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Antonio Sagona and Paul Zimansky

Routledge World Archaeology

Prehistoric Britain, 2nd edition, Timothy C. Darvill
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 978–0–415–48123–6 (pbk)
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 978–0–203–88046–0 (ebk)
 Antonio Sagona and Paul Zimansky 

This book was written because of the continuing dearth of general, accessible, and up-to-date
surveys on ancient Turkey before the Classical period. While there are a number of excellent
period- and site-specific works, students and teachers have faced the persistent difficulty of reading
and synthesizing an enormous and often bewildering amount of literature before they can
formulate a general narrative on the principal periods and areas of innovation and culture. The
task of covering in one volume so vast a topic—from the earliest arrivals to the end of the Iron
Age—is daunting to say the least, but we have decided to take the plunge and divided the task
between us: AS is responsible for the periods up to the end of the third millennium BC (Chapters
1–5), whereas PZ continues the story to the arrival of Persian influence at the end of the Iron
Age (Chapters 6–10). This exposition makes no claim to be comprehensive, neither is it a detailed
narrative. Rather, we hope that it provides a readable and well-balanced book for those who wish
to understand the main cultural expressions of Turkey’s ancient past. Hence, it would be pedantic
and uncalled for to load the text with the heavy apparatus of scholarship. Nonetheless, we hope
that the references provided will enable the curious to make their own way into the various topics.
Anyone who writes a book as wide ranging as this, ventures, often with trepidation, into areas
outside their comfort zone. We have been fortunate and grateful that many friends and colleagues
have helped us during the writing and preparation of this book, and, although we cannot
mention them all, we are sincerely grateful to them. The debts we have incurred are many and
range from permission to reproduce photographs and drawings (even though not all were used
owing to limitations of space), through providing information on topics less familiar to us, to
sustained conversations over many years. All these played an important part in shaping this book
and accordingly we would like to express our sincere gratitude to the following: Mikheil Abramishvili,
Guillermo Algaze, Ruben Badalyan, Nur Balkan-Altı, Scott Branting, Charles Burney, Stuart Campbell,
Elizabeth Carter, Özlem Çevik, Altan Çilingirog˘ lu, Simon Connor, Ben Claasz Coockson, S¸ evket
Dönmez, Bleda Düring, Refik Duru, Turan Efe, Aslı Erim-Özdog˘ an, Marcella Frangipane, David
French, Christoph Gerber, Savas¸ Harmankaya, Ömür Harmans¸ah, Harald Hauptmann, Ian Hodder,
Mehmet I˙s¸ iklı, Peter Jablonka, John Kappelman, Kakha Kakhiani, Steve Kuhn, Clemens Lichter,
Catherine Marro, Timothy Matney, Roger Matthews, Marcel Otte, Mihriban Özbas¸aran, Mehmet
Özdog˘ an, Aynur Özfırat, Vecihi Özkaya, Aliye Öztan, Giulio Palumbi, Anneliese Peschlow-
Bindokat, Jacob Roodenberg, Christopher Roosevelt, Michael Rosenberg, Mitchell Rothman, Curtis
Runnels, Claudia Sagona, Oya Sarı, Klaus Schmidt, Ulf-Dietrich Schoop, Veli Sevin, Ludovic Slimak,
Sharon Steadman, Gil Stein, Françoise and Geoffrey Summers, Mary Voigt, and Aslıhan Yener. We
are very appreciative to the staff of various museums in Turkey, too many to list here, for their
support over the years in allowing us to study material held in their collections.

Special thanks are owed to Sharon Steadman, Mary Voigt and Aslıhan Yener, who generously
made available to AS papers in advance of their publication, a gesture for which he is most grateful.
Among those who read and commented on various parts in draft, providing excellent advice
and counsel, we thank Claudia Sagona, Caroline Spry, and Elizabeth Stone. We would also like to
thank the cohorts of students, who, over the years, have acted as sounding boards for our formative
ideas. Their questions and insightful comments have helped to sharpen our focus.
In a book of this type, images are immensely important. Three individuals have played a key role
in standardizing, adapting, and redrawing the illustrations:
• Claudia Sagona spent many hours preparing the drawings and photographs for Chapters 1–5,
and many more again reformatting them as AS changed his mind, often on a regular basis
• Chandra Jayasuriya drew the illuminating maps, and we are grateful for her care and professionalism
• Elizabeth Stone created almost all of the plans in Chapters 6–10 and several of the line drawings,
taking time off from her own work on Iraq and remote sensing to apply her considerable graphic skills to the illustrations.

