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What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About consciousness, dying, addiction, depression, and transcendence

Michael Pollan

BISAC: BIOGRAPHY & AUTOBIOGRAPHY / Science & Technology. | MEDICAL / Mental Health.

Subjects: LCSH: Pollan, Michael, 1955—Mental health. | Hallucinogenic drugs—Therapeutic use. | Psychotherapy patients—Biography.

How to Change Your Mind- What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness
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 2018 by Michael Pollan

About the Author
MICHAEL POLLAN is the author of seven previous books, including
Cooked, Food Rules, In Defense of Food, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, and
The Botany of Desire, all of which were New York Times bestsellers. A
longtime contributor to The New York Times Magazine, he also teaches
writing at Harvard and the University of California, Berkeley, where he is
the John S. and James L. Knight Professor of Journalism. In 2010, Time
magazine named him in its list of the one hundred most influential
people in the world.
....

PROLOGUE
A New Door
MIDWAY THROUGH the twentieth century, two unusual new molecules,
organic compounds with a striking family resemblance, exploded upon
the West. In time, they would change the course of social, political, and
cultural history, as well as the personal histories of the millions of people
who would eventually introduce them to their brains. As it happened, the
arrival of these disruptive chemistries coincided with another world
historical explosion—that of the atomic bomb. There were people who
compared the two events and made much of the cosmic synchronicity.
Extraordinary new energies had been loosed upon the world; things
would never be quite the same.

The first of these molecules was an accidental invention of science.
Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly known as LSD, was first
synthesized by Albert Hofmann in 1938, shortly before physicists split an
atom of uranium for the first time. Hofmann, who worked for the Swiss
pharmaceutical firm Sandoz, had been looking for a drug to stimulate
circulation, not a psychoactive compound. It wasn’t until five years later
when he accidentally ingested a minuscule quantity of the new chemical
that he realized he had created something powerful, at once terrifying and wondrous.

The second molecule had been around for thousands of years, though
no one in the developed world was aware of it. Produced not by a chemist
but by an inconspicuous little brown mushroom, this molecule, which
would come to be known as psilocybin, had been used by the indigenous
peoples of Mexico and Central America for hundreds of years as a
sacrament. Called teonanácatl by the Aztecs, or “flesh of the gods,” the
mushroom was brutally suppressed by the Roman Catholic Church after
the Spanish conquest and driven underground. In 1955, twelve years after
Albert Hofmann’s discovery of LSD, a Manhattan banker and amateur
mycologist named R. Gordon Wasson sampled the magic mushroom in
the town of Huautla de Jiménez in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca.
Two years later, he published a fifteen-page account of the “mushrooms
that cause strange visions” in Life magazine, marking the moment when
news of a new form of consciousness first reached the general public. (In
1957, knowledge of LSD was mostly confined to the community of
researchers and mental health professionals.) People would not realize
the magnitude of what had happened for several more years, but history
in the West had shifted.

The impact of these two molecules is hard to overestimate. The advent
of LSD can be linked to the revolution in brain science that begins in the
1950s, when scientists discovered the role of neurotransmitters in the
brain. That quantities of LSD measured in micrograms could produce
symptoms resembling psychosis inspired brain scientists to search for the
neurochemical basis of mental disorders previously believed to be
psychological in origin. At the same time, psychedelics found their way
into psychotherapy, where they were used to treat a variety of disorders,
including alcoholism, anxiety, and depression. For most of the 1950s and
early 1960s, many in the psychiatric establishment regarded LSD and
psilocybin as miracle drugs.

The arrival of these two compounds is also linked to the rise of the
counterculture during the 1960s and, perhaps especially, to its particular
tone and style. For the first time in history, the young had a rite of
passage all their own: the “acid trip.” Instead of folding the young into the
adult world, as rites of passage have always done, this one landed them in
a country of the mind few adults had any idea even existed. The effect on
society was, to put it mildly, disruptive.

Yet by the end of the 1960s, the social and political shock waves
unleashed by these molecules seemed to dissipate. The dark side of
psychedelics began to receive tremendous amounts of publicity—bad
trips, psychotic breaks, flashbacks, suicides—and beginning in 1965 the
exuberance surrounding these new drugs gave way to moral panic. As
quickly as the culture and the scientific establishment had embraced
psychedelics, they now turned sharply against them. By the end of the
decade, psychedelic drugs—which had been legal in most places—were
outlawed and forced underground. At least one of the twentieth century’s
two bombs appeared to have been defused.
Then something unexpected and telling happened. Beginning in the
1990s, well out of view of most of us, a small group of scientists,
psychotherapists, and so-called psychonauts, believing that something
precious had been lost from both science and culture, resolved to recover it.

