Your Life
1. Spices can help make your skin more beautiful and healthier.
2. Spices can aid your digestive system to help break down and absorb your food.
3. Spices may help you get your appetite back if you are experiencing low hunger levels.
4. Spices can help reduce flatulence and bloating.
5. Spices can help improve the general health of your cardiovascular system.
6. Spices are easily found and can be bought at most grocery stores.
7. You can add spices to your diet to expand your palate.
8. Spices can improve metabolic health and weight loss.
9. Spices can help reduce inflammation and pain in the body.
10. Spices can help you prevent and recover from the common cold and flu.
....

Introduction
When you think of spices, you might think of the spice rack hanging on your
kitchen wall, and all the different jars and bottles you’ve used in your cooking.
Spices can do so much more than just flavor your favorite dish. Spices have been
used for medicinal purpose for thousands of years. They play an important role
in healing and health in many cultures.
Because your health is generally thought to be improved by your diet, or the
food you eat, many believe that what you eat can play a role in preventing many
modern health complaints and conditions. What you put into your body can
impact your body’s health. That’s why choosing to add different healing spices
and herbs to your diet can vastly improve your overall health.
In this book, you will not only discover how to use spices to cook exciting
new recipes, but you will also learn the many applications of spices and how
they can impact the health of various body systems, and may help relieve
symptoms of illness. Interest in natural remedies is increasing and with good
reason. According to the National Health Interview Survey released in 2008, 38
percent of U.S. adults over the age of eighteen and about 12 percent of children
have used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In CAM, herbs and
spices are used as a part of the diet for medicinal purposes. Nutritional plants
have been a major part of almost every culture in one way or another for years.
In fact, herbal medicines were originally a part of medical pharmacopeias. These
days, the main forms of complementary medicines used are nutritional and
herbal products, as well as massage, acupuncture, naturopathy, and yoga. When
used correctly in the right amounts, and when suited to an individual’s health,
CAM in forms like herbs and spices are very safe and beneficial.
Don’t be afraid to experiment with new spices and flavors, but be sure to do
your research about every new herb or spice you introduce into your diet.
Spices have many uses to help support good health. From helping to reduce
inflammation and pain to supporting digestive health and improving memory,
spices can offer tasty additions to your diet as well as benefits that may extend to
the whole family. In the next few chapters, you’ll explore a variety of herbs and
spices, and learn how the right combinations can help you feel your best.
....


Table of Contents
Letter to the Reader
Welcome to the Everything Series!
Title Page
Copyright Page
Acknowledgments
The Top 10 Reasons You Should Add Some Spice to Your Life
Introduction
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Benefits of Spices
What Are Spices?
A Brief History of Spices and Medicinal Plants
Flavors of the World
Systems of Traditional Medicine
Healing Properties of Spices
Spiritual Aspects of Spices
Spiritual Paths, Traditional Cultures, and the Use of Spices
Chapter 2: Cooking with Spices
Buying, Storage, and Safety
Preparing Spices and Useful Equipment
Cooking with Spices
Spice Mixes
Chapter 3: Spices for a Healthy Immune System
Innate Immunity
Adaptive Immunity
Foods and Tips for a Healthier Immune System
Actions for the Immune System
Spices for the Immune System
Specific Spices for the Immune System
Chapter 4: Spices for Inflammation
What Is Inflammation?
Inflammation and Health Issues
Anti-Inflammatory Foods
Anti-Inflammatory Spices
Chapter 5: Spices for Digestion
The Importance of a Healthy Gut
What Does the Gut Do?
The Immune System in Your Gut
The Mind in Your Gut: “The Second Brain”
Healthy Teeth and Gums
Improving Poor Digestion
Warming Spices
Soothing the Gut
Spices to Soothe the Gut
Keeping Your Liver Healthy
Spices (and Herbs) for a Healthy Liver
Simple Nutritional and Exercise Tips for a Healthy Gut
Caution for Spices in the Gastrointestinal System
Chapter 6: Spices for Brain Health, Better Cognition, and
Happiness
Brain Health, Better Cognition, and Happiness
How Stress Affects Your Brain Health
Self-Care Routines
Foods for Brain Health and Happier Moods
Spice Actions for Brain and Mental Health
Spices for Brain Health and Better Memory
Spices for Less Stress and Happier Moods
Caution with Certain Spices and Mental Health Issues
Chapter 7: Spices for Musculoskeletal Health
Common Musculoskeletal Problems and Issues
Foods for Musculoskeletal Health and Wellness
Spices for Musculoskeletal Health
Chapter 8: Spices for Beautiful Skin
Skin Disorders
Spice Actions for Beautiful Skin
Foods for Beautiful Skin
Spices for Beautiful, Healthy Skin
Chapter 9: Spices for a Healthy Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular Issues
Causes of Cardiovascular Disease
Tips for a Healthy Cardiovascular System
Spices for Cardiovascular Health
Chapter 10: Spices for Weight Loss
Obesity and the Modern Lifestyle
Foods and Tips for Fat Loss
Spices for Weight Loss
Chapter 11: Additional Information and Spice Materia Medica
Spice Combinations, Cooking Ideas, and Uses
General Information on Popular Spices
Chapter 12: Recipes
Cinnamon and Banana Smoothie
Poha (Rice Breakfast Dish)
Cardamom Lassi
Spiced Stewed Fruit
Toasted and Spiced Granola
Thyme Garlic and Pepper Mushrooms
Gobi Aloo Subji
Sumac and Walnut Salad
Spinach with Garlic and Chili
Rasam (Spicy Soup)
Tempered Rice
Tomato Gravy
Mung Bean Dahl
Chole
Basic Indian-Style Curry with Lamb
Jaya’s Rendang Curry
Immune-Boosting Asian Chicken Soup
Szechuan Pepper Chicken and Noodle Soup
Charakku Curry Powder
Chicken Charakku Curry
Vegetarian Charakku Curry
Chili Oil
Ginger and Garlic Paste
Homemade Vanilla Extract
Barbecue Meat Rub
Chicken or Fish Dry Spice Rub
Fresh Ginger Syrup
Infusions
General Decoction
Ginger Tea
Fennel and Peppermint Infusion
Udaipur Ginger Chai
Rose Hot Chocolate
Chili Hot Chocolate
Masala Spice Powder
Masala Chai
Turmeric, Apple, and Carrot Juice
Rose, Elder Flower, and Hawthorn Tea
Golden Milk
Easy Ginger “Beer” or Ale
Chrysanthemum and Goji Berry Tea
Rose and Hawthorn Jellies
Candied Ginger
Spiced Coconut and Date “Bliss” Balls
Persian Love Cake
Rice Pudding
Black Pepper–Infused Oil
Warming Black Pepper and Cinnamon Salve
Geraldine’s Winter Syrup and Cordial
Honey and Onion Cough Syrup
Thyme-Infused Honey
Licorice and Cucumber Face Scrub
Namak (Salt) and Adrak (Ginger)
Sage and Mint Mouthwash
Rosemary Tonic Hair Rinse
Rose and Almond Body Oil
Appendix A: Glossary
Herbal Actions Used in Western Herbal Medicine
Appendix B: Further Reading and Bibliography
Studies on Spices and Supporting Information
Appendix C: Table of Spices