To the staff at Routledge, we extend our thanks for their patience and understanding in the
long gestation of this book. AS would like to thank the University of Melbourne for financial
support and research leave, especially in 2007, which enabled him to undertake the writing of his
chapters. We also acknowledge with gratitude that the publication of this work was assisted by a
publication grant from the University of Melbourne.
Finally, we must express the huge debt of appreciation we owe to our wives, Claudia Sagona
and Elizabeth Stone, for their constant support.
Antonio Sagona
University of Melbourne
Paul Zimansky
Stony Brook University, NY

Table of Contents
Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
1 Introduction 1
The land and its water 2
Climate and vegetation 5
2 Earliest arrivals: The Palaeolithic and Epipalaeolithic (1,000,000–9600 BC) 10
Lower Palaeolithic (ca. 1,000,000–250,000 bc) 12
Middle Palaeolithic (ca. 250,000–45,000 bc) 19
Upper Palaeolithic and Epipalaeolithic (ca. 45,000–9600 bc) 21
Rock art and ritual 27
3 A new social order: Pre-Pottery Neolithic (9600–7000 BC) 37
The Neolithic: A synergy of plants, animals, and people 38
New perspectives on the Neolithic from Turkey 41
Beginnings of sedentary life 44
Origin of the village 46
Southeastern Anatolia 49
North of the Taurus Mountains 54
Ritual, art, and temples 57
Southeastern Anatolia 57
Central Anatolia 64
Economy 65
Contact and exchange: The obsidian trade 69
Stoneworking technologies and crafts 74
Collapse of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic 76
Concluding remarks 78
4 Anatolia transformed: From Pottery Neolithic through Middle Chalcolithic
(7000–4000 BC) 82
Pottery Neolithic (ca. 7000–6000 bc) 83
Houses and ritual 83
Southeastern Anatolia and Cilicia 83
Central Anatolia 85
Western Anatolia and the Aegean coast 99
Northwest Anatolia 103
Seeing red 107
Invention of pottery 109
Cilicia and the southeast 111
Central Anatolia 112
Western Anatolia 113
Northwest Anatolia 115
Other crafts and technology 118
Economy 119
Concluding remarks on the Ceramic Neolithic 121
Spread of farming into Europe 122
Early and Middle Chalcolithic (ca. 6000–4000 bc) 124
Regional variations 125
Eastern Anatolia 125
The central plateau 127
Western Anatolia 130
Northwest Anatolia 136
Metallurgy 139
5 Metalsmiths and migrants: Late Chalcolithic and the Early Bronze Age
(ca. 4000–2000 BC) 144
Late Chalcolithic (ca. 4000–3100 bc) 145
Euphrates area and southeastern Anatolia 145
Late Chalcolithic 1 and 2 (LC 1–2): 4300–3650 bc 149
Late Chalcolithic 3 (LC 3): 3650–3450 bc 150
Late Chalcolithic 4 (LC 4): 3450–3250 bc 153
Late Chalcolithic 5 (LC 5): 3250–3000/2950 bc 155
Eastern Highlands 163
Western Anatolia 168
Northwestern Anatolia and the Pontic Zone 170
Central Anatolia 170
Early Bronze Age (ca. 3100–2000 bc) 172
Cities, centers, and villages 174
Regional survey 178
Southeast Anatolia 178
East-central Anatolia (Turkish Upper Euphrates) 182
Eastern Anatolia 187
Western Anatolia 191
Central Anatolia 198
Cilicia 199
Metallurgy and its impact 200
Wool, milk, traction, and mobility: Secondary products revolution 210
Burial customs 212
6 Foreign merchants and native states: Middle Bronze Age (2000–1650 BC) 225
The Karum Kanesh and the Assyrian trading network 227
Middle Bronze Age city-states of the Anatolian plateau 234
Central Anatolian material culture of the Middle Bronze Age 240
Indo-Europeans in Anatolia and the origins of the Hittites 244
Middle Bronze Age Anatolia beyond the horizons of literacy 247
The end of the trading colony period 248
7 Anatolia’s empire: Hittite domination and the Late Bronze Age (1650–1200 BC) 253
The rediscovery of the Hittites 253
Historical outline 259
The imperial capital 266
Hittite sites in the empire’s heartland 273
Yazılıkaya and Hittite religion 276
Hittite architectural sculpture and rock reliefs 280
Hittite glyptic and minor arts 283
Fringes of empire: Hittite archaeology beyond the plateau 284
8 Legacy of the Hittites: Southern Anatolia in the Iron Age (1200–600 BC) 291
The concept of an Iron Age 292
Assyria and the history of the Neo-Hittite principalities 294
Key Neo-Hittite sites 297
Carchemish 299
Malatya 302
Ain Dara 304
Zincirli 307
Karatepe 309
Land of Tabal 312
9 A kingdom of fortresses: Urartu and eastern Anatolia in the Iron Age (1200–600 BC) 316
Early Urartu, Nairi, and Biainili 317
Historical developments in imperial Biainili, the Kingdom of Van 321
Fortresses, settlements, and architectural practices 331
Smaller artefacts and decorative arts 335
Bronzes 336
Stone reliefs 338
Seals and seal impressions 338
Language and writing in Urartu 339
Urartian religion and cultic activities 342
Demise 344
10 New cultures in the west: The Aegean coast, Phrygia, and Lydia (1200–550 BC) 348
The Trojan War as prelude 348
The Aegean coast 351
The Phrygians 352
The Lydians 362
The Achaemenid conquest and its antecedents 367
Bibliography 373
Index 408