Today, after several decades of suppression and neglect, psychedelics
are having a renaissance. A new generation of scientists, many of them
inspired by their own personal experience of the compounds, are testing
their potential to heal mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety,
trauma, and addiction. Other scientists are using psychedelics in
conjunction with new brain-imaging tools to explore the links between
brain and mind, hoping to unravel some of the mysteries of consciousness.

One good way to understand a complex system is to disturb it and then
see what happens. By smashing atoms, a particle accelerator forces them
to yield their secrets. By administering psychedelics in carefully
calibrated doses, neuroscientists can profoundly disturb the normal
waking consciousness of volunteers, dissolving the structures of the self
and occasioning what can be described as a mystical experience. While
this is happening, imaging tools can observe the changes in the brain’s
activity and patterns of connection. Already this work is yielding
surprising insights into the “neural correlates” of the sense of self and
spiritual experience. The hoary 1960s platitude that psychedelics offered
a key to understanding—and “expanding”—consciousness no longer looks
quite so preposterous.

How to Change Your Mind is the story of this renaissance. Although it
didn’t start out that way, it is a very personal as well as public history.
Perhaps this was inevitable. Everything I was learning about the thirdperson
history of psychedelic research made me want to explore this
novel landscape of the mind in the first person too—to see how the
changes in consciousness these molecules wrought actually feel and what,
if anything, they had to teach me about my mind and might contribute to my life.


Table of Contents
Also by Michael Pollan
Title Page
Copyright
Dedication
Epigraph
Prologue: A New Door
CHAPTER ONE
A Renaissance
CHAPTER TWO
Natural History: Bemushroomed
Coda
CHAPTER THREE
History: The First Wave
Part I: The Promise
Part II: The Crack-Up
Coda
CHAPTER FOUR
Travelogue: Journeying Underground
Trip One: LSD
Trip Two: Psilocybin
Trip Three: 5-MeO-DMT (or, The Toad)
CHAPTER FIVE
The Neuroscience: Your Brain on Psychedelics
CHAPTER SIX
The Trip Treatment: Psychedelics in Psychotherapy
One: Dying
Two: Addiction
Three: Depression
Coda: Going to Meet My Default Mode Network
Epilogue: In Praise of Neural Diversity
Glossary
Acknowledgments
Notes
Bibliography
Index
About the Author


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LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018006190

TRADITIONAL APPROACH

Editor by Dr. D.A. PatH M.Sc., Ph.D. (Botany)

Reader
Post-Graduate Department of Botany
S.S.V.P. Sanstha's L.K. Dr. P.R. Ghogrey
Science College, Dhule-424 005 (Maharashtra)

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 Dr. D.A. Patil

About Us
Dr. D.A.Patil did his M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Botany from Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada
University (Aurangabad, M.S.) with Angiosperm as a subject of specialization in 1978 and 1983
respectively. He has about 29 years of research and teaching experience at graduate and postgraduate
classes. His major research interest includes Taxonomy and Anatomy of Angiosperms,
Floristics, Ethnobotany and Etymology. He has authored (i) Key to the Angiospermic Families
of North Maharashtra, (ii)Flora of Dhule and Nandurbar Districts (Maharashtra), (iii) Origins
of Plant Names, and co-authored, (iv) Ethnobotany of Nasik District (Maharashtra), (v)
Ethnobotany of Jalgaon District (Maharashtra) and (vi) Forest Flora of Jalgaon District
(Maharashtra). He has also edited a proceeding, 'Plant Diversity and Biotechnology'. He has
132 research papers to his credit published in national, international journals and journals of
CSIR, India. Apart from his participation in several national and international conferences and
symposia in India and abroad, many students in botany received his guidance for Ph.D. and
M.Phil. degrees. He is member of Editorial Boards of four national journals and acted as
a referee for Ph.D. and M.Phil. degrees for other universities. He has been awarded: (i) Dr. M.s.
Swaminathan Award (1996) by Indian Botanical Society, (ii) Scientist of the Year 2004 by National
Environmental Science Academy, (iii) Jivaka Ayurved Vishwa Sanman (2006) by International
Academy of Indian Medicine and (iv) Life Time Education Achievement Award 2007 by Health
and Education Development Association. He is ex-Dean, Faculty of Science, North Maharashtra
University, Jalgaon, M.S. and also Ex-Chairman, Board of Studies in Botany of the same
university. He is member of many prestigious academic and scientific bodies and societies.
He also contributes for Marathi Daily news papers and creates interest about plants by delivering
talks especially for younger generation.

