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The Citation on All Spirits, The Spirit in the Burning
Bush, "Helmet of Moses and Aaron/'
Healing by Amulets


of Moses and Aaron, and the Old Wise Hebrews, taken from
the Moiaic Books of the Cabala and the Talmud,
for the Good of Mankind


Author of "The Great Book of Magical Art, Hindu Magic and East Indian
Occultism," i( The Famous Book of Death and Hindu Spiritism,'* tl The Mystic
Test Book of The Hindu Occult Chambers, Magic Mirror, Hindu and Egyptian
Crystal Gazing." Author and Publisher of the Jive famous "Text Books"
for "The Congress of Ancient, Divine, Mental and Christian Masters" etc., etc.

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 1910 de LAURENCE, SCOTT & CO 

The first edition of this volume has been commended and criticised by
the public. It was admitted to be a valuable compendium of the curiosi*
ties of literature generally, and especially of that pertaining to magic, but
that it was at the same time calculated to foster superstition, and thereby
promote evil—a repetition of the charge made against the honorable
Horst, the publisher of a magical library.
In our enlightened age, the unprejudiced will observe in the publication
of such a work, only what the author claims, namely, a contribution in reference
to the aforesaid literature and culture of no trifling merit ; but in
regard to the believer also, the issue of a cheap edition will be more
serviceable than the formerly expensive productions on sorcery, which
were only circulated in abstract forms and sold at extortionate rates.
What other practical value the above named edition may possess is not
the question. Let us not, therefore, underrate this branch of populat literature
; the authors wrote in accordance with a system which was, or at
least, seemed clear to them, and illustrious persons, in all ages and climes
have not considered the labor requisite to fathom the mysteries of magic
as labor expended in vain, and although they condemned the form, they
could not deny the possibility or even fact that gifted men, of inherent
worth, could accomplish such wonderful things.
In regard to the present edition it can only be said, that the so-called
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, which have for several centuries attracted
the popular faith, is reality in accordance with an old manuscript
(the most legible among many), and given word for word, divested only
of orthographical errors which the best interest of literature demand—
with unerring fidelity. The publisher guarantees that not one syllable
has been added*





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THIS book came out in France three years ago.
Since that time science has been making
rapid strides, and in prosecuting my studies I have
found a confirmation of many of my opinions. I
could not therefore allow a translation of my studies
relating to “Chaldean Magic” to appear without
making a new edition of it, subject to various
corrections and additions. To this end I have
carefully revised all the translations of Cuneiform
texts contained in this volume, and in some cases
slight modifications have been necessary to bring
them into harmony with the latest discoveries. I
have added a translation of several interesting
fragments which were not comprised in the French
edition, and entirely rewritten some of the chapters.
The book which I now offer the English public may,
therefore, be regarded as an almost entirely new
work, which alone represents the present state of
my opinions and studies.

of which this present volume is an enlarged
edition, was issued by M. Lenormant in the autumn
of 1874; it was preceded hy Les Premieres Civilisations^
and closely followed in 1875 by La Divination et la
Science des Presages; all these works possessing the
same characteristic feature : the exposition of Assyrian
thought, as evidenced by the language of the
Cuneiform inscriptions themselves, compared with
the traditions and usages of other ‘contemporary and
descended races, both Semitic and Turanian.
The interest excited in the philosophical world by
these treatises was still further increased, by the
publication in England, almost immediately afterwards,
of the late George Smith’s Chaldean Genesis^
in which for the first time since the era of Assurbanipal,
the myths of the ancient Accadians were
read in the light of day. By the additional texts
thus recovered for the use of students, the premises
of M. Lenormant were to a great extent confirmed;
and the interest of Biblical scholars in Assyrian
mythology showing every sign of increasing, it was
deemed advisable to present the general public with
an English edition of La Magie. This task was at
once undertaken by Messrs. Bagster and Sons, and
on the MSS. being sent to the author, he in the
most generous manner offered to recast the earlier
Chapters of the work, and to rewrite some of the
latter. While this was being done, the researches
of Prof. Sayce and other Assyriologists elucidated
new facts, and discovered fresh parallels between the
Accadian and Ugro-Finnic theologies. These discoveries
had all to be considered and incorporated
with the original text of M. Lenormant, and the
result was, in the end, an almost entire remodelling
of the French edition. To the editor was assigned,
with the consent of the author, the office of .adding
references from English authorities to the citations
already given from Continental writers, especially as
La Magie was, in its new form, designed for a larger
circulation than that of scholars alone. The various
texts issued in the Records of the Past, and the
Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archceology
, had to be cited wherever it was possible to do so ; and
further, such various readings noted as had been
adopted by English translators. These numerous
emendations, while they increased the value of the
work, delayed its progress through the press far
longer than was anticipated, and even now, at the
last moment, it has been judged expedient by
M. Lenormant to add an Appendix bearing upon
the ethnographical meaning of the term “Sumirian,”
in reply to a pamphlet by Dr. Oppert, which has
become the centre of a controversy, the waves of
which have begun to reach our shores.
These circumstances will account for one or two
apparent discrepancies in the present translation:
viz., the use of the syllable “ dug” for “ khi,” in the
ideograms composing the name of the god Marduk,
from p. 19 to p. 64, and its subsequent abandonment
by the author in favour of the older reading in
p. 108, et seq. The expansion of the note from
Berosus on p. 157, regarding the deity Oannes into
an Appendix to Chapter XIII. , at p. 201, is another
example of the progressive revision which this
translation has undergone.
These revisions and corrections, both of the
original work and the present translation, as passed
by M. Lenormant, are only such as from the nature
of the theme, and the advancing condition of
Assyrian philology might be expected. Of Assyriology
it may truly be written, “day unto day uttereth
knowledge.” There is probably no section of the
science of comparative mythology of which, till recently,
less has been known, or of which, at present,
more authentic materials remain, than the subject of
“ Chaldean Magic : its Origin and Development.”
W. R. C.
November, 1877.