First published 2009
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by Routledge
270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

by Vivian Nutton

The first edition of Ancient Medicine was the most complete examination of
the medicine of the ancient world for a hundred years. This new edition
includes the key discoveries made since the first edition, especially from
important texts discovered in recent finds of papyri and manuscripts, making
it the most comprehensive and up-to-date survey available.
Vivian Nutton pays particular attention to the life and work of doctors in
communities, links between medicine and magic, and examines the different
approaches to medicine across the ancient world. The new edition includes
more on Rufus and Galen as well as augmented information on Babylonia,
Hellenistic medicine and Late Antiquity.
With recently discovered texts made accessible for the first time, and
providing new evidence, this broad exploration challenges currently held perspectives,
and proves an invaluable resource for students of both classics and
the history of medicine.

Vivian Nutton, FBA, is Professor Emeritus of the History of Medicine at
University College London, and an honorary Professor in both Classics and
History at the University of Warwick. He has published extensively on all
aspects of medicine before the seventeenth century and, in particular, on
Galen and the Renaissance.
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 2004, 2013 Vivian Nutton 

All quotations from Greek and Latin have been translated into English by
me, unless otherwise stated, and ancient titles have been given in English
through out. Ancient names have been generally given in their most familiar
form, without any attempt at total consistency between a Greek and a
Latinate spelling. I have often indicated also the modern name or general
location of an ancient place. The exact dates of many ancient writers are
rarely known, and only approximations are often possible. I have tried to be
consistent in indicating all dates BC, but I have added AD only to dates where
there might be confusion in the mind of the reader, especially in chapters that
crossed the boundaries between the Hellenistic and Roman worlds.
Two features in the notes should be mentioned here. Square brackets
around the name of an author, e.g. [Aristotle], indicate that the work cannot
be attributed with any degree of certainty (and usually with none) to that
author. Hence, for reasons made clear in the text, I refer to writings in the
Hippocratic Corpus always as by [Hippocrates].

Second, the two main blocks of ancient medical material are cited in
two different ways. All references to Hippocratic texts are with an English
title, their book and chapter heading, and the volume and page number
in the standard edition of Emile Littré (Paris: Baillière, 1839–61). By
contrast, in order to save space, I have cited Galen mainly by the volume
and page number in the standard edition of K. G. Kühn (Leipzig: K. H.
Knobloch, 1821–33), adding, where possible, the page number of an accessible
English version. Where necessary, I have occasionally referred also to
an improved text in a more recent edition, usually in the CMG series. Texts
not in Kühn have been cited by title, section and page in the relevant modern edition.