PREFACE
The science of medicine, whether traditional or folkloric, has undergone a
phenomenal growth with a concomitant increase of interest among the plant scientists,
ethnobotanists, anthropologists, pharmacologists, medicinal chemists and druggists.
Medicine differs materially from other branches of knowledge like algebra, trigonometry,
astronomy and the like. In other branches, independent development of each would
be required before the principles of one be applied to the purposes of the other. But
this is not the case in medicine. Medicine is developed from a desire from within,
and not from any foreign impetus. Ailment! disease is not separate companion of life.
The desire springs with the ailment simultaneously which soon turns into the effort
to heal. It is this effort that has gone by the name of 'medicine' in every society, whether
primitive or advanced. Also the origin of medicine cannot be traced to one man. It
is natural and traditional in origin. The traditional communities living close to the
nature acquired knowledge about the use of plant species. After a long period of
observation and analysis, trial and errors, experimentation, apart from intuitive method,
the innovative individuals of societies select and realize usefulness of the flora in their
ambience. Their plantlore passes over generations. The development of medicine starts
from tapping the traditional/indigenous wisdom after establishing rapport with the
indigenous people. Bioassay-guided fractionation and determination of molecular
structure are necessary. The task does not end with these in recent times. The IPR
and benefit-sharing completes the success story of drug development. 
Thus a synergetic effort is needed involving the scientists from different disciplines, technologists and legal advisers.

The present book 'Herbal Cures : Traditional Approach' includes total 22 articles
on traditional plant uses in family welfare, wound care, diabetes and skin afflictions,
ethnobotanical or ethnomedicinal plants from West Rarrh (West Bengal). Jharkhand,
North Gujarat and Western Orissa, ethnotherapeutic leads from tribals of Orissa,
ethnomedicinalleads from modern drug development programmes, parasitic angiosperms
from mythology to medicine, graphic review of ethnbotany in Chhatisgarh and
veterinary medicines of Gond tribals (Madhya Pradesh). It also covers topics on
development and standardization of herbal medicine, methods of tribal drug purification,
ethnomedicinal uses of Neem plant and traditional knowledge with particular emphasis
on ethnomedicines/traditional medicines. Articles on recent approaches in phytochemical
and biological importance of Calendula officinalis, in vitro regeneration and phytochemical
screening, antibacterial activity and hypoglycaemic effects of Ocimum sanctum.

This book is the outcome of efforts of the experts. Their ideas, experience,
thoughts and opinions shaped the book significantly and would be valuable immensely
to its users. It will help popularize the subject of traditional medicine and provide
instructions for the learners. I thank heartly to all honourable experts/ authors for
contributing in such a scientific pursuit. The opinions and text contained herein are
those of the contributors. The book will cater to the immediate needs of students,
teachers and research workers. I would appreciate to pass on comments and suggestions
from the users of this book which will help improve the future edition or print.
Throughout its preparation, well wishers and colleagues freely gave their help
and advice. It is thankfully acknowledged. I particularly appreciate and acknowledge
the painstaking effort of Mr. Akshay Jain of Aavishkar Publishers, Distributors aaipur,
Rajasthan) for publishing this book with full zeal and zest.
Dhule (Maharashtra)
Dr. D. A. Patil



Table of Contents
Preface v
Contributors ix
Lit of Colour Plates xiii
1. Traditional Use of Plants in India in Family Welfare 1
- Priyadarshan Sensarma
2 Development and Standardization of Herbal Medicines :
An Overview of Current Status 41
- c.P. Malik, Bhavneet Kaur, Aman Verma and Chitra Wadhwani
3. Plants Used in Wound Care 76
- Richa Deo and Usha Mukundan
4. Traditional Knowledge : Views, Necessity and Prospects 105
-D.A. Patil
5. Ethnomedical Leads and Good Raw Drug Handling Practices
for Modern Drug Development Programme 115
-M. Brahmam
6. Ethnotherapeutic Leads from the Tribals of Orissa (India) to Control
Diabetes mellitus 129
-M. Brahmam
7. In vitro Regeneration, Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial
Activity and Hypoglycemic Effect of Ocimum sanctum L.
- N. Chandrakala, E. Jennifer Nancy Rani, M. Prabakaran and M. Ayyavoo
8. Ethnomedicinal Plants of North Gujarat Part-I
- N.K. Patel, I.c. Patel, A. R. Seliya and D.N. Parmar
145
158
viii
9. Ethnomedicinal Plants of North Gujarat Part-II 197
- N.K. Patel, I.C Patel, A. R. Seliya and D.N. Parmar
10. Folk Remedies against Skin Afflictions in Maharashtra 218
- Shubhangi Pawar, M. V. Patil and D.A. Patil
11. Ethnomedicinal Plants of Jharkhand, India 248
- Harish Singh
12. The Parasitic Angiosperms: From Mythology to Medicine 264
- R.B. ladhav, S.P. Bhatnagar and 5.1. Surana
13. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Some Medicinal
Plants of Genus Buhinia Linn. 285
- Ravindra G. Mali, Shailaja G. Mahajan and Anita A. Mehta
14. Medicinal Uses of Plants as Revealed from Tribal Communities
in Purulia District, West Bengal 295
- Sujit Kumar MandaI and Ambarish Mukherjee
15. Indigenous Knowledge of Veterinary Medicines among Gond
Tribals of Noradehi Wildlife Sanctuary (M.P.) 302
- Anjali Rawat, Arti Gupta and T.R. Sahu
16. Ethnobotany of Western Orissa, India 316
-L.M. Behera and S. K. Sen
17. Ethnobotanical Survey in West Rarrh for Natural Health
Care and Green Belt Movement 332
- Ashis Ghosh
18. Ethnobotany in Chhattisgarh (India) : A Graphic Review
and Future Directions 340
- Amia Tirkey
19. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) : A Panacea 348
- M. V. Patil, Shubhangi Pawar and D.A. Patil
20. Phytochemical and Biological Importance of Calendula officinalis L. 368
- Madhurima, S.H. Ansari, Md. Sohail Akhtar and Prawez Alam
21. Methods of Purification of Tribal Drugs in India 387
-D.C Pal and CR. Paul
22. Ethnobotanical Heritage on Traditional Drug Practices Relating to
Diabetes in Magadh Region (Bihar) 390
- R.K. Goel, Rajul Goel, B.K. Prasad and D.K. Yadav