Table of Contents
Author’s Preface . .
. .
Editor’s Preface ......
Chap. I.—The Magic and Sorcery of the Chaldeans
Chap. II.—The Chaldean Demonology
Chap. III.—Chaldean Amulets and their Uses
Chap. IV.—Chaldean Sorcery and its Dual Nature .
Chap. V.—Comparison of the Egyptian with the Chaldean
Magic ......
Chap. VI.—Contrasts between Egyptian and Chaldean
Magical Systems .....
Chap. VII.—The Magic of the Ritual of the Dead
Chap. VIII.—Contrasts between Accadian and Egyptian
Magic ......
Chap. IX.—The Chaldaio- Babylonian religion and its
doctrines . . . . .
Chap. X.—Development of the Chaldean Mythology
Chap. XI.—The religious System of the Accadian Magic
Books ......
Chap. XII.—The Origin of the Myth of the Zi
Chap. XIII.—The Mythology of the Underworld .
Chap. XIV.—The Religions and the Magic of the Turanian
Nations ......
Chap. XV.—The Early Median Mythology compared with
that of the Chaldeans . . . .
Chap. XVI.—Finno-Tartarian Magical Mythology . . 241
Chap. XVII.—Further Analysis of Finnish Demonology . 253
Chap. XVIII.—The Accadian People and their Language 263
Chap. XIX.—The Accadian Language . . .268
Chap. XX.—Differentiation of the Accadian and its allied
Languages . . . . . .283
Chap. XXL—Altaic affinities of the Accadian Language . 292
Chap. XXII.—Accadian and Altaic affinities . . 299
Chap. XXIII.—Phonology of the Accadian Language . 309
Chap. XXIV.—The origin of the Kushito-Semitic religion . 318
Chap. XXV.—The two Ethnic elements in the Babylonian
nation . . . . • - 33 ^
Chap. XXVL—The Origin of the Chaldaio-Babylonian
Cosmogonies . . . . • 33^
Chap. XXVII.—The Priority of the Accadian Population
of Chaldea ..... 350
Chap. XXVIII.—The Sumirian Influence in Chaldean and
Babylonian Civilization . . . • 35 ^
Chap. XXIX.—The Influence of the Kushite Mythology in
Chaldean Faith . . . . . 367
Chap. XXX.—The Turanians in Chaldea and Ancient Asia 371
Chap. XXXI.—The Archaic Legislation of the Accadians . 378


Page 83, line 2 of note. For Osiris Baris read Osiris Baris.
Page 103, line 14. For Schu read Shu.
Page 133, line 6. For Chaldaic Babylonian read Chaldaio-Babylonian.
Page 134, line 24.
Page 172, line 20. For Silik-mulu-dug read Silik-mulu-khi.
Page 244, line 2 of note. For Asyekoks read Angekoks.

Translated from the Original GreeK by


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"Virtuous, therefore, is the man who relieves ike
corporeal wants of others, who wipes away the tear
of sorrow, and gives agony repose; but more virtu
ous he who, by disseminating wisdom, expels ig
norance from the soul, and thus benefits the im
mortal part of man. For it may indeed be truly
said, that he who bus not even a knowledge of com
mon things is a brute among men; that he who lias
an accurate knowledge of human concerns alone
is a man among brutes; but that he who knows all
that can be known by intellectual energy is a God among men."