I have generally used standard editions of other ancient texts, indicating
where necessary the name of the editor. I have not provided full bibliographical
references to papyri, usually indicated by P., and to inscriptions,
e.g. I. Ephesos or Griechische Versinschriften. Those with Greek or Latin who
wish to check these documents in their originally published form should
consult the list of abbreviations in Liddell, H. G., Scott, R. and Jones, H. S.
(1968) A Greek–English Lexicon, ed. 9, with Supplement, Oxford: Oxford
University Press; and the revised Supplement (1996) ed. P. G. W. Glare,
Oxford: Clarendon Press; or in the Oxford Latin Dictionary (1968–82) Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Table of Contents
List of illustrations vii
Note to the reader ix
Acknowledgements xi
List of abbreviations xiii

1 Sources and scope 1
2 Patterns of disease 19
3 Before Hippocrates 37
4 Hippocrates, the Hippocratic Corpus and the defining of medicine 53
5 Hippocratic theories 72
6 Hippocratic practices 87
7 Religion and medicine in fifth- and fourth-century Greece 104
8 From Plato to Praxagoras 116
9 Alexandria, anatomy and experimentation 130
10 Hellenistic medicine 142
11 Rome and the transplantation of Greek medicine 160
12 The consequences of empire: pharmacology, surgery
and the Roman army 174
13 The rise of Methodism 191
14 Humoral alternatives 207
15 The life and career of Galen 222
16 Galenic medicine 236
17 All sorts and conditions of (mainly) men 254
18 Medicine and the religions of the Roman Empire 280
19 Medicine in the Later Roman Empire 299
20 Conclusion 318

Notes 325
Bibliography 418
Index of names 469
Index of topics 480


First published 2004
This second edition published 2013
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by Routledge
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

Compiled and edited by
Kathryn A.Bard

with the editing assistance of
Steven Blake Shubert

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 0-415-18589-0 (Print Edition)
 1999 Routledge

How to use this Encyclopedia
The Encyclopedia opens with a map of the region and a chronology which provides a
context for the material which follows.
The first section of the Encyclopedia comprises fourteen overview essays. The first
offers a general introduction and the remaining essays are guides to developments in the
archaeology of the region in specific historical periods.
These are followed by more than 300 entries in alphabetical order. 
These entries discuss:
a important sites
b thematics on aspects of society or culture
c archaeological practices
d biographies of famous Egyptologists
e buildings
f geographical features
See also references at the end of each entry will lead you to related topics.
There is also a list of further reading following each entry, which includes foreignlanguage
sources as well as references available in English.

Stylistic features
The following stylistic features have been employed in the Encyclopedia:
a metric measurements, such as km, m, cm and so on.
b BC/AD not BCE/ACE.
c Entries are listed by their most familiar place name. Sometimes this is the Greek name
for the town, e.g. Hierakonpolis; sometimes it is the modern Arabic name for the
(nearby) town, e.g. Nagada. Please use the index for guidance on alternative names.
d transliteration of Egyptian words, for example, .

Chronology of Ancient Egypt
Lower Paleolithic, circa 700/500,000–200,000 BP
Middle Paleolithic, circa 200,000–45,000 BP
Upper Paleolithic, circa 35,000–21,000 BP
Late Paleolithic, circa 21,000–12,000 BP
Epi-paleolithic, circa 12,000–8,000 BP

Neolithic, northern Egypt: begins circa 5200 BC

Predynastic period:
Ma’adi culture, northern Egypt,
circa 4000–3300/3200 BC
Badarian culture, Middle Egypt,
circa 4500–3800 BC
Nagada culture, southern Egypt:
Nagada I, circa 4000–3600 BC
Nagada II, circa 3600–3200 BC
Nagada III/Dynasty 0, circa 3200–3050 BC

Table of Contents

List of illustrations x
Map xix
How to use this Encyclopedia xxiv
Acknowledgments xxvi
List of abbreviations xxviii
List of contributors xxx
Chronology of Ancient Egypt xliii
Overview essays:
Introduction 1
Paleolithic cultures 6
Epi-paleolithic cultures 16
Neolithic cultures 18
Predynastic period 24
Early Dynastic period 32
Old Kingdom 38
First Intermediate Period 45
Middle Kingdom 50
Second Intermediate Period 57
New Kingdom 60
Third Intermediate Period 65
Late and Ptolemaic periods 70
Roman period 77
Entries A-Z 83
Glossary 1092
Index 1096


First published 1999 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE
This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.