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An Everything Series Book.
Everything and everything.com are registered trademarks of F+W Media, Inc.

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57 Littlefield Street, Avon, MA 02322. U.S.A.

Originally published in hardcover as The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs & Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen

Tony Hill

1. Cookery (Herbs) 2. Herbs


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 0-764-59739-6 (pbk.)
 0-471-21423-X (cloth) 
 Copyright©   
 2004 by Tony Hill 

PREFACE
Every culture in the world uses herbs and spices to enliven food and to create the
culinary signature of its native land. Select seeds, leaves, roots, bark, flowers,
and pods provide the special notes cooks summon up to make dishes sing.
Combinations of seasonings create indelible patterns of taste tied to specific
cuisines. Cumin and cilantro, for example, blend in a Latin beat. Ginger and star
anise proclaim an Asian accent. And saffron and pimentón speak of Spain.
Because dining has become so global, with many cuisines fused to startling
effect, herbs and spices are more sought after than ever before. Cooks have
become culinary adventurers, bravely seeking out new foods from all over the
globe. Foreign travel has introduced an incredible diversity of flavors, which,
back home, dominate the contemporary dining experience. Star chefs, always on
the lookout for the next hot trend, constantly experiment with exotic herbs,
spices, and rubs. They mix their own blends, and like white-coated chemists,
steep fragrant oils in glass jars, seeking yet another potent elixir to thrill their
customers’ ever more sophisticated palates.