Proclus, the famous philosopher, mathematician
and poet, came into the world of time and sense on the
8th. day of February, A. D. 410, at Byzantium, and mi
grated from this physical life on April the i;th. 485 A.
D. 1 His parents, Patricias and Marcella, were Lycians
and of an illustrious family. He was taken immed
iately after his birth to their native country, to the
city of Xanthus, which was consecrated to Apollo. And
this happened to him by a certain divine providence:
for it was necessary that he who was to be the leader
of all sciences should be educated under the presiding
Deity of the Muses. He received his elementary edu
cation in Lycia, and then went to Alexandria, in Egypt,
and became a pupil of Leonas the rhetorician, and
Orion the orammarian. j-] e likewise attended the
schools of the Roman teachers, and acquired an accu
rate knowledge: of the Latin language. But his tutelar
Goddess exhorted him to study philosophy, and to go
to the Athenian schools. In obedience to this exhorta
tion he attended the lectures of Olympiodorus, an emi
nent Peripatetic, in order to learn the doctrine of Aris
totle; and he was instructed in mathematical disciplines
by Hero. On one occasion, after hearing a lecture by
Olympiodorus, a man who was gifted with much elo-
1 The following sketch of Proclus is taken almost verbatim
from Marinus Life of his Master. This biography is an admir
able production, and gives us much curious and interesting in
formation about the philosophic life of the Successors of Plato. It
is unfortunate that Taylor s English version of it is practically in
accessible. (It was printed in 1792.) The original text was edited
by Fabricius, Hamburg, 1700, Lond., 1703; by Boissonade, Leip..
1814, and in the Cobet edition of Diogenes Laertius, Paris, 1850;
and by Cousin, in his Procli Opera Inedita, Paris, 1864,
quence, and who, by the rapidity of his speech and the
depth of his subject was understood by but very few
of his auditors, Proclus repeated to his companions the
lecture nearly word for word, though the discourse was
copious. He comprehended with great facility the
writings of Aristotle pertaining to rational philosophy,
though the bare reading of them is difficult to those
who attempt the task. After learning all that his
Alexandrian masters could teach him, he went to
Athens accompanied by the Gods who preside over
eloquence and philosophy, and by beneficent daemons.
For that he might preserve the genuine and entire suc
cession of Plato, he was brought by the Gods to the
city of the guardian (Athene) of Philosophy. Hence
Proclus was called by way of preeminence the Pla
tonic Successor. At Athens he became the pupil of
the first of philosophers, Syrianusr the son of Philoxenus,
who not only taught him but made him the com
panion of his philosophic life, having found him such an
auditor and successor as he had a long time sought for,
and one who was capable of apprehending a multitude
of disciplines and divine dogmas. In less than two
years, therefore, Proclus read with Syrianus all the
works of Aristotle, viz. his Logic, Ethics, Politics, Phys
ics, and Theological Science. And being sufficiently
instructed in these as in certain proteleia? /. <?., things
2 This truly great man appears to have been the first who
thoroughly penetrated the profundity contained in the writings of
the more ancient philosophers, contemporary with and prior to
Plato, and to have demonstrated the admirable agreement of
their doctrines with each other. Unfortunately but few of his
works are extant. T.
3 Aristotle s philosophy when compared with the discipline of
Plato is, I think, deservedly considered in this place as bearing
the relation of the proteleia to the epopteia in sacred mysteries.
Now the proteleia, / *. . things previous to perfection, belong1 to
preparatory to initiation, and lesser mysteries Syrianus
led him to the sacred discipline of Plato, in an orderly
progression, and not, according to the Chaldean Oracle,
with a transcendent foot. And he likewise enabled
Proclus to survey with him truly divine mysteries, with
the initiated, and the mystics; the former of whom were intro
duced into some lighter ceremonies only, but the mystics were
permitted to be present with certain preliminary and lesser
sacred concerns. On the other hand the epoptas were admitted
into the sanctuary of the greater sacred rites, and became specta
tors of the symbols and more interior ceremonies. Aristotle indeed
appears to be every where an enemy to the doctrine of ideas, as un
derstood by Plato, though they are doubtless the leading stars of
all true philosophy. However the great excellence of his works,
considered as an introduction to the divine theology of Plato, de
serves the most unbounded Commendation. Agreeable to this Damascius
informs us that Isidorus the philosopher, "grasped only
slightly the rhetorical and poetical arts,but devoted himself to the
more divine philosophy of Aristotle. Discovering, however,that this
was based more on necessary reasons than intuitive intellect,
that the procedure by method was deemed sufficient, and that it
did not entirely employ a divine or intellectual insight, he was
but little solicitous about his doctrine. But when he tasted the
conceptions of Plato, he did not think it worth while "to look any
further," as Pindar says,
1 but expecting to gain his desired end
if he could penetrate into the adyta of Plato s thought, he there
fore directed to this purpose the whole course of his application.
Of the most ancient philosophers, he deified Pythagoras and
Plato, believing that they were among those winged souls which
in the supercelestial place, in the plain of Truth, and in the
meadow there, are nourished by divine ideas." (Photii Bibliotheca,
p. 337. Vol. II. ed. Bekker.)-T.
The form of the foregoing note has been changed somewhat,
and the quotation from Damascius extended. This note was
written in 1792: Taylor s mature conclusion was, that the opposi
tion of Aristotle to the Platonic doctrines, even to that of Ideas,
was purely apparent. "He strenuously maintained that Aristotle
was not only the pupil but in the strictest sense the holder of
the Platonic dogmas; contrary to the ignorant and rash deduc
tions of the moderns, who had never fully comprehended either
master or pupil."
the eyes of his soul free from material darkness, and
with an undefiled intellectual vision. But Proclus, em
ploying sleepless exercise and attention, both by night
and by day, and synoptically and judiciously recording
the discourses of Syrianus, made so great a progress in
his studies that by the time he was twenty- eight years
of age he had composed a multitude of works, among
them his Commentary on the Timaeus, which is truly
subtle and full of erudition. But from this course of
training his manners became more adorned; and as he
advanced in science he increased in virtue. The soul
of Proclus, concentrating itself, and retiring into the
depth of its essence, departed in a certain respect from
body, while it yet appeared to be contained in its dark
receptacle. For he possessed a Prudence, not like that
of a civil character, which is conversant with the admin
istration of fluctuating particulars, but Prudence itself,
by itself pure, which is engaged in contemplating, and
converting itself to itself, in nowise agreeing with a cor
c> O <"
poreal nature. He likewise possessed a Temperance
free from the inferior part or body, which is not even
moderately influenced by perturbations, but is abstracted
from all affections. And, lastly, he acquired a Forti
tude, which does not fear a departure from the body.
But reason and intellect dominating in him, and the in
ferior powers of his soul no longer opposing them
selves to purifying Justice, his whole life was adorned
with the divine irradiations of genuine Virtue. Proclus,
having perfected himself in this form of the virtues, ad
vancing as it were by the highest and most mystical
step ascended to the greatest and most consummate
virtues, being conducted by a prosperous nature and
scientific discipline. For being now purified, rising
above generation, and despising the wand or thyrsusbearers
in it/ he was divinely inspired about the
Primal Essences, and became an inspector of the truly
blessed spectacles which are in the Intelligible Sphere.
It was no longer necessary for him to acquire a knowl
edge of them by processes of reasoning and demon
strations, but surveying them as it were by direct vision,
and beholding by simple intuitions of the thinking
power the paradigms in the Divine Intellect, he ob
tained a virtue which no one would rightly call Pru
dence, but rather Wisdom, or something even more
venerable than this." Proclus therefore energizing ac
cording to this virtue easily comprehended all the the
ology of the Greeks and Barbarians, and that which is
adumbrated in mythological fictions, and revealed it to
those who are willing and able to understand it. He
explained likewise every thing more enthusiastically
than others, and brought the different theologies into
harmony with each other. At the same time, investi
gating the writings of the Ancients, whatever he found
in them genuine he judiciously adopted, but every thing
of a vain and fruitless character he entirely rejected as
erroneous. He likewise strenuously refuted by a dili
gent examination those doctrines which were contrary
to truth. In his associations, too, with others he power
fully and clearly discussed the subjects presented for
consideration, and delineated them in his writino-s. For
he was laborious beyond measure: in one day he de
livered five and sometimes more lectures, and wrote as
many as seven hundred verses. . . .In the beginning of
his forty-second year he appeared to himself to pro
nounce with a loud voice these verses:
Lo! on my soul a sacredfire descends,
Whose vivid power the intellect extends;
From whence far beaming thro dull body s night.
It soars to aether deckV with starry light \
And with soft murmurs thro the azure round,
The lucid regions of the Gods resound.
Moreover, he clearly perceived that he belonged to
the Hermetic chain; and was persuaded by a dream
that he possessed the soul of Nicomachus the Pythag orean. 7
Ammonius Hermeise, a genuine Platonist and like-
wise one of the best of the Aristotelian commentators,
says (Com. De Interpret. Aristot.) : "If we are able to add
any thing to the elucidation of this book from recollect
ing the interpretations of our divine teacher, Proclus
the Platonic Successor, who possessed the power of un
folding the opinions of the Ancients, and a scientific
judgment of the nature of things, in the highest perfec
tion possible to humanity, we shall be very grateful to
the God of discourse (Hermes)." Cousin declares
(Procli Opera, Praefatio Generalis): "Proclus was illustri
ous as an astronomer; he was the first among the philol
ogists of his age; he had so comprehended all religions
in his mind, and regarded them with such equal rever
ence, that he was as it were the hierophant of the whole
universe: nor was it wonderful that a man possessing
such a profound knowledge of nature and science
should have this initiation into all sacred mysteries. . . .
As he was the head of the Athenian School and of all
later philosophy, so I may affirm that all the earlier is
found gathered up in him, and that he may be taken as
the one interpreter of the whole philosophy of the
Greeks. . . .1 shall set it down as an established fact
that nothing great was thought out by lamblichus, Por
phyry, and Plotinus, either in Ethics, Metaphysics or
Physics, which is not found expressed more clearly and
methodically in Proclus. . . .The threefold division of
Greek Philosophy may be reduced ultimately to one,
which being the same always, by a natural and certain
progress enlarges and unfolds itself, and moves on
through three stages intimately connected, the first be
ing contained in the second, the second in the third, so
that the man who after the lapse of ages finds himself
at the end of this gradually evolving series, on the high
est apex of that third age, as he embraces all the ac
cumulations of former times in himself, stands as the
representative of each sect of Greece, emphatically the
Greek philosopher such a man I say was Proclus, in
whom it seems to me are combined and from whom
shine forth in no irregular or uncertain rays all the phil
osophical lights which have illuminated Greece in vari
ous times, to wit Orpheus, Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle,
Zeno, Plotinus, Porphyry, and lamblichus."