The Greek Tradition and Its Many Heirs

Edited by Paul T. Keyser and Georgia L. Irby-Massie
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 2008 Paul T. Keyser and Georgia L.
 Irby-Massie for selection and editorial matter;
 individual chapters, their contributors

The Encyclopedia of Ancient Natural Scientists is the first comprehensive English-language work
to provide a survey of ancient natural science, from its beginnings through to the end of
late antiquity. A team of over 100 of the world’s experts in the field have compiled this
Encyclopedia, including entries which are not mentioned in any other reference work –
resulting in a unique and hugely ambitious resource which will prove indispensable for
anyone seeking the details of the history of ancient science.
Additional features include a Glossary, Gazetteer, and Time-Line. The Glossary explains many
Greek (or Latin) terms difficult to translate, whilst the Gazetteer describes the many locales
from which scientists came. The Time-Line shows the rapid rise in the practice of science in
the 5th century  and rapid decline after Hadrian, due to the centralization of Roman
power, with consequent loss of a context within which science could flourish.
Paul T. Keyser’s publications include work on gravitational physics, computer science,
stylometry, Greek tragedy, and ancient science. Formerly a teacher of Classics, he is currently
crafting Java for IBM’s Watson Research Center.
Georgia L. Irby-Massie is Assistant Professor at the College of William and Mary. Her
research investigates reflections of science in literature and society, and includes publications
on astrology, geography, natural philosophy in tragedy, and women scientists.

This work provides a synoptic survey of all “ancient,” i.e., Greek and Greek-based, natural
science, broadly defined, from its beginnings through the end of late antiquity, for the
benefit of anyone interested in the history of science. Greek science is a central field for the
understanding of antiquity – more of Greek science survives than does any other category
of ancient Greek literature, and yet much of that is obscure even to classicists.
It is proper to describe the work of the people included herein as “science,” with no more
risk of anachronism than in using any modern term to refer to a corresponding ancient
practice, because the ancient models of nature, whether correct or not, were indeed
attempts at models. That is, they were created and debated as abstracted descriptions of
phenomena, intended to give a naturalistic and self-consistent causal account, of a world
viewed as regular or constant in its behavior. Their methods and aims were scientific, even
when their theoretical entities or intellectual achievements are ones we now perceive as
inadequate. Histories of science must be comprehensive, including all abandoned paths,
since roads not taken seem evitable only in hindsight.

Table of Contents
List of Illustrations ix
Introduction 1
Note to Users 27
A 29
B 185
C (also see K) 201
D 222
E 280
F 327
G 334
H 354
I (and J) 429
K 460
L 500
M 517
N 567
O 586
P 602
Q 716
R 718
S 722
T 772
U 821
V 822
W 834
X 835
Y 842
Z 843
Gazetteer 855
Glossary 911
Time-Line 937
Topics 991
Indices 1021
(by ethnicity, women scientists,
monotheists, poets, rulers,
emendations, new in EANS,
ancient people not in EANS )
Index of Plants 1039


“. . . the person who is used to inquiry tries every possible pathway as he
conducts his search and turns in every direction, and, so far from giving up
the inquiry in the space of a day, does not cease his search throughout his
life: directing his attention to one thing after another that is relevant to
what is being investigated, he presses on until he attains his goal.”
Erasistratos of Ioulis, Paralysis book 2

(in Gale¯n, Habits §1, CMG S.3 [1941] 12; trans. by G.E.R. Lloyd, 
Greek Science After Aristotle [1973] 86, altered)

. The history of the philosophy of mind . 

Edited by Amy Kind

Subjects: LCSH: 

Philosophy of mind—History—20th century.

Philosophy of mind—History—21st century.
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 9781138243972 (hardback : alk. paper)
 2019 selection and editorial matter,
 Amy Kind; individual chapters,
 the contributors