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HEALTHIEST WAY OF EATING APPROACH

George Mateljan

founder of Health Valley Foods

author of the best- selling
The World’s Healthiest Foods: Essential
Guide for the Healthiest Way of Eating

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About the Author
George Mateljan is a best-selling author and worldrenowned
expert on the Healthiest Way of Eating and
Cooking. He is now celebrating ten years of philanthropy
and his dedication to help making this a healthier world.
His website receives over 1 million visitors per month.

George Mateljan has had a lifelong
interest in food. From the time he was five years old, his favorite room
in the house was the kitchen, where he watched as his mother lovingly
spent hours preparing meals for the family. He still vividly remembers
seeing a bowl full of ingredients transformed into dough that rose as
if by magic. Then, after the dough went into the oven, he was tantalized
by the fragrant aroma of it baking. He loved the wonderful look and
taste of golden loaves of warm bread fresh from the oven.

By watching food being prepared for many years, George learned to
appreciate the way each season brought forth its own special foods,
including fresh fruits and vegetables. In the spring and summer, there
were sweet, juicy strawberries, raspberries, apricots, and many types
of melons. In the fall, there were apples, oranges, and sweet potatoes.
And in the winter, there were hearty root vegetables such as beets,
carrots, and potatoes. George’s favorite times were the holidays
when he helped prepare special festive dishes.

George’s continued passion for food sent him to the ends of the earth
to learn about it. He has spent over 30 years traveling to over 80
countries around the world. He experienced cuisines from many
cultures renowned for their health and longevity and appreciated the
different foods and ways of preparing them that were unique to each.
George's education in biochemistry helped his understanding of
what he learned through observing, tasting and formal training to
create this better and healthier way of cooking. George earned a
certificate studying French cuisine at the renowned La Varenne
cooking school near Paris. He studied Italian cooking at the Guiliano
Bugialli’s cooking school in Florence. He refined his skills at the
Gourmet’s Oxford in England.

George was disappointed that he couldn’t find nutritious, tasty, and
convenient foods for himself and his family, so in 1970 he founded
Health Valley Foods, the first company in the United States to offer
healthful prepared foods. As time went on, Health Valley produced
thousands of convenient, enjoyable products that were packed with
nutrition and flavor yet completely free of the white flour, refined
sugar, hydrogenated fats, excess salt, chemical preservatives, and
artificial colors that are standard in highly processed foods.

George not only focused on the preparation of healthy foods, he also
led the way in using safe, truthful, environmentally friendly packaging
and encouraged and supported organic farming. Health Valley Foods
has since become the gold standard for healthy, tasty, and conveniently
prepared foods.

In 1996, George sold Health Valley Foods. He felt that after 26 years
he had inspired a number of others to establish companies to produce
nutritious, conveniently prepared foods, and it was time to turn his
energies and resources toward the next phase of helping people
enjoy eating healthier. Today, he shares, free of charge, his passion
to help others, and his experiences and knowledge with everyone
who wants to know about the “Healthiest Way of Eating” through
the not-for-profit George Mateljan Foundation.

Over the years, George had come to identify which foods were
among the World’s Healthiest. And he also knew that in order to eat
them on a regular basis the preparation of these foods had to fit the
individual tastes and lifestyles of people in today’s busy world. So,
George worked to create and develop preparation methods and
recipes that allow people to enjoy delicious and exciting flavors in
easy and affordable ways. His Foundation supports an extensive
website and the publication of books to share this information with you.

George has published five books that have been read and used by
millions of people. This includes his latest book, The World's
Healthiest Foods: Essential Guide for the Healthiest Way of Eating,
which is a practical companion to the WHFoods.org website and
won 2007 National Best Book Award.