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THE prime importance of the rude fragments
ofpoetrypreserved in early Icelandic litera
ture will now be disputed by none, but there
has been until recent times an extraordinary indif
ference to the wealth of religious tradition and
mythical lore which they contain.
The long neglect of these precious records of our
heathen ancestors is not the fault of the material in
which all that survives of their religious beliefs is
enshrined, for it may safely be asserted that the
Edda is as rich in the essentials of national romance
and race-imagination, rugged though it be, as the
more gracefitl and idyllic mythology of the South.
Neither is it due to anything weak in the conception
of the deities themselves, for although they may not
rise to great spiritual heights, foremost students of
Icelandic literature agree that they stand out rude
and massive as the Scandinavian mountains. They
exhibit "a spirit of victory, superior to brute force,
superior to mere matter, a spirit that fights and
* "Even were some part of the matter
of their myths takenfrom others, yet the Norsemen
have given their gods a noble, upright, great spirit,
andplaced them upon a high level that is all their own"
 " In fact these old Norse songs have a truth
in them, an inward perennial truth and greatness.
It is a greatness not of mere body andgigantic bulk,
but a rude greatness of soul."
The introduction of Christianity into the North
brought with it the influence of the Classical races,
and this eventually supplanted the native genius, so
that the alien mythology and literature of Greece and
Rome have formed an increasing part of the mental
equipment ofthe northempeoples inproportion as the
native literature and tradition have been neglected.
Undoubtedly Northern mythology has exercised a
deep influence upon our customs, laws, and language,
and there has been, therefore, a great unconscious
inspirationflowingfrom these into English literature.
The most distinctive traits of this mythology are a
Peculiargrim humour, to be found in the religion of
no other race, and a dark thread of tragedy which
runs throughout the whole woof, and these character
istics, touching both extremes, are writ large over
English literature.
But of conscious influence, compared with the rich
draught of Hellenic inspiration, there is little to be
found, and if we turn to modern art the difference is
even more apparent.
This indifference may be attributed to many causes,
but it was due first to the fact that the religious
beliefs of ourpagan ancestors were not held with any
real tenacity. Hence the success of the more or less
consideredpolicy of the early Christian missionaries
to confuse the heathen beliefs, and merge them in the
new faith, an interesting example of which is to be
seen in the transference to the Christian festival of
Easter of the attributes of the pagan goddess Edstre,
from whom it took even the name. Northern
mythology was in this way arrested ere it hadattained
itsfull development, and the progress of Christianity
eventually relegated it to the limbo offorgotten things.
Its comprehensive and intelligent scheme, however, in
strong contrast with the disconnected mythology of
Greece and Rome, formed the basis of a more or less
rational faith which prepared the Norseman to
receive the teaching of Christianity, and so helped to
bring about its own undoing.
The religious beliefs of the North are not mirrored
with any exactitude in the Elder Edda. Indeed only
a travesty of the faith of our ancestors has been pre
served in Norse literature. The early poet loved
allegory, and his imagination rioted among the
conceptions of his fertile muse. "His eye was fixed
on the mountains till the snowypeaks assumed human
features and the giant of the rock or the ice descended
with heavy tread ; or he wouldgaze at the splendour
of the spring, or of the summerfields, tillFreya with
the gleaming necklace steppedforth, or Sif with the
flowing locks ofgold"*
We are told nothing as to sacrificial and religious
rites, and all else is omitted which does not provide
material for artistic treatment. The so-called
Northern Mythology, therefore, may be regarded as
a precious relic of the beginning of Northern poetry,
rather than as a representation of the religious beliefs
of the Scandinavians, and these literary fragments
bear many signs ofthe transitional stage wherein the
confusion of the old and newfaiths is easily apparent.
But notwithstanding the limitations imposed by
long neglect it is possible to reconstruct inpart a plan
of the ancient Norse beliefs> and the general reader
will derive much profitfrom Carlyle s illuminating
study in "Heroes and Hero-worship."A be
wildering, inextricablejungle ofdelusions, conf^t,sions,
falsehoods and absurdities, covering the whole field of
Life /"; he calls them, with all good reason. But
he goes on to show, with equal truth, that at the soul
of this criide worship of distorted nature was a
spiritiial force seeking expression. What we probe
without reverence they viewed with awe, and not
understanding it, straightway deified it, as all
children have been apt to do in all stages of the
worlds history. Truly they were hero-worshippers
after Carlyle s own heart, and scepticism had no
place in their simple philosophy.
It was the infancy of thought gazing upon a
universe filled with divinity, and believing heartily
with all sincerity. A large-heartedpeople reaching
out in the dark towards ideals which were better
than they kneiv. Ragnarok was to undo their gods
because they had stumbled from their higher standards.
We have to thank a curious phenomenon for the
preservation of so much of the old lore as we still
possess. While foreign influences were corrupting
the Norse language, it remainedpractically unaltered
in Iceland, which had been colonisedfrom the main
land by the Norsemen who had fled thither to escape
the oppression of Harold Fairhair after his crushing
victory of Hafrsfirth. These people brought with
them the poetic genius which had already manifested
itself, and it took fresh root in that barren soil.
Many of the old Norse poets were natives of Iceland,
and in the early part of the Christian era, a supreme
service was rendered to Norse literature by the
Christian priest, Scemund, who industriously brought
together a large amount ofpaganpoetry in a collection
known as the Elder Edda, which is the chieffounda
tion of our present knowledge of the religion of our
Norse ancestors. Icelandic literature remained a
sealed book, however, until the end of the eighteenth
century, and very slowly since that time it has been
winning its way in the teeth of indifference, until
there are now signs that it will eventually come into
its own. "To know the old Faith" says Carlyle,
"brings us into closer and clearer relation with the
Past with our own possessions in the Past. For
the whole Past is the possession of the Present ; the
Past had always something true^ and is a precious possession"
The weighty words of William Morris regarding
the Volsunga Saga may also be fitly quoted as an in
troduction to the whole ofthis collection of "Myths of the Norsemen"