Tim Crane is professor of philosophy at the Central European University, Budapest.
He has written on a number of topics in the philosophy of mind, including
intentionality, consciousness, perception, mental causation, and physicalism.
His books include The Mechanical Mind (1995, 3rd edition 2015), Elements of
Mind (2001), The Objects of Thought (2013), Aspects of Psychologism (2014),
The Meaning of Belief (2017), and (as editor) The Contents of Experience
(1992) and A Debate on Dispositions (1996). He is the Philosophy Consultant
Editor of the TLS.
Katalin Farkas is professor of philosophy at the Central European University,
Budapest. Her main interests are the philosophy of mind and epistemology.
Her book The Subject’s Point of View (OUP 2008) defends an internalist conception
of the boundaries of the mind.
Carrie Figdor is associate professor at the University of Iowa, Department of
Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience. She publishes
on topics at the intersection of philosophy of mind, science, and language,
on epistemology and ethics of journalism, and on metaphysics. Her monograph
Pieces of Mind: The Proper Domain of Psychological Predicates is forthcoming
with Oxford University Press, and her work has appeared in The Journal of
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Topics in Cognitive Science, Mind & Language,
Frontiers in Communication, among others. She co-hosts “New Books
that features interviews with philosophers about their new books.
Jens Johansson is Professor of Practical Philosophy at Uppsala University. He
has published a number of essays on the philosophy of death, personal identity,
and related issues, and co-edited The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Death
(2013, with Ben Bradley and Fred Feldman).
Amy Kind is Russell K. Pitzer Professor of Philosophy at Claremont McKenna
College. Her research interests lie broadly in the philosophy of mind, but most
of her work centers on issues relating to imagination and to phenomenal consciousness.
In addition to authoring the introductory textbook Persons and
Personal Identity (Polity, 2015), she has edited The Routledge Handbook of
Philosophy of Imagination (Routledge, 2016) and she has co-edited Knowledge
through Imagination (Oxford University Press, 2016).
Pete Mandik is professor of philosophy at William Paterson University of New
Jersey. He is author of This Is Philosophy of Mind (2013) and Key Terms in
Philosophy of Mind (2010).
Michelle Montague is Associate Professor of philosophy at the University of
Texas, Austin. Her work focuses on the philosophy of mind, primarily on
consciousness and intentionality. In addition to publishing numerous articles
in these areas, she is the author of The Given: Experience and Its Content
(Oxford University Press, 2016), the co-editor with Tim Bayne of Cognitive
Phenomenology (Oxford University Press, 2011), and the co-editor with
Galen Strawson of Philosophical Writings by P. F. Strawson (Oxford University Press, 2011).
Nico Orlandi is associate professor of philosophy at the University of California,
Santa Cruz. Nico specializes in philosophy of mind and philosophy of psychology
and neuroscience, and has published several articles in addition to a
book, The Innocent Eye: Why Vision Is Not a Cognitive Process.
Susan Schneider teaches at the University of Connecticut and is a member of the
technology and ethics group at Yale and the Institute for Advanced Study in
Princeton. Schneider writes about matters involving the metaphysics of mind,
AI, and philosophy of cognitive science. She also writes opinion pieces for
venues like The New York Times, Nautilus, and Scientific American. Her work
wrestles with vexed questions about the metaphysical nature of the self and
mind. Her books include the Blackwell Companion to Consciousness (with
Max Velmans), Science Fiction and Philosophy and The Language of Thought:
A New Philosophical Direction, as well as a forthcoming trade book, Future
Minds. Her website features many online lectures,
interviews, and papers.
Severin Schroeder is Associate Professor in Philosophy at the University of Reading.
He has written three monographs on Wittgenstein: Wittgenstein: The Way
Out of the Fly Bottle (Polity, 2006), Wittgenstein Lesen (Frommann-Holzboog,
2009), and Das Privatsprachen-Argument (Schöningh/Mentis, 1998). He is the
editor of Wittgenstein and Contemporary Philosophy of Mind (Palgrave 2001)
and Philosophy of Literature (Wiley-Blackwell 2010). He is currently working
on a book on Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mathematics (Routledge).
Maja Spener is a lecturer in the Department of Philosophy at the University of
Birmingham (UK). She is writing a book on introspective method in philosophy
and scientific psychology.
Philip J. Walsh is a post-doctoral teaching fellow at Fordham University. His
research focuses on phenomenology and philosophy of mind. His published
work includes articles on Husserl and Merleau-Ponty, as well as contemporary
debates about perception, thought, expression, agency, and social cognition.
Julie Yoo is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at the California State University,
Northridge. She has published articles in philosophy of mind and philosophy
of language. Her research areas also include metaphysics and feminist philosophy.
Jeff Yoshimi is an Associate Professor of philosophy and cognitive science in the
Cognitive and Information Science department at UC Merced. He is a founding
faculty member, having arrived in 2004, before the campus opened. He does
work in phenomenology, philosophy of mind and cognitive science, neural
networks, dynamical systems theory, and visualization of complex processes.