The WHFoods.org website was the first project that George’s foundation
spearheaded. It was launched in 2001 is now one of the most
popular on the Internet when it comes to healthy eating. In fact if you
"Google" search "healthiest eating" or "healthiest recipes," the website
comes up #1! WHFoods.org has over 10 million visitors per year
and was selected as Best of the Best for Healthy Eating in the latest
edition of The Web's Greatest Hits by Lynie Arden. And all of this
with no advertising as George’s foundation has no association with
commercial companies. That's why Readers have come to trust the
unbiased material George presents because he provides great advice,
which is supported by science. Receipts from the sale of our books
and DVD go toward continuing further research on and education
about the Healthiest Way of Eating.

Thank YOU for walking your talk! Thank YOU for giving back!
YOUR efforts to educate and inspire your fellow humans are appreciated.
Very few people share their insights, wealth and success with
others, so when I see someone like yourself who does, I wanted to
take the time to say THANKS! —Mike


Introduction
Have you had those extra pounds seemingly creep up on you with
no apparently obvious reason? It’s not as if you feel like you've
been eating more than usual, and certainly not enough to show up
so strikingly on the scale.

Most all of us have experienced this at least once in our lifetime. It
takes us by surprise and leaves us in a slight state of shock because
it doesn't seem as though we have done anything to deserve this
extra poundage.

I am no exception. Like millions of others, I have personally experienced
the rollercoaster ride of losing and regaining a large amount
of weight (50 pounds to be exact). Because it is such a widespread
problem, there doesn't seem to be any area of health in which there
is more time, effort, and money spent than in the area of weight loss.
So even though those of us who are trying to lose weight decrease
food intake and exercise more, long-term weight loss still seems to
elude many of us. The common scenario is to initially lose weight
but soon gain it back. In fact, in about 90% of cases people regain
all the weight they lost, and oftentimes end up heavier than when
they started!

Preventing this weight loss roller coaster and helping you to find a
way to enjoy weight-loss foods that can help you get and stay slim
and healthy is what this book is all about. Very few people can sustain
a starvation-type diet or diets that are nutritionally imbalanced and
deprive the body of the important nutrients it needs to function
optimally. It has been increasingly acknowledged that long-term
weight loss does not result from dieting but through a change in
lifestyle to eating nutrient-rich food, like the World’s Healthiest Foods.
Scientific studies continue to demonstrate that among all lifestyle
factors, no single factor is more important to our health than the
food we eat. Because the concept of practicing a healthier way of
eating is so amazingly simple, healthy eating can easily be overlooked
as a means to resolving our problem of being overweight.
Yet, promoting the intake of nutrient-rich, health-promoting, and
satisfying foods—like the World’s Healthiest Foods--can prove to be
one of the most powerful ways to affect better health and healthy weight loss.

The effective one-two punch toward better health and healthy weight
loss comes from increasing our intake of nutrient-rich foods, such
as the World’s Healthiest Foods, and reducing our intake of nutrientpoor
foods. This is what I focus upon in this book, Healthy Weight
Loss – Without Dieting. In addition to describing why nutrient-rich
World’s Healthiest Food can help you lose weight and gain better
health, I’ve also included a Healthy Weight Loss Eating Plan that
takes the guesswork out of preparing 4 weeks’ worth of meals that
will set you on your way to your weight loss and wellness-fulfilling goals.

In the beginning, when you start on the Plan, you may feel deprived
when you can't eat your favorite refined, nutrient-poor foods. But
after two weeks of eating more nutrient-rich foods, you will find
that your "craving" for refined, nutrient-poor foods will decrease,
as they will begin to taste too sugary, too salty, and too fatty; you
will then begin to enjoy the more delicate flavors of fresh, whole,
nutrient-rich foods, like the crispiness of fresh salads, the delicate
sweetness of blueberries, the robust flavors of high-energy vegetables,
and the creamy richness of almonds.

Increasing awareness of the World’s Healthiest Foods can be our
key to change. As we become increasingly conscious of what is
contained in processed refined, nutrient-poor foods, we can start
looking at them in a different way. We will then be less drawn in by
their image of convenience and fun and stimulation, rather seeing
them for what they really are —foods that are associated with our
epidemic proportions of obesity as well as reduced immune function,
increased risk of heart disease as well as elevated blood sugar levels,
which increases our proclivity for diabetes. Enjoying the World's
Healthiest Foods is a great way to overcome your desire for nutrientpoor foods.

An abundance of nutrient-rich foods is available to us if we choose
to select them while gyms and playgrounds can keep us active and
help burn off of those extra calories. When I realized what nutrientpoor
foods were actually doing to my health and changed to eating
properly prepared nutrient-rich World's Healthiest Foods, my health
improved, I lost 50 pounds without dieting, and I have kept it off for
over ten years. So can you!