Table of Contents
III. FRIGGA ......... 42
IV, THOR .  . , 59
V. TYR . 85
VI. BRAGI . . . * . , . . . - 95
VII. IDUN . . . . . . * . . .103
VIII. NIORD . . . . . . . . . .in
IX. FREY .117
X. FREYA . ., . . 131
XI. ULLER ... 139
XIII. HEIMDALL ......... 146
XV. VIDAR . . ..... . - . . .158
XVI. VALI . . . .... . . .162
XVII. THE NORNS . . . . . . i . .166
XVIII. THE VALKYRS . . . . , . . , .173
XIX. HEL . . . . . . . . . 180
XX. ^EGIR . . . . ...... 185
XXI. BALDER . ... . . . . .197
XXII. LOKI ........ -. 216
XXIII. THE GIANTS . . . . . . . .230
XXIV. THE DWARFS . . . . . . . .239
XXV. THE ELVES ... . . . . . . . 246
XXVI. THE SIGURD SAGA . . . . . . . 251
XXVII. THE FRITHIOF SAGA . . . . . . 298
COMPARISON . . ..-342


"This is the great story of the
North, which should be to all our race what the
Tale of Troy was to the Greeks to all our race
first, and afterwards, when the change of the world
has made our race nothing more than a name of what
has been a story too then should it be to those that
come after us no less than the Tale of Troy has been to us."