Table of Contents

List of contributors vii
General introduction x
Introduction to volume 6: twentieth-century philosophy
of mind: themes, problems, and scientific context 1
1 Philosophy of mind in the phenomenological tradition 21
2 The mind-body problem in 20th-century philosophy 52
3 A short history of philosophical theories of consciousness
in the 20th century 78
4 20th-century theories of perception 104
5 20th-century theories of personal identity 126
6 Introspecting in the 20th century 148
7 The mental causation debates in the 20th century 175
8 Intentionality: from Brentano to representationalism 200
9 Wittgenstein and his legacy 233
10 The boundaries of the mind 256
11 The rise of cognitive science in the 20th century 280
12 How philosophy of mind can shape the future 303
Index 320


First published 2019 by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
and by Routledge
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

: The New Science of The Mind :

David M. Buss

1. Evolutionary psychology—Textbooks. 2. Human evolution—Textbooks.

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 2015, 2012, 2008
 Taylor & Francis

About the Author
David M. Buss received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley. He
began his career in academics at Harvard, later moving to the University of Michigan
before accepting his current position as professor of psychology at the University of
Texas. His primary research interests include human sexuality, mating strategies, conflict
between the sexes, homicide, stalking, and sexual victimization. 
The author of more than 300 scientific
articles and 6 books, Buss has won numerous awards including
the American Psychological Association (APA) Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career
Contribution to Psychology, the APA G. Stanley Hall Lectureship,
the APA Distinguished Scientist Lecturer Award, and a Robert
W. Hamilton Book Award for the first edition of Evolutionary
Psychology: The New Science of the Mind. He is also the editor
of the first comprehensive Handbook of Evolutionary
Psychology (Wiley) and co-editor (with Patricia Hawley) of
The Evolution of Personality and Individual Differences. In 2013,
he was named one of the 30 most influential living psychologists
in the world. He enjoys extensive cross-cultural research
collaborations and lectures widely within the United States
and abroad. His hobbies include tennis, squash, and disc golf,
and he is an avid film buff.

New to This Edition
In revising the book for this edition, I had two goals in mind. First, I sought to provide
a major update of new discoveries. Toward this end, roughly 300 new references have
been added to this edition. Second, I sought to fill in important omissions, based on an
explosion of new theories and research:
• Expanded coverage of cognitive psychology, including cognitive mechanisms that
interfere with understanding evolutionary processes and deep time.
• New studies on evidence for a small amount of interbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals.
• Meta-analysis on ovulation effects on women’s mate preferences.
• Discussion of evolutionary hypotheses that have been empirically disconfirmed.
• New discussion of the emotion of “disgust” as central to the behavioral immune
system; and “sexual disgust” as a specific evolved defense.
• Raft of new studies on spatial navigation abilities of women and men.
• New findings on the emotion of “sexual regret” and gender differences therein.
• Context effects on women’s mate preferences, including prevailing health status
within the culture.
• Discoveries of new cues to attractiveness, such as the white sclera of the eyes.
• “The lipstick effect” and other contextual shifts in women’s mating tactics.
• New research testing different theories of homosexuality.
• Cross-cultural studies in France and Denmark on sex differences in consenting to sex with strangers.
• Women’s “nesting” behavior when pregnant.
• “The Baby Effect” and other predictable shifts in men’s and women’s parenting psychology.
• Sibling competition as a function of magnitude of parental resources.
• Food sharing in Nicaragua, Tanzania, Indonesia, the Saami, and Norwegian reindeer herders.
• The importance of kin contact after marriage among Himba nomadic African pastoralists.
• Effects of grandmothers on grandchild survival.
• “Walk away” rule and its effect on cooperation strategies.
• The “newcomer effect.”
• Effect of free-riding on reputation among the Turkana.
• Friends as potential mate poachers.
• Competitive altruism.
• Morphological cues to “design for combat” in men.
• Empirical tests of the “Crazy Bastard Hypothesis.”
• Predictors of female–female aggression among the Tsimane of Bolivia. 
• New section on the puzzle of suicide terrorism.
• New section on sexual exploitation and cues to sexual exploitability.
• Studies of sexual jealousy in a small-group society, the Himba of Namibia.
• Predictors of men’s violence against women in the Tsimane of Bolivia.
• Added section on the “service for prestige” theory of leadership and followership.
• New box on Tactics of Hierarchy Negotiation.
• Eye tracking findings of attentional biases toward infants.
• New studies on “successful psychopaths.”
• A large new section titled “The Evolutionary Psychology of Religion.”
I have received many inspiring letters and e-mails from teachers and students who
have used previous editions of Evolutionary Psychology and hope that future readers will
also share their enthusiasm. The quest for understanding the human mind is a noble
undertaking. As the field of evolutionary psychology matures, we are beginning to gain
answers to the mysteries that have probably intrigued humans for hundreds of thousands
of years: Where did we come from? What is our connection with other life forms? And
what are the mechanisms of mind that define what it means to be a human being?