Table of Contents
Section 1 Nutrient Richness Is at the Cornerstone of Healthy
Weight Loss
How to Benefit Most From This Book 9
Introduction 10
Chapter 1 Healthy Weight Loss Stories 14
Chapter 2 Why Nutrient-Richness Can Help You Lose Weight 30
Chapter 3 Why Nutrient-Rich World’s Healthiest Foods are 44
the Key to Health and Healthy Weight Loss
Section 2 Why Nutrient-Rich World’s Healthiest Foods
Are Important to Healthy Weight Loss
Chapter 4 World’s Healthiest Foods Help You Manage 55
Adverse Food Reactions
Chapter 5 World’s Healthiest Foods Promote Energy 61
Production
Chapter 6 World’s Healthiest Foods Promote Optimal 63
Metabolism
Chapter 7 World’s Healthiest Foods Promote 65
Digestive Health
Chapter 8 World’s Healthiest Foods Promote Liver Health 68
Chapter 9 World’s Healthiest Foods Balance Blood 70
Sugar Levels
Chapter 10 World’s Healthiest Foods Reduce Inflammation 80
Section 3 The Healthy Weight Loss Eating Plan
Chapter 11 Healthy Weight Loss Eating Plan 91
Healthy Weight Loss — Without Dieting
Chapter 12 Practical Tips for Continued Healthy Weight Loss 119
Chapter 13 The Healthiest Way of Cooking 131
Chapter 14 Recipes 135
Section 4 Healthy Weight Loss Q&As
What is the Role of Calorie Intake in Weight 195
Management?
Why Are Organic Foods Important to Healthy 199
Weight Loss?
What Causes Us To Overeat? 201
How is the Healthiest Way of Losing Weight 204
Similar to the Mediterranean Diet?
What Are The Other Qualities That Make a 205
Food One of The World’s Healthiest Foods?
What Is The Difference Between Nutrient-Rich 206
and Energy-Rich Foods?
Is My Attitude Towards Weight Loss Important? 207
Can You Help Me Further Solve the “Mystery” 210
of Weight Gain?
APPENDIX 1 The World’s Healthiest Foods’ Quality 213
Rating System Methodology
APPENDIX 2 Additional Testimonials 216
References 219
Index 223
About the Author 225
The George Mateljan Foundation 228


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BACK COVER

Pursuing the Truth Behind the World’s Greatest Mystery

Gian J Quasar

To that vast horizon, whose approaching will solve many riddles . . .


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 2004, 2005 by Gian J. Quasar 

The Bermuda Triangle:
A Riddle at a Nearby Shore
WITHIN THE WESTERN North Atlantic Ocean there exists what might be
called a triangle of sea extending southwest from the island of Bermuda to
Miami and through southern Florida to Key West; then, encompassing the
Bahamas, it extends southeast through Puerto Rico to as far as 15° North
latitude, and then from there northward back to Bermuda. This is the
area commonly called the Bermuda Triangle. For all intents and purposes
it appears like any other temperate sea. Yet in the annals of sea mysteries
there is no other place that challenges mankind with so many extraordinary
and incredible events, for this is where far more aircraft and ships have
disappeared throughout recorded maritime history than in any other region
of the world’s oceans. With few exceptions the disappearances have
been in fair weather, sending out no distress messages and leaving no
wreckage or bodies. In the last twenty-five years alone, some seventy-five
aircraft and hundreds of pleasure yachts have inexplicably vanished despite
the fact that GPS is now extensively used, that communication systems are
powerful and reliable, and that searches are immediately launched.
Disturbing as these numbers may seem, the circumstances surrounding
many of the disappearances are what really give rise to the greatest
alarm. From the files of several federal investigating bureaus, eye-opening
details emerge that continue to present difficult questions that as yet have
no answers within the scope of our present knowledge of the sea, aeronautics,
and navigation. One such disappearance illustrates this point.
It was Halloween 1991. Radar controllers checked and rechecked what
they had just seen. The scope was blank in one spot now. Everywhere else
within the scope seemed normal, and routine traffic was proceeding undisturbed,
in their vectors, tracked and uninterrupted. But moments earlier
radar had been tracking a Grumman Cougar jet. The pilot was John Verdi.
He and trained copilot, Paul Lukaris, were heading toward Tallahassee,
Florida. Just moments before, with a crackle of the mike, Verdi’s voice had
come over the receiver at the flight center.
He requested a higher altitude. Permission was quickly granted and the
turbo jet was observed ascending from 25,000 feet to its new altitude of
29,000 feet. All seemed normal. Some thunderstorms had drifted into the
path of the jet, and satellite imagery confirmed the area was overcast.
But that was no concern for Verdi. They were above the weather. At
their present altitude they were just breaking out of the cloud cover,
emerging into the brilliant sunlight.
The clouds must have been their typical breathtaking sight, billowing
below in glowing white hills and arroyos.
They were still ascending. Verdi had not yet “rogered” that he had
reached his prescribed flight level.
Radar continued to track the Cougar. Until, for some unknown reason,
while ascending, it simply faded away. Verdi and Lukaris answered no
more calls to respond. Furthermore, they had sent no SOS to indicate
they had encountered any hint of a problem. Readouts of the radar observations
confirmed the unusual. The Grumman had not been captured
on the scope at all as descending or as falling to the sea; there had been
no sudden loss of altitude. It just disappeared from the scope while climbing.
One sweep they were there. The next—raised brows on traffic controllers:
it was blank.
The ocean, sitting under convective thunderstorm activity, was naturally
not conducive to a search. No trace, if there was any left to find,
was ever sifted out of the Gulf. When it was all over, the whole incident
was chalked under a familiar and terse assumption: “aircraft damage and
injury index presumed.”
So far, very few disappearances have ever been reported by the press and,
if they are, they’re reported with little attention to detail, or the reports studiously
avoid any reference to the unusual. In 1978 and 1979 alone, eighteen
aircraft mysteriously vanished, yet only two or three rated any space
in newspapers. Among these missing planes was a DC-3 airliner; a large
twin-engine charter on approach; and several private aircraft in the narrow
corridor between Bimini Island and Miami, which are in view of each
other from aircraft altitudes. Yet, nevertheless, all vanished as if surgically
extracted by a hand being careful not to affect the surrounding heavy
traffic on that route, which reported no signs of wreckage or unusual
weather. Even apart from the strangeness of the events preceding and surrounding
some disappearances, it appears fairly obvious by the number
that something is very wrong.