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BEHIND the veil of all the hieratic and mystical allegories
of ancient doctrines, behind the shadows and the strange
ordeals of all initiations, under the seal of all sacred
writings, in the ruins of Nineveh or Thebes, on the crumbling
stones of the old temples, and on the blackened visage
of the Assyrian or Egyptian sphinx, in the monstrous or
marvellous paintings which interpret to the faithful of
India the inspired pages of the Vedas, in the strange
emblems of our old books of alchemy, in the ceremonies
at reception practised by all mysterious societies, traces
are found of a doctrine which is everywhere the same, and
everywhere carefully concealed. Occult philosophy seems
to have been the nurse or god-mother of all intellectual
forces, the key of all divine obscurities, and the absolute
queen of society in those ages when it was reserved exclusively
for the education of priests and of kings. It
reigned in Persia with the magi, who at length perished, as
perish all masters of the world, because they abused their
power; it endowed India with the most wonderful traditions,
and with an incredible wealth of poesy, grace, and
terror in its emblems ; it civilised Greece to the music of
the lyre of Orpheus ; it concealed the principles of all the
sciences and of all human intellectual progress in the bold
calculations of Pythagoras ; fable abounded in its miracles,
and history, attempting to appreciate this unknown power,
became confused with fable ; it shook or strengthened
empires by its oracles, caused tyrants to tremble on their
thrones, and governed all minds, either by curiosity or by
fear. For this science, said the crowd, there is nothing
impossible ; it commands the elements, knows the language
of the stars, and directs the planetary courses; when it
speaks, the moon falls blood-red from heaven ; the dead rise
in their graves and articulate ominous words as the night
wind blows through their skulls. Mistress of love or of
hate, the science can dispense paradise or hell at its
pleasure to human hearts ; it disposes of all forms, and
distributes beauty or ugliness ; with the rod of Circe it
alternately changes men into brutes and animals into men ;
it even disposes of life or death, and can confer wealth on
its adepts by the transmutation of metals and immortality
by its quintessence or elixir compounded of gold and light.
Such was magic from Zoroaster to Manes, from Orpheus to
Apollonius of Tyana, when positive Christianity, at length
victorious over the brilliant dreams and titanic aspirations
of the Alexandrian school, dared to launch its anathemas
publicly against this philosophy, and thus forced it to
become more occult and mysterious than ever. Moreover,
strange and alarming rumours began to circulate concerning
initiates or adepts ; these men were everywhere surrounded
by an ominous influence ; they killed or drove mad those
who allowed themselves to be carried away by their honeyed
eloquence or by the fame of their learning. The women
whom they loved became Stryges, their children vanished at
their nocturnal meetings, and men whispered shudderingly
and in secret of bloody orgies and abominable banquets.
Bones had been found in the crypts of ancient temples,
shrieks had been heard in the night, harvests withered and
herds sickened when the magician passed by. Diseases
which defied medical skill at times appeared in the world,
and always, it was said, beneath the envenomed glance of
the adepts. At length an universal cry of execration went
up against magic, the mere name became a crime, and the
common hatred was formulated in this sentence :
"Magicians to the flames!" as it was shouted some centuries earlier:
" To the lions with the Christians !
" Now the multitude
never conspires except against real powers ; it possesses not
the knowledge of what is true, but it has the instinct of
what is strong. It remained for the eighteenth century to
deride both Christians and magic, while infatuated with the
homilies of Eousseau and the illusions of Cagliostro.
Science, notwithstanding, is at the basis of magic, as at
the foundation of Christianity there is love, and in the
Gospel symbols we see the Word incarnate adored in his
cradle by three magi, led thither by a star (the triad and
the sign of the microcosm), and receiving their gifts of gold,
frankincense, and myrrh, a second mysterious triplicity,
under which emblem the highest secrets of the Kabbalah
are allegorically contained. Christianity owes, therefore, no
hatred to magic, but^luiman^ ignorance has ever stood in fear
of the unknown. The science was driven into hiding to
escape the impassioned assaults of a blind love ; it clothed
itself with new hieroglyphics, dissimulated its labours, denied
its hopes. Then it was that the jargon of alchemy was
created, a permanent deception for the vulgar, a living
language only for the true disciple of Hermes.
Extraordinary fact ! Among the sacred books of the
Christians there are two works which the infallible Church
makes no claim to understand and has never attempted to
explain ; these are the prophecy of Ezekiel and the Apocalypse,
two Kabbalistic Keys assuredly reserved in heaven
for the commentaries of magician Kings, books sealed with
seven seals for faithful believers, yet perfectly plain to an
initiated infidel of the occult sciences. There is also another
book, but, although it is popular in a sense and may be
found everywhere, this is of all most occult and unknown,
because it has the key of all others ; it is in public evidence
without being known to the public; no one dreams of seeking
it where it actually is, and elsewhere it is lost labour to
look for it. This book, possibly anterior to that of Enoch,
has never been translated, but is still preserved unmutilated
in primeval characters, on detached leaves, like the tablets
of the ancients. A distinguished scholar has revealed,
though no one has observed it, not indeed its secret, but its
antiquity and singular preservation ; another scholar, but of a
mind more fantastic than judicious, passed thirty years in the
study of this book, and has merely suspected its whole
importance. It is, in fact, a monumental and extraordinary
work, strong and simple as the architecture of the pyramids,
and consequently enduring like those a book which is the
sum of all the sciences, which can resolve all problems by
its infinite combinations, which speaks by evoking thought,
is the inspirer and regulator of all possible conceptions, the
masterpiece perhaps of the human mind, assuredly one of
the finest things bequeathed to us by antiquity, an universal
key, the name of which has been explained and comprehended
only by the learned William Postel, an unique text,
whereof the initial characters alone exalted the devout spirit
of Saint Martin into ecstasy, and might have restored reason
to the sublime and unfortunate Swedenborg. We shall
speak of this book later on, and its mathematical and precise
explanation will be the complement and crown of our
conscientious undertaking. The original alliance of Christianity
and the science of the magi, once it is thoroughly
demonstrated, will be a discovery of no second-rate importance,
and we question not that the serious study of magic