With all this experience comes a vast array of new ingredients. Cooks want to
re-create the flavors of India, Thailand, and the Middle East. Where the spice
rack once stood neatly stocked with European herbs and sweet spices—basil,
rosemary, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, cloves—it now bulges with containers of
less familiar items: fenugreek, tabil, lemongrass, and kaffir lime leaves. Luckily
for the cook, the availability of these items has increased exponentially along
with the demand.
I’ve been a world traveler most of my adult life. Returning home from each
trip, my bags laden with packets, jars, and bags of fragrant spices and other
pungent ingredients, I would be compelled to re-create the exciting tastes I found
abroad. What came next was an odyssey of discovery. Inspired by the romance
of the past, I became a spice merchant, a modern-day Marco Polo of sorts,
tramping all over the world in search of adventure and the knowledge that goes
with the territory.
The history of the spice trade is filled with adventure, romance, and much
peril. As early as the second century B.C., spices were the exclusive provenance
of kings and the wealthy merchant class. Overland trade routes from Asian
plantations to European cities financed empires perched along the way. More
than five centuries ago, wars were waged over cargoes of cloves from the Banda
Islands of Indonesia, and the English and Portuguese dueled over trading rights
to nutmeg. And Malacca (Singapore today), a port poised at the gateway to the
oceanic routes to Europe, was conquered some eleven times in two hundred
years. It was the extraordinary profits from spice commerce that prodded
Magellan, funded by the queen of Spain, to try so desperately to discover a way
to sail around the globe.
Great caravans laden with cinnamon and peppercorns trekked across Asian
deserts, unloading their precious wares in the port of Constantinople. From there,
sailing ships carried the cargoes across the Mediterranean Sea to Venice, at that
time the spice-trade capital of the world, where they commanded the most
outrageous prices Europe had to offer. Andean chiles and Caribbean allspice
were deposited right next to Aztec gold in the treasure vaults of Spanish
conquistadores.
Marco Polo himself was motivated to travel to the East, lured in part by
profits from the spice trade. Old World trading centers such as Istanbul became
melting pots of culture and status, just as their kitchens blended spices and herbs
in culinary masterpieces laced with the essence of far-flung cuisines.
The spice trade today continues to encircle the globe. I’ve followed the same
paths of discovery and adventure—alas, without a sailing ship or a great Spanish
queen as financial backer. Mastering the finesse of spicing techniques has been
my goal. After years of roasting coriander, sifting rosemary, and grinding curry
blends, I now happily offer my own considerable number of the “tricks of the trade.”
In fact, The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs & Spices presents more
than 125 pure herbs and spices, plus dozens of interesting blends. Here are
botanical facts, information on buying and storing, and, most important, cooking
uses for each listing. Recipes to accompany unusual seasonings pepper the book.
Photographs help to identify all the herbs and spices as well as provide a glimpse
into fields and harvests.
Some people seem intimidated by more complex spice combinations,
choosing to take a simpler approach, and that is fine too. There is no need to
spend hours making Indonesian sambal goreng to benefit from a knowledge of
spices. Imagine a simple perfect, sweet, garden-ripe sliced tomato. Add a tiny
dusting of Tellicherry peppercorn and a pinch of French sea salt, and that tomato
is transformed into a culinary epiphany. Even the casual condiment user can
vastly improve his or her dining experience by following the spice basics
included here.
The section on spice blends will help you re-create the flavors remembered
from visits to the Caribbean, Russia, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and beyond.
Armed with knowledge from these pages, you can make the same journey to the
Old World by seasoning in the fashion developed locally over the centuries. This
is not to discourage experimentation at the stove. But traditions evolved for a
reason—the food tasted good that way. Only by knowing the “old” ways of
spicing can you create “new” options for yourself.
I’ve been lucky enough to learn these flavor patterns directly from the cultures
that created them. My work has given me access to the paprika fields of Hungary
for authentic goulash, the saffron plantations of La Mancha for a fragrant paella,
and the chile markets of the Andes for a properly spiced Peruvian stew, to name
a few. These are places that have elevated their indigenous foods to cultural-icon
status. Generations of home cooks and chefs have worked to perfect these
recipes, all the while relying on local ingredients, not the least of which are
spices and herbs.
It is my hope that this book will inspire you to seek out the incredibly diverse
varieties of herbs and spices available to everyone today. With each entry, I’ve
sought to provide history, horticulture, tradition, and techniques, along with my
own first encounters with the particular seasoning. Whether you are looking for
a way to perk up an old meat loaf standby or the secrets of an authentic
Indonesian rijsttafel, my intent is to reveal the fascinating international world of
flavors that offers adventure in the kitchen and ongoing delight at the table.
Tony Hill
Seattle, Washington, USA
....

Herbs and Spices Defined

SPICES AND HERBS FOR THE CULINARY world are harvested from the
entire spectrum of plant species. Most commonly the seeds and leaves of these
botanical treasures are used to impart flavor, but barks, roots, nuts, flowers, and
berries also have much to offer, depending on which plant you have before you.
What just about all these species, in their many forms, have in common is a
unique pungency compared with other crops. A spice or herb destined for the
kitchen is likely to have a strong signature not duplicated elsewhere.
Occasionally, however, the selection of species is only part of the process. It
can be what occurs after harvest that situates the basic plant firmly in the spice
category. The gentle roasting of saffron to intensify its flavor, the drying of
peppercorn berries into black or white varieties, and the curing of raw green
vanilla beans into a usable form are all prime examples of how other hands make
those tastes into what we know in the kitchen.
In the spice world, many parts of the same plant may be used for culinary
purposes. Seeds, buds, barks, roots, stems, flowers, and a variety of other forms
can all be pressed into service in the kitchen, frequently with very different
results. Generally speaking, seeds and barks tend toward the lowest common
denominator of a given species’ flavor, whereas leaf and bud forms typically
have a brighter characteristic. There is some intrinsic logic at work here if you
think of the former as the “older growth” of a plant and the latter as the “new
growth,” with all its spring energy pumped into propagating itself in the plant world.

A perfect example of this same plant/different parts approach is coriander, or
cilantro, and it makes for some confusion in the kitchen with regard to the name
game played by cooks around the world. In America, the seed form is known as
coriander and the leaf form, usually, as cilantro. In Europe, “cilantro” is typically
dropped and a recipe will call for coriander leaf, coriander seed, or even,
perhaps, fresh coriander, meaning the green leafy parts with stems intact.
Southeast Asia will call on both, or even the root of the same plant, and, to
confuse you completely, may ask for all three in the same recipe, interchanging
the names or muddling them all together with local dialects.
....