Although it is often publicly recited that the Bermuda Triangle’s reputation
is based on twenty planes and fifty vessels posted missing over the
last hundred years, official records vividly show that such a number can be
and has been easily exceeded in any given two-year period. On an average,
however, four aircraft and about twenty yachts vanish each year.
The frequency of those two years is alarming enough. But out of all
the alarming elements in the statistics, it is not the isolated surges of
losses that are the most intriguing. Dossiers on all aircraft accidents,
which include missing planes, are still maintained, and behind-the-scenes
they monotonously document the startling repetition. A “Brief Format,”
usually just called a Brief, is available for perusal from civil investigating
authorities, particularly the National Transportation Safety Board in
Washington, D.C. These handy and mostly terse one- or two-page chits
preserve the known facts. Considering the brevity of the information, the
nickname Brief is not a misnomer, especially prior to 1982 before the
Board enlarged the scope of information contained on the sheets. Their
pages, though, quietly testify to the actual number of missing planes in
the Bermuda Triangle.
Computer searches of the database files of the NTSB for several time
brackets reveal some sobering statistics. It is quite surprising to examine the
Briefs and notice what is not in newspapers. For instance, between 1964 (the
oldest dates for the “Brief ” records) and 1974 thirty-seven planes vanished.
The period from 1974 to 1984 show that forty-one aircraft have mysteriously
disappeared in the Bermuda Triangle. The pattern was the same—mostly
over the Bahamas; it continued: from 1984 to 1994 thirty-two vanished.
And from 1994 to the present twenty aircraft have disappeared. Although it
may appear that the number is on the decrease, this decrease mirrors the
economic downturn of the late 1990s, and dropped sharply after September
11, 2001, when traffic was severely curtailed for a number of reasons.
There is no evidence, however, that the circumstances for disappearances
are any less unusual than before. Mystery continues to strike. On
Christmas Eve 1994, a Piper aircraft vanished over West Boca Raton,
Florida—one of the few instances of a plane ostensibly disappearing
over land. Although radar operators could never find a trace of it in their
tracking readouts, a witness below clearly saw the navigation lights of
the Piper. Investigation proved it must have belonged to Laurent Abecassis,
who had taken the plane out earlier in the day for some practice flying.
On May 12, 1999, an Aero Commander, while approaching Nassau,
disappeared from radar for thirty minutes, then miraculously reappeared,
though the pilot seemed unaware anything had happened, be-
fore the plane and the pilot vanished again, this time permanently. On
February 1, 2001, Casey Purvis was in his Cherokee Six playing radar tag
with a Coast Guard aircraft as a practice maneuver. Suddenly he reported
himself in a fog, then vanished. Wreckage from the aircraft was
later found near Marathon, Florida Keys, where he last reported himself.
Weather from both the nearby Coast Guard aircraft and Marathon reporting
station confirmed visibility was clear for 12 miles. On July 20,
2002, a Piper Lance mysteriously crashed after taking off from Freeport,
Grand Bahama. After having been in flight long enough to have been
halfway to Florida, its fuselage was found only 15 miles from its point
of departure. Radar tracking cannot explain it. The phenomenon of
the bizarre is not abating.
Factual aviation accident reports are available from General Microfilm,
the National Transportation Safety Board’s documents contractor, from
1978 onward. Those prior have been destroyed. Carefully sifting through
these accident reports brings to light a pattern interwoven with tragedy
and mystery. Together they create a sobering picture of sudden and many
times bizarre disappearances at sea in a confined area. Quite often, when
faced with the facts, the curious have come away badly jolted. The pages
they read bare some recurrent themes in the losses and these, in turn,
open the door to some potentially explosive issues.
Everybody involved in one particular case—tower and radar controllers
and listening pilots alike—was dramatically affected by some frantic last
words. Uttered in a desperate voice, they introduced other elements, stark
and frightening, in the mystery of missing planes. While in flight near the
coast of Puerto Rico, on June 28, 1980, about 35 miles out, José Torres,
the pilot of an Ercoupe, signaled that a “weird object” in his flight path was
forcing him to change course. Despite all his evasive maneuvers, the object