and the Kabbalah will lead earnest minds to the reconciliation
of science and dogma, of reason and faith, heretofore
regarded as impossible.
We have said that the Church, whose special office is the
custody of the Keys, does not pretend to possess those of
the Apocalypse or of Ezekiel. In the opinion of Christians
the scientific and magical clavicles of Solomon are lost ; yet,
at the same time, it is certain that, in the domain of intelligence
ruled by the Word, nothing which has been
written can perish ; things which men cease to understand
simply cease to exist for them, at least in the order of the
Word, and they enter then into the domain of enigma and
mystery. Furthermore, the antipathy, and even open war,
of the official church against all that belongs to the realm
of magic, which is a kind of personal and emancipated
priesthood, is allied with necessary and even with inherent
causes in the social and hierarchic constitution of Christian
sacerdotalism. The Church ignores magic for she must
either ignore it or perish, as we shall prove later on ; yet
she does not the less recognise that her mysterious founder
was saluted in his cradle by the three magi that is to
say, by the hieratic ambassadors of the three parts of the
known world and the three analogical worlds of occult
philosophy. In the school of Alexandria, magic and Christianity
almost joined hands under the auspices of Ammonius
Saccas and of Plato ; the doctrine of Hermes is found almost
in its entirety in the writings attributed to Denis the Areopagite;
and Synesius sketched the plan of a treatise on
dreams, which was later on to be annotated by Cardan, and
composed hymns which might have served for the liturgy of
the Church of Swedenborg, could a church of the illuminated
possess a liturgy. With this period of fiery abstractions and
impassioned warfare of words there must also be connected
the philosophic reign of Julian, called the Apostate because
in his youth he made an unwilling profession of Christianity.
Everyone is aware that Julian was sufficiently wrongheaded
to be an unseasonable hero of Plutarch, and was, if one may
say so, the Don Quixote of Roman Chivalry ; but what most
people do not know is that Julian was one of the illuminated
and an initiate of the first order ; that he believed
in the unity of God and in the universal doctrine of the
Trinity ; that, in a word, he regretted nothing of the old
world but its magnificent symbols and its exceedingly
gracious images. Julian was not a pagan ; he was a
Gnostic allured by the allegories of Greek polytheism, who
had the misfortune to find the name of Jesus Christ less
sonorous than that of Orpheus. The Emperor personally
paid for the academical tastes of the philosopher and
rhetorician, and after affording himself the spectacle and
satisfaction of expiring like Epaminondas with the periods
of Cato, he had in public opinion, already thoroughly Christianised,
anathemas for his funeral oration and a scornful
epithet for his ultimate celebrity.
Let us skip the little men and small matters of the Bas
Empire, and pass on to the Middle Ages. . . . Stay, take
this book ! Glance at the seventh page, then seat yourself
on the mantle I am spreading, and let each of us cover our
eyes with one of its corners. . . . Your head swims, does it
not, and the earth seems to fly beneath your feet ? Hold
tightly, and do not look around. . . . The vertigo ceases ;
we are here. Stand up and open your eyes, but take care
before all things to make no Christian sign and to pronounce
no Christian words. We are in a landscape of Salvator
Rosa, a troubled wilderness which seems resting after a
storm ; there is no moon in the sky, but you can distinguish
little stars gleaming in the brushwood, and you can hear
about you the slow flight of great birds, who seem to whisper
strange oracles as they pass. Let us approach silently that
cross-road among the rocks. A harsh, funereal trumpet winds
suddenly, and black torches flare up on every side. A
tumultuous throng is surging round a vacant throne; all
look and wait. Suddenly they cast themselves on the
ground. A goat-headed prince bounds forward among
them ; he ascends the throne, turns, and by assuming a
stooping posture, presents to the assembly a human face,
which, carrying black torches, every one comes forward to
salute and to kiss. With a hoarse laugh he recovers
an upright position, and then distributes gold, secret
instructions, occult medicines, and poisons to his faithful
bondsmen. Meanwhile, fires are lighted of fern
and alder, piled over with human bones and the fat of
executed criminals. Druidesses crowned with wild parsley
and vervain immolate unbaptised children with golden knives
and prepare horrible love-feasts. Tables are spread, masked
men seat themselves by half-nude females, and a Bacchanalian
orgie begins ; there is nothing missing but salt, the
symbol of wisdom and immortality. Wine flows in streams,
leaving stains like blood ; obscene talk and fond caresses
begin, and presently the whole assembly is drunk with wine,
with pleasure, with crime, and singing. They rise, a disordered
throng, and hasten to form infernal dances. . . .
Then come all legendary monsters, all phantoms of nightmare
; enormous toads play inverted flutes and blow with
their paws on their flanks ; limping scarabaei mingle in the
dance ; crabs play the castanets ; crocodiles beat time on
their scales ; elephants and mammoths appear habited like
Cupids and foot it in the ring ; finally, the giddy circles break
up and scatter on all sides. . . . Every yelling dancer drags
away a dishevelled female. . . . Lamps and candles formed
of human fat go out smoking in the darkness. . . . Cries
are heard here and there, mingled with peals of laughter,
blasphemies, and rattlings of the throat. Come, rouse yourself,
do not make the sign of the cross ! See, I have brought
you home ; you are in your own bed, somewhat worn-out,
possibly a trifle shattered, by your night's journey and
dissipation ; but you have witnessed something of which
everyone talks without knowledge ; you have been initiated
into secrets no less terrible than the grotto of Triphonius ;
you have been present at the Sabbath. It remains for you
now to preserve your reason, to have a wholesome dread of
the law, and to keep at a respectful distance from the
Church and her faggots.
Would you care, as a change, to behold something less
fantastic, more real, and also more truly terrible ? You
shall assist at the execution of Jacques de Molay and his
accomplices or his brethren in martyrdom. . . . Do not,
however, be misled, confuse not the guilty and the innocent !
Did the Templars really adore Baphomet ? Did they offer
a shameful salutation to the buttocks of the goat of Mendes ?
What was actually this secret and potent association which
imperilled Church and State, and was thus destroyed unheard
? Judge nothing lightly ; they are guilty of a great
crime ; they have allowed the sanctuary of antique initiation
to be entered by the profane. By them for a second time
have the fruits of the tree of the knowledge of good and
evil been gathered and shared, so that they might become
the masters of the world. The sentence which condemns
them has a higher and earlier origin than the tribunal of
pope or king :
" On the day that thou eatest thereof, thou