Table of Contents
Title Page
Dedication
Copyright Page
PREFACE
Acknowledgements
All About Seasonings for the Global Kitchen
HERBS AND SPICES
AJWAIN
ALLSPICE
AMCHOOR
ANGELICA
ANISE, BROWN
ANISE, BLACK
ANNATTO
ARROWROOT
ASAFETIDA
AVOCADO LEAF
BARBERRY
BASIL
BAY LEAF, TURKISH
BAY LEAF, CALIFORNIAN
BAY LEAF, INDIAN
BAY LEAF, INDONESIAN
BLACK LEMON
BLACK SALT
BOLDINA LEAF
BORAGE
BREAD CLOVER
BUSH TOMATO
CANDLENUT
CARAWAY
CARDAMOM, GREEN AND WHITE
CARDAMOM, THAI
CARDAMOM, BLACK
CATNIP
CELERY
CHERVIL
CHICORY
CHILES
CHIVES
CICELY
CILANTRO
CINNAMONS AND CASSIAS
TRUE CINNAMON
INDONESIAN CASSIA-CINNAMON
CHINESE CASSIA-CINNAMON
CINNAMON, WHITE
CLOVES
CORIANDER, EUROPEAN
CORIANDER, INDIAN
CORIANDER, VIETNAMESE
CREAM OF TARTAR
CUBEB
CULANTRO
CUMIN, BROWN
CUMIN, BLACK
CURRY LEAF
DILL
EPAZOTE
FENNEL
FENUGREEK
FINGER ROOT
GALANGAL, GREATER
GALANGAL, LESSER
GALE
GARLIC
GINGER
GOLPAR
GRAINS OF PARADISE
HORSERADISH
HYSSOP
ANISE-HYSSOP
JUNIPER
KAFFIR LIME
KENCUR
KOKUM
LAVENDER
LEMON MYRTLE
LEMON VERBENA
LEMONGRASS
LICORICE
MACE
MAHLEB
MARJORAM
MINT
MITSUBA
MOUNTAIN PEPPER
MUGWORT
MUSTARD SEEDS
NIGELLA
NUTMEG
OREGANO, MEDITERRANEAN
OREGANO, MEXICAN
PAPRIKA
PARSLEY
PEPPERCORNS, BLACK, GREEN, WHITE, AND “TRUE” RED
PEPPER, LONG
PEPPER, NEGRO
PEPPER, PINK
PEPPERLEAF
POMEGRANATE SEEDS
POPPY SEEDS
ROSE PETALS
ROSEMARY
SAFFLOWER
SAFFRON
SAGE
SASSAFRAS
SAVORY, SUMMER AND WINTER
SCREW PINE
SEA SALTS
SEAWEEDS
SESAME SEEDS
SHISO
SICHUAN PEPPER
STAR ANISE
SUMAC
SWEET FLAG
SYLPHIUM
TAMARIND
TARRAGON
THYME
TURMERIC
VANILLA BEAN
WASABI
WATTLE SEEDS
ZEDOARY
HERB AND SPICE BLENDS
American Blends
Mexican Blends
Central and South American Blends
Caribbean Blends
Northern European Blends
Central European Blends
French and Italian Blends
Medieval Blends
Russian Blends
Middle Eastern Blends
Indian Subcontinent Blends
African Blends
Southeast Asian Blends
Chinese Blends
Japanese Blends
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX


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Introduction
Herbs and spices play a pivotal role in the day-to-day life of mankind as important
flavouring agents in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals and also as ingredients in
perfumes and cosmetics. The manufacturers of foods, beverages, cosmetics and
pharmaceuticals are responding to the growing wave of consumer resistance and
legislative limitations set for products containing chemical additives. Spices as sources
of natural colours and flavours present welcome opportunities in the international
market. The nutritional, antioxidant, antimicrobial and medicinal properties of spices
also have widespread applications.

I.1 Production of quality spices
Production of quality clean spices without any pesticide/chemical residues is important
in this era of free international trade resulting from globalisation. Organic spices
which fetch 20 to 50% higher prices than spices from conventional farms are devoid
of pesticides and chemical residues and are superior in quality. Adoption of good
agricultural practices helps to reduce the above contaminants. Quality assurance
systems such as HACCP is of great relevance in the production of quality spices.
Decontamination techniques and proper packaging and storage techniques play a
major role in maintaining quality of spices.

I.1.1 Rational uses of pesticides and controlling the pesticide/chemicals
residues in herbs and spices
All over the world, people are becoming more and more conscious of health problems
due to consumption of foods contaminated with pesticide residues. It is estimated
that a large number of people suffer from pesticide poisoning and suffer every year
due to the toxic effects of chemicals. Promotion of a farming technique adopting
ecologically sound plant protection measures, organic recycling and bio-waste
management would go a long way in bringing back the health of soil and reducing the
pesticide residues of farm produce. The role played by various beneficial microorganisms
including mycorrhizae, biocontrol agents and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria
are enormous in enhancing crop growth and disease control without leaving any
chemical residues on plants. The effective bioagents for the control of major diseases
of spice crops are listed in Table I.1.

I.1.2 Radiation processing to decontaminate spices
Radiation processing offers good scope for increasing shelf life, enhancing quality
and microbial safety without changing the natural flavour attributes of spices. This
technique is widely practised in North America and Europe to decontaminate imported
spices. The various producing countries also started installing facilities for radiation
processing of spices. Radiation sterilisation along with good agricultural and
manufacturing practices help to produce clean, high quality spices free from pesticide
and chemical residues. Being a cold process, it does not affect the delicate aroma and
flavour compounds in spices. The risk of post-treatment contamination can be eliminated
by subjecting the pre-packed spices to irradiation. Table I.3 gives the list of countries
that have approved irradiation processing of food products and spices items permitted
for irradiation under the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA) rules.
Low doses of irradiation (< 1 K.Gy) help to inhibit sprouting in onion, garlic,
ginger, etc. A medium dose application (1–10 K.Gy) eliminates spoilage microbes
and food pathogens and high dose application (>10 K.Gy) sterilises food for special
requirements and for shelf-stable foods without refrigeration.