continued to cut him off. That’s not all—he reported his equipment was
on the fritz, and he was now lost.
“Mayday, Mayday,” he continued to call. Then, as astounded controllers
watched, the plane vanished from the radarscope, with Torres
and his passenger, José Pagan. Minutes later an object reappeared on the
scope and then flitted away. In what manner it fled the scope the report
would not comment.
A search that night cast beams of light on a dark ocean. It was the typical
nothing: a bland ocean surface crisscrossed with streaming beams of
Civil Air Patrol spotlights. The crests and swells were devoid of any trace
of an accident.
Many of the other planes have simply vanished while in sight of land,
while coming in for a landing, or after having just departed, occurring, it
should be emphasized, between a single sweep of the radarscope (less than
40 seconds). Others have vanished over shallow waters, less than 10 feet
deep, yet with equal lack of trace or silhouette to mark their position, as if
magically they just faded away, while others have vanished during radio
contact, as in the case above, blurting such words like: “Is there any way
out of this?”; “Stand by, we have a problem right now”; “Oh, Jesus
Christ . . . ! ”; “What’s happening to me?”; or reporting that their compass
or directional gyro is going berserk.
The missing boats are not just specks lost on a big ocean. Many have
vanished just at the edge of the harbor, others while cruising around a
peninsula, and others have been found drifting shipshape, lifeless, the
occupants gone without leaving any clue behind as to what happened.
In no search undertaken by the Seventh Coast Guard district (which
has jurisdiction over the area of the Bermuda Triangle), for any airplane
or vessel posted overdue and then eventually declared missing, has a body
ever been recovered. Even when the vessel may later be found, it is always
found deserted or, in the case of aircraft, it is found ditched in shallow
water, the ignition key removed, the doors tightly closed, but no sign of
the pilots or passengers.
The disappearances have not been limited to small craft. A whole
squadron of five Navy torpedo bombers, the famous Flight 19, vanished
on a routine training flight off Florida on December 5, 1945, after the
flight leader radioed, among other things, that both his compasses were
no longer working. Although the airplanes had the latest navigational
devices and sea survival equipment, the patrol never found their way
back, nor was any trace found. Passenger aircraft have included DC-3
and DC-4 airliners, plus several other four-engine models. Military aircraft
have even included an eight-engine B-52 bomber. Large ships have included
the 504-foot tanker Marine Sulphur Queen, the 520-foot Poet, and the
590-foot Sylvia L. Ossa. In the case of the Ossa, before she vanished she had
just signaled she was near Bermuda—a dramatic reminder of the boundaries
of the Triangle. Most of these vessels were carrying cargoes that
are fairly safe to ship, such as coal and corn; some have even been in ballast—
that is, empty and shipping no cargoes at all. None of these are as inexplicable
as “reappearances,” where a pilot’s radio messages are captured
receding hundreds of miles beyond where he vanished and hours after
fuel exhaustion. In the case of the Grumman Cougar jet that vanished
from radar while ascending to 29,000 feet, the summation of one observer
that “there is just no logical explanation” seems to fit all these incidents.
There is a growing belief that there is something very different out in
the Triangle as opposed to other seas. Since ships and planes disappear in
like manner, there seems to be little possibility that ordinary mishaps such
as pilot error, vertigo, fuel exhaustion, getting lost, disorientation, or natural
disasters like tidal waves, cyclones, or whirlpools can be the sole culprit.
While some of the above can be deadly to planes, they are not to
ships and vice versa.
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Table of Contents

1 The Bermuda Triangle: A Riddle at a Nearby Shore 1
2 The Riddle of Missing Planes 14
3 The Riddle of Vanished Ships 51
4 Can It Be That Simple? 83
5 Those Who Lived to Tell 97
6 Space-Time Vortices, Zero-Point, and Sunken Worlds 118
7 Clues from a Shifting Paradigm 144
8 Atyantica 168
9 The Warnings of Lunar and Martian Anomalies 189
10 Interest from a Past World? 209
11 Let the Oceans Speak 230
12 A Vast Horizon: An Answer from Without,
Within, and All Around Us 249
Notes 262
Bibliography 269
Acknowledgments 283
Index 285

Screenbook
Gian J Quasar - Into the Bermuda Triangle
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