shalt surely die," said God Himself, as we see in the book of
What is taking place in the world, and why do priests
and potentates tremble ? What secret power threatens tiaras
and crowns ? A few madmen are roaming from land to
land, concealing, as they say, the philosophical stone under
their ragged vesture. They can change earth into gold, and
they are without food or lodging ! Their brows are encircled
by an aureole of glory and by a shadow of ignominy ! One
has discovered the universal science and goes vainly seeking
death to escape the agonies of his triumph he is the
Majorcan Raymond Lully. Another heals imaginary
diseases by fantastic remedies, giving a formal denial in
advance to the proverb which enforces the futility of a
cautery on a wooden leg he is the marvellous Paracelsus,
always drunk and always lucid, like the heroes of Rabelais.
Here is William Postel writing naively to the fathers of the
Council of Trent, informing them that he has discovered the
absolute doctrine, hidden from the foundation of the world,
and is longing to share it with them. The council does not
concern itself with the maniac, does not condescend to condemn
him, and proceeds to examine the weighty questions
of efficacious grace and sufficing grace. He whom we see
perishing poor and abandoned is Cornelius Agrippa, less of
a magician than any, though the vulgar persist in regarding
him as a more potent sorcerer than all because he was sometimes
a cynic and mystifier. What secret do these men bear
with them to their tomb ? Why are they wondered at
without being understood ? Why are they condemned unheard
? Why are they initiates of those terrific secret sciences
of which the Church and society are afraid ? Why are they
acquainted with things of which others know nothing ?
Why do they conceal what all men burn to know ? Why
are they invested with a dread and unknown power ? The
occult sciences ! Magic ! These words will reveal all and
give food for further thought ! De omni re scibili et quibusdam aliis.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I. THE CANDIDATE. Unity of the Doctrine Qualifications
necessary for the Adept ...... 27
CHAPTER II. THE PILLARS OF THE TEMPLE. Foundations of the Doctrine
The Two Principles Agent and Patient . . .37
the Triad The Macrocosm ..... 44
CHAPTER IV. THE TETRAGRAM. Magical Virtue of the Tetrad-
Analogies and Adaptations Elementary Spirits of the Kabbalah . 51
CHAPTER V. THE PENTAGRAM. The Microcosm and the sign thereof
Power over Elements and Spirits . . . .60
and Resistance Sexual love The Plenum and the Void . . 67
seven Angels and seven Genii of the Planets Universal Virtue of
the Septenary ....... 75
CHAPTER VIII. REALISATION. Analogical reproduction of Forces
Incarnation of Ideas Parallelism Necessary Antagonism . 79
CHAPTER IX. INITIATION. The Magical Lamp, Mantle, and Staff
Prophecy and Intuition Security and stability of the Initiate in
the midst of dangers Exercise of Magical Power . . .86
CHAPTER X. THE KABBALAH. The Sephiroth The Semhamphoras
The Paths and Gates Bereschith and Mercavah Gematria and Temurah ........ 89
CHAPTER XI. THE MAGIC CHAIN. Magnetic Currents Secrets of
great successes Talking Tables Fluidic Manifestations . . 97
CHAPTER XII. THE GREAT WORK. Hermetic Magic Doctrines of
Hermes The Minerva of the World The grand and unique
Athanor The Hanged Man . . . . .106
CHAPTER XIII. NECROMANCY. Revelations from the other World-
Secrets of Death and of Life Evocations . . . .111
CHAPTER XIV. TRANSMUTATIONS. Lycanthropy Mutual possessions,
or embryonic state of souls The Wand of Circe The Elixir
ofCagliostro ... . . . . .120
CHAPTER XV. BLACK MAGIC. Demonomania Obsessions Urban
Grandier Girard The work of M. Eudes de Mirville . . 126
^CHAPTER XVI. BEWITCHMENTS. Dangerous forces Power of life and
death Facts and Principles Remedies Practice of Paracelsus . 128
CHAPTER XVII. ASTROLOGY. Knowledge of Men by the Signs of their
Nativity Phrenology Chiromancy Metoposcopy Planets and
Stars Climacteric years Predictions by means of Astral Revolutions
........ 137
Powders and Pacts of Sorcerers The Jettatura at Naples The
Evil Eye Superstitions Talismans . . . .144
What this Stone is Why it is a Stone Singular Analogies . 152
means of Potable Gold Resurrection Abolition of Pain . .157
CHAPTER XXI. DIVINATION. Dreams Somnambulism Presentiments
Second Sight Divinatory Instruments Alliette and his
discoveries concerning the Tarot . . , . .160
SCIENCES. The Kabbalah Magic Alchemy Magnetism or
Occult Medicine . . 165
INTRODUCTION ........ 175
CHAPTER I. PREPARATIONS. Dispositions and Principles of Magical
Operation Personal Preparations of the Operator . . 191
CHAPTER II. MAGICAL EQUILIBRIUM. Alternative use of Forces-
Oppositions necessary in the Practice Simultaneous attack and
resistance The Sword and Trowel of the Builders of the Temple . 200
Conjurations and Magical Sacrifices Triangle of evocations and
Pantacles Triangular Combinations The Magical Trident of
Paracelsus ........ 206
and their Use Manner of overcoming and subjecting Elementary
Spirits and Maleficent Genii . . . . .214
CHAPTER V. THE BLAZING PENTAGRAM. Use and Consecration of the
Pentagram........ 224
the Great Agent The Natural Medium and the Extra-natural
Mediator ........ 229
and Perfumes proper to the seven days of the week Composition
of the Seven Talismans and Consecration of Magical Instruments
........ 234
for the accomplishment of the Great Works of Science . 248
ancient and modern mysteries Key of Biblical obscurities Ezekiel
and St John ....... 256
CHAPTER XL THE TRIPLE CHAIN. Methods of its formation . 260
CHAPTER XII. THE GREAT WORK. Its Processes and Secrets Raymond
Lully and Nicholas Flamel . . . . .264
CHAPTER XIII. NECROMANCY. Ceremonial for the Resurrection of
the Dead and for Necromancy ..... 270
CHAPTER XIV. TRANSMUTATIONS. Methods for changing the nature
of things The Ring of Gyges Words which accomplish Transmutations. . 281
evocations of the Sabbath The Goat of Mendes and its worship
Aberrations of Catherine de Medecis and Gilles de Laval, Lord of
Retz 288
Mode of defence against them ..... 306
Planisphere of Gaffarel How the Destinies of Men and Empires
may be read in Heaven ...... 313
How to influence Destinies Remedies and Preventives . . 326
CHAPTER XIX. THE MASTERY OF THE SUN. Use of the Philosophical
Stone How it must be preserved, disintegrated, and recomposed 335
CHAPTER XX. THE THAUMATURGE. Therapeutics Warm and cold
Insufflations Passes with and without contact Imposition of
hands Diverse virtues of saliva Oil and Wine Incubation and
Massage ........ 339
Divinatory Operations The Clavicle of Trithemius Probable
future of Europe and of the world..... 346
CHAPTER XXII. THE BOOK OF HERMES. After what manner all
science is contained in the occult work of Hermes Antiquity of
this book Labours of Court de Gebelin and of Etteilla The
Theraphim of the Hebrews according to GafFarel The Key of
William Postel A book of Saint Martin The true shape of the
Ark of the Covenant Italian and German Tarots Chinese
Tarots A German Medal of the sixteenth century Universal
Key of the Tarot Its application to the Symbols of the Apocalypse
The seven seals of the Christian Kabbalah Conclusion of the entire work . 355
INDEX . 401


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