I.1.3 Packaging in spices for maintenance of quality
Spice products are hygroscopic in nature and being highly sensitive to moisture,
absorption of moisture may result in caking, discolouration, hydrolytic rancidity,
mould growth and insect infestation. As spices contain volatile aromatic principles,
loss of these principles and the absorption of foreign odours as a result of inefficient
packaging may pose serious problems. In addition, heat and light accelerate deterioration
of aroma and flavour components.
Spices containing natural colouring pigments need protection from light (capsicum,
cardamom, turmeric and saffron). Spice powders like onion and garlic contain highly
volatile sulphur compounds and need rigorous protection from loss/absorption of
flavour. The essential oil components naturally present in most of the spices are
subject to oxidation by atmospheric oxygen, particularly at high storage temperature
resulting in the development of off-flavours. Packing of spice oils and oleoresins is
done in epoxy lined steel drums and high-density polythene containers. For certain
oils and oleoresins, aluminium and stainless steel containers are used. Polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) bottles, which possess very good odour barrier properties and
food-grade high-molecular-weight high-density polyethylene (HMHDPE) containers
are also used for storing essential oils and oleoresins. Most of the whole spices are
protected by pericarp and the natural antioxidants present therein, and need less
rigorous protection than ground spices. The packaging materials suitable for different
spice products are listed in Table I.4.

I.2 Herbs and spices as sources of natural colours and flavours
The food sector is now experiencing a trend back towards natural colourants due to
changes in legislation and consumer preference as synthetic food colourants pose
health hazards like cancer, asthma, allergy, hyperacidity and thyroidism. But low
tinctorial power, poor stability (to changes in pH, oxygen, heat and light), low solubility,
off-flavour and high cost limit the use of natural colours. These problems can be
overcome by improving the traditional extraction methods using enzymes,
microorganisms, super-critical CO2, membrane processing and encapsulation techniques.
Before synthetic colours came into existence, spices like chilli, saffron, turmeric,
etc., were used in Indian cuisines to add colour. The Central Food Technological
Research Institute of India (CFTRI) has developed technology for the manufacture of
certain natural food colours such as kokum (red) and chillies (red). Kokum contains
2–3% anthocyanin and is regarded as a natural colour source for acidic foods.
Garcinol is the fat soluble yellow pigment isolated from rind of kokum fruit. Garcinol
is added at 0.3% level to impart an acceptable yellow colour to butter. Colour components
present in spices and natural shades available with spices are presented in Table I.5.

I.2.1 Sources of natural colours in spices
Paprika
The colour in paprika is due to carotenoids, namely capsanthin and capsorubin,
comprising 60% of total carotenoids. Other pigments are cryptoxanthin, xeaxanthin,
violaxanthin, neoxanthin and lutein. The outer pericarp of paprika is the main source
of capsanthin and capsorubin. Indian paprika oleoresin is orange in colour which is
less preferred in the international market. Oleoresin contains up to 50% capsorubin.
Paprika oleoresin is insoluble in water whilst being readily soluble in vegetable oil
and is made dispersible in water by the addition of polysorbate.
Applications are in sausages, cheese sauces, gravies, salad dressings, baked goods,
snacks, icings, cereals and meat products.
Turmeric
Curcumin is the golden-yellow pigment present in turmeric, regarded as the pure
colouring principle with very little of flavour components. It is produced by
crystallisation from the oleoresin and has a purity level of 95%. Pure curcumin is
insoluble in water and hence is dissolved in food grade solvent and permitted emulsifier
(Polysorbate 80). Curcumin gives a lemon-yellow colour in acidic pH. It is used at
levels of 5–20 ppm. Curcumin is available in two basic forms, oleoresin and curcumin
powder, both are used as food colourants.
Saffron
Saffron gives a wonderful golden colour to food but due to its powerful and distinctive
flavour, it is prized in soups, stews, bread and rice dishes in many global cuisines.
Saffron is perceived as luxurious and expensive and hence its use is restricted in
foods. The intensive colour of saffron is caused by carotenoids, especially crocetine
esters with gentobiose. Other carotenoids present are alpha and b carotene, lycopene
and zeaxanthin.

I.2.2 Spices as sources of natural flavours
The increasing demand in developed countries for natural flavour offers tremendous
potential for spice crops as sources of natural flavours. The main flavour compounds
present in herbs and spices are presented in Table I.6. The recovery of essential oil
and oleoresin from various spices and the major aromatic principles present in spices
are illustrated in Table I.7. Extraction of oils and oleoresins is accomplished using a
range of methods, including steam distillation, hydrocarbon extraction, chlorinated
solvent extraction, enzymatic treatment and fermentation, and super-critical carbon
dioxide extraction.
Carbon dioxide extraction from solid botanicals is now adopted on a commercial
scale. The resulting essential oils have no solvent residue, fewer terpenes and enhanced
black notes. Enzymatic treatment and fermentation of raw botanicals also result in
greater yields and quality of essential oil. More recently, the use of genetic engineering

I.2.3 Herbs and spices as medicinal plants
The medicinal properties of spices have been known to mankind from time immemorial.
Spices were used extensively in the traditional systems of medicines such as
Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani. In the recent past, there has been increasing interest in
the biological effects of spices as they are safe and cause no side effects to humans.
Extensive studies are going on in developed countries for the separation of medicinal
components from spices and evaluation of their biological properties. A classic example
for such study is the Piperine alkaloid separated from black pepper and marketed as
Bioperine (98% pure piperine). This alkaloid could increase bioavailability of certain
drugs and nutrients like beta carotene. 
The medicinal properties of spices are summarised in Table I.8.
This volume is the third in the series Handbook of herbs and spices and has two
parts. The first part deals with general aspects referred to the industry such as quality
spice production, quality assurance systems, decontamination techniques, packaging,
spices as sources of natural colours and flavours, effect of Agreement on Agriculture
on spice production and export, etc. The second part deals with detailed information
on individual spices. It is hoped that this book will form a good reference source for
those who are involved in the study, cultivation, trade and use of spices and herbs.


Table of Contents
Contributor contact details ................................................................................ xiii
Introduction ........................................................................................................ xix
I.1 Production of quality spices........................................................... xix
I.2 Herbs and spices as sources of natural colours and flavours ....... xxiv
I.3 References and further reading ...................................................... xxviii
Part I Improving the safety of herbs and spices....................................... 1
1 Detecting and controlling mycotoxin contamination of herbs
and spices .................................................................................................. 3
D. Heperkan, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 3
1.2 Naturally occurring mycotoxins in herbs and spices .................... 4
1.3 Mycobiota of spices and herbs and possible mycotoxin
production ....................................................................................... 13
1.4 Detecting mycotoxins in herbs and spices .................................... 19
1.5 Preventing and controlling mycotoxin contamination .................. 27
1.6 Future trends ................................................................................... 33
1.7 Sources of further information and advice.................................... 34
1.8 References ....................................................................................... 34
2 Controlling pesticide and other residues in herbs and spices ........... 41
K. J. Venugopal, AVT McCormick Ingredients (P) Ltd, India
2.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 41
2.2 The regulation of pesticide residues .............................................. 42
2.3 Analytical methods for detecting pesticide residues .................... 44
2.4 Control of pesticide residues in herbs and spices ......................... 49
2.5 Integrated pest management and organic production ................... 54
2.6 Acknowledgements......................................................................... 58
2.7 Bibliography ................................................................................... 58
3 Irradiation to decontaminate herbs and spices ................................... 60
A. Sharma, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India
3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 60
3.2 Quality considerations .................................................................... 61
3.3 Application of ionizing radiation ................................................... 67
3.4 Nutritional and safety aspects ........................................................ 70
3.5 International approval ..................................................................... 71
3.6 SPS application to boost international trade ................................. 71
3.7 Detection of irradiated spices and herbs ....................................... 72
3.8 References and further reading ...................................................... 73
4 Other decontamination techniques for
herbs and spices ....................................................................................... 74
C. K. George, Peermade Development Society, India
4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 74
4.2 Preventive measures against contamination .................................. 75
4.3 Organic production ......................................................................... 79
4.4 GAP, GMP, ISO 9000 and HACCP............................................... 79
4.5 Decontamination techniques .......................................................... 80
4.6 Sterilization of herbs and spices .................................................... 82
4.7 Detoxification ................................................................................. 83
4.8 Sources of further information and advice.................................... 84
4.9 References ....................................................................................... 85
5 Packaging and storage of herbs and spices .......................................... 86
K. King, Gourmet Garden, Australia
5.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 86
5.2 Consumer trends driving innovation ............................................. 86
5.3 Herb and spice product formats and packaging techniques ......... 87
5.4 Essential oils ................................................................................... 91
5.5 Oleoresins ....................................................................................... 92
5.6 Storage requirements for fresh and dried herbs and spices ......... 93
5.7 Types of packaging materials ........................................................ 94
5.8 Printing ............................................................................................ 97
5.9 Microbiological safety of herbs and spices ................................... 98
5.10 New packaging materials used in herbs and spices ...................... 100
5.11 Future trends ................................................................................... 100
5.12 Bibliography ................................................................................... 101
6 QA and HACCP systems in herb and spice production .................... 103
C. Kehler, Canadian Herb, Spice and Natural Health Coalition,
Canada and J. Schooley, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Canada
6.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 103
6.2 HACCP planning for herb and spice production .......................... 104
6.3 Plant identification practice ........................................................... 108
6.4 Future trends ................................................................................... 110
6.5 Acknowledgement .......................................................................... 110
6.6 Bibliography ................................................................................... 110
Part II Herbs and spices as functional ingredients and flavourings ..... 111
7 The range of medicinal herbs and spices ............................................. 113
T. S. C. Li, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food
Research Centre, Canada
7.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 113
7.2 The role of medicinal herbs and spices ......................................... 118
7.3 Major constituents and therapeutic uses of medicinal herbs
and spices ........................................................................................ 118
7.4 Future trends ................................................................................... 121
7.5 Sources of further information ...................................................... 121
7.6 References ....................................................................................... 121
8 Herbs, spices and cardiovascular disease ............................................. 126
H. Collin, University of Liverpool, UK
8.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 126
8.2 Chemical composition of herbs and spices ................................... 127
8.3 Herbs spices and cardiovascular disease ....................................... 129
8.4 Measurement of antioxidants ......................................................... 132
8.5 Complex mixtures versus single compounds ................................ 134
8.6 Conclusions ..................................................................................... 135
8.7 References ....................................................................................... 135
9 Herbs, spices and cancer ......................................................................... 138
S. Maiti and K. A. Geetha, National Research Centre for Medicinal
and Aromatic Plants, India
9.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 138
9.2 What is cancer? .............................................................................. 139
9.3 Cancer therapy in modern medicine .............................................. 139
9.4 Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) ...................... 140
9.5 Mechanism of action of herbs and spices ..................................... 142
9.6 Evidence supporting the functional benefits of herbs and spices 142
9.7 Botany of some important herbs in cancer therapy ...................... 145
9.8 References ....................................................................................... 149
10 Herbs, spices and gut health .................................................................. 151
C. C. Tassou, National Agricultural Research Foundation, Greece
10.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 151
10.2 Herbs and spices as digestive stimulants ...................................... 152
10.3 The effects of herbs and spices on enteric bacterial pathogens ... 154
10.4 Herbs and spices as growth promoters in animal studies ............. 159
10.5 Anti-inflammatory activity ............................................................. 161
10.6 Effect on gut immunity .................................................................. 163
10.7 Adverse effects ............................................................................... 165
10.8 Future trends ................................................................................... 166
10.9 Sources of further information ...................................................... 167
10.10 References ....................................................................................... 167
11 Volatiles from herbs and spices.............................................................. 177
T. J. Zachariah and N. K. Leela, Indian Institute of Spices
Research, India
11.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 177
11.2 Classification of volatiles ............................................................... 177
11.3 Biosynthesis of the components of volatile oils ........................... 179
11.4 Volatiles and plant sources ............................................................. 183
11.5 References ....................................................................................... 211
Part III Particular herbs and spices........................................................... 219
12 Asafetida .................................................................................................... 221
C. K. George, Peermade Development Society, India
12.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 221
12.2 World trade ..................................................................................... 224
12.3 Chemical constituents .................................................................... 225
12.4 Extraction ........................................................................................ 225
12.5 Processing ....................................................................................... 226
12.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 227
12.7 Main uses ........................................................................................ 227
12.8 References ....................................................................................... 229
13 Capers and caperberries ......................................................................... 230
G. O. Sozzi, Universidad de Buenos Aires and CONICET, Argentina
and A. R. Vicente, CONICET–UNLP, Argentina
13.1 Introduction: brief description ....................................................... 230
13.2 Chemical composition .................................................................... 231
13.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 233
13.4 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 243
13.5 Functional and health benefits ....................................................... 245
13.6 Quality issues and future trends .................................................... 247
13.7 References ....................................................................................... 247
14 Carambola................................................................................................. 257
K. N. Babu and D. Minoo, Indian Institute of Spices Research,
India and K. V. Tushar and P. N. Ravindran, Center for
Medicinal Plants Research, India
14.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 257
14.2 Description ...................................................................................... 258
14.3 Origin and distribution ................................................................... 258
14.4 Cultivars and varieties .................................................................... 260
14.5 Climate ............................................................................................ 260
14.6 Propagation ..................................................................................... 261
14.7 Planting ........................................................................................... 261
14.8 Soils, water and nutrients ............................................................... 262
14.9 Pests and diseases ........................................................................... 262
14.10 Harvesting and yield ...................................................................... 263
14.11 Keeping quality .............................................................................. 263
14.12 Food uses ........................................................................................ 264
14.13 Food value ...................................................................................... 265
14.14 Medicinal uses ................................................................................ 267
14.15 Other uses ....................................................................................... 267
14.16 References ....................................................................................... 267
15 Caraway .................................................................................................... 270
S. K. Malhotra, National Research Centre on Seed Spices, India
15.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 270
15.2 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 272
15.3 Chemical structure .......................................................................... 277
15.4 Main uses in food processing ........................................................ 280
15.5 Functional properties ...................................................................... 285
15.6 Toxicity ........................................................................................... 290
15.7 Quality specifications ..................................................................... 291
15.8 References ....................................................................................... 293
16 Cayenne/American pepper ..................................................................... 299
S. Kumar, R. Kumar and J. Singh, Indian Institute of Vegetable
Research, India
16.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 299
16.2 The genus Capsicum ...................................................................... 300
16.3 Pod types and quality breeding goals ............................................ 301
16.4 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 301
16.5 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 307
16.6 Conclusions ..................................................................................... 309
16.7 References ....................................................................................... 311
17 Celeriac ...................................................................................................... 313
A. A. Farooqi, C. Kathiresan and K. N. Srinivasappa, University of
Agricultural Sciences, India
17.1 Introduction and description .......................................................... 313
17.2 Production ....................................................................................... 314
17.3 References ....................................................................................... 316
18 Celery ......................................................................................................... 317
S. K. Malhotra, National Research Centre on Seed Spices, India
18.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 317
18.2 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 319
18.3 Post-harvest handling ..................................................................... 321
18.4 Cultivars .......................................................................................... 321
18.5 Chemical structure .......................................................................... 322
18.6 Main uses in food processing ........................................................ 324
18.7 Functional properties ...................................................................... 328
18.8 Quality specifications ..................................................................... 331
18.9 References ....................................................................................... 334
19 Chives ........................................................................................................ 337
H. Chen, Beijing Vegetable Research Centre, China
19.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 337
19.2 Chemical composition and nutritional value ................................. 337
19.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 340
19.4 Varieties .......................................................................................... 343
19.5 References and further reading ...................................................... 344
20 Galanga ..................................................................................................... 347
P. N. Ravindran and G. S. Pillai, Centre for Medicinal Plants
Research, India
20.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 347
20.2 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 348
20.3 Tissue culture studies ..................................................................... 349
20.4 Functional properties ...................................................................... 350
20.5 Chemistry ........................................................................................ 351
20.6 Uses ................................................................................................. 352
20.7 K. rotunda ....................................................................................... 353
20.8 References and further reading ...................................................... 353
21 Galangal .................................................................................................... 357
P. N. Ravindran and I. Balachandran, Centre for Medicinal Plants
Research, India
21.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 357
21.2 Production ....................................................................................... 359
21.3 Molecular pharmacology................................................................ 360
21.4 Functional properties ...................................................................... 360
21.5 Alpinia officinarum Hance (lesser galangal, Chinese ginger) ...... 362
21.6 Alpinia calcarata (lesser galangal) ................................................ 363
21.7 References and further reading ...................................................... 363
22 Leek and shallot ....................................................................................... 365
K. R. M. Swamy and R. Veere Gowda, Indian Institute of
Horticultural Research, India
22.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 365
22.2 Leek................................................................................................. 366
22.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 370
22.4 Uses in food industry/processing ................................................... 378
22.5 Functional properties ...................................................................... 378
22.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 380
22.7 Shallot ............................................................................................. 381
22.8 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 383
22.9 Uses in food industry/processing ................................................... 386
22.10 Quality issues .................................................................................. 387
22.11 References ....................................................................................... 387
23 Lemon balm .............................................................................................. 390
H. Turhan, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey
23.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 390
23.2 Chemical composition .................................................................... 391
23.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 392
23.4 Main uses ........................................................................................ 394
23.5 Functional/health benefits .............................................................. 394
23.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 397
23.7 References ....................................................................................... 397
24 Lemongrass ............................................................................................... 400
B. P. Skaria, P. P. Joy, S. Mathew and G. Mathew, Aromatic and
Medicinal Plants Research Centre, India
24.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 400
24.2 Species and varieties ...................................................................... 400
24.3 Origin and distribution ................................................................... 401
24.4 Cultivation and processing ............................................................. 401
24.5 Physiology and Biochemistry ........................................................ 408
24.6 Chemical composition .................................................................... 408
24.7 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 409
24.8 Functional properties ...................................................................... 413
24.9 Quality issues .................................................................................. 414
24.10 References ....................................................................................... 416
25 Long pepper .............................................................................................. 420
K. N. Babu and M. Divakaran, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India;
P. N. Ravindran, Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, India; and
K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University, India
25.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 420
25.2 Chemical composition of long pepper .......................................... 423
25.3 Uses ................................................................................................. 428
25.4 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 431
25.5 Quality specifications ..................................................................... 434
25.6 Biotechnology ................................................................................. 434
25.7 Future .............................................................................................. 435
25.8 References ....................................................................................... 436
26 Lovage........................................................................................................ 438
M. H. Mirjalili, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran and
J. Javanmardi, Shiraz University, Iran
26.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 438
26.2 Chemical composition .................................................................... 439
26.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 443
26.4 Use in food ..................................................................................... 446
26.5 Functional/health benefits .............................................................. 448
26.6 References ....................................................................................... 450
27 Pandan wangi ........................................................................................... 453
S. Wongpornchai, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
27.1 Description ...................................................................................... 453
27.2 Cultivation, production and processing ......................................... 454
27.3 Chemical structure .......................................................................... 455
27.4 Uses in food .................................................................................... 457
27.5 Functional properties ...................................................................... 458
27.6 References ....................................................................................... 458
28 Peppermint ................................................................................................ 460
P. Pushpangadan and S. K. Tewari, National Botanical Research
Institute, India
28.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 460
28.2 Description ...................................................................................... 460
28.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 462
28.4 Chemical composition .................................................................... 470
28.5 Commercial uses ............................................................................ 471
28.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 475
28.7 References ....................................................................................... 478
29 Perilla ......................................................................................................... 482
P. N. Ravindran, Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, India and
M. Shylaja Providence Women’s College, India
29.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 482
29.2 Crop production and management ................................................. 484
29.3 Chemical composition .................................................................... 486
29.4 Biotechnological approaches ......................................................... 487
29.5 Functional properties and pharmacological studies ...................... 488
29.6 References and further reading ...................................................... 491
30 Potato onion (Multiplier onion) ............................................................. 494
U. B. Pandey, National Horticultural Research and Development
Foundation, India
30.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 494
30.2 Chemical composition and uses .................................................... 495
30.3 Production ....................................................................................... 496
30.4 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 498
30.5 Medicinal properties ....................................................................... 498
30.6 Toxicity ........................................................................................... 499
30.7 Quality............................................................................................. 499
30.8 References ....................................................................................... 500
31 Spearmint .................................................................................................. 502
N. K. Patra and B. Kumar, Central Institute of Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants, India
31.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 502
31.2 Chemical composition, biosynthesis and genetics of
the essential oil ............................................................................... 503
31.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................ 504
31.4 Diseases, pests and their control ................................................... 510
31.5 Food uses ........................................................................................ 512
31.6 Medicinal uses ................................................................................ 512
31.7 Functional benefits ......................................................................... 512
31.8 Quality issues .................................................................................. 516
31.9 References ....................................................................................... 517
Index ................................................................................................................. 520


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