Table of Contents
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xviii
Part 1: Foundations of Evolutionary
1. The Scientific Movements Leading to Evolutionary
Psychology 2
Landmarks in the History of Evolutionary Thinking 3
Evolution before Darwin 3
Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection 4
Darwin’s Theory of Sexual Selection 6
The Role of Natural Selection and Sexual Selection in
Evolutionary Theory 7
The Modern Synthesis: Genes and Particulate Inheritance 9
The Ethology Movement 10
The Inclusive Fitness Revolution 11
Clarifying Adaptation and Natural Selection 13
Trivers’s Seminal Theories 15
The Sociobiology Controversy 15
Common Misunderstandings about Evolutionary Theory 16
Misunderstanding 1: Human Behavior Is Genetically
Determined 16
Misunderstanding 2: If It’s Evolutionary, We Cannot
Change It 17
Misunderstanding 3: Current Mechanisms Are Optimally
Designed 17
Milestones in the Origins of Modern Humans 18
Landmarks in the Field of Psychology 21
■ BOX 1.1: Out of Africa versus Multiregional Origins:
The Origins of Modern Humans 22
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory 23
William James and the Psychology of Instincts 24
The Rise of Behaviorism 25
The Astonishing Discoveries of Cultural Variability 25
The Garcia Effect, Prepared Fears, and the Decline of
Radical Behaviorism 26
Peering into the Black Box: The Cognitive Revolution 27
Summary 29
Critical Thinking Questions 31
Suggested Readings 32
2. The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology 33
The Origins of Human Nature 34
Three Theories of the Origins of Complex Adaptive
Mechanisms 34
The Three Products of Evolution 35
Levels of Evolutionary Analysis in Evolutionary
Psychology 38
The Core of Human Nature: Fundamentals of Evolved
Psychological Mechanisms 44
All Species Have a Nature 44
Definition of an Evolved Psychological Mechanism 45
Important Properties of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 48
Learning, Culture, and Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 53
Methods for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses 54
Comparing Different Species 55
Cross-Cultural Methods 55
Physiological and Brain Imaging Methods 56
Genetic Methods 57
Comparing Males and Females 57
Comparing Individuals within a Species 58
Comparing the Same Individuals in Different Contexts 58
Experimental Methods 59
Sources of Data for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses 59
Archeological Records 59
Data from Hunter-Gatherer Societies 60
Observations 60
Self-Reports 60
Life-History Data and Public Records 61
Human Products 61
Transcending the Limitations of Single Data Sources 61
Identifying Adaptive Problems 62
Guidance from Modern Evolutionary Theory 62
Guidance from Knowledge of Universal Human Structures 62
Guidance from Traditional Societies 63
Guidance from Paleoarcheology and Paleoanthropology 63
Guidance from Current Mechanisms 63
Guidance from Task Analysis 64
Organization of Adaptive Problems 64
Summary 64
Critical Thinking Questions 66
Suggested Readings 66
Part 2: Problems of Survival
3. Combating the Hostile Forces of Nature 68
Food Acquisition and Selection 70
Social and Cultural Aspects of Food 70
Food Preferences 71
Disgust: The Disease-Avoidance Hypothesis 71
Sickness in Pregnant Women: The Embryo Protection
Hypothesis 73
Fire and Cooking 74
Why Humans Like Spices: The Antimicrobial Hypothesis 75
Why Humans Like to Drink Alcohol: An Evolutionary
Hangover? 76
The Hunting Hypothesis 76
The Gathering Hypothesis 80
Comparing the Hunting and Gathering Hypotheses 81
Adaptations to Gathering and Hunting: Sex Differences in
Specific Spatial Abilities 81
Finding a Place to Live: Shelter and Landscape
Preferences 83
The Savanna Hypothesis 84
Combating Predators and Other Environmental Dangers:
Fears, Phobias, Anxieties, and Adaptive Biases 85
Most Common Human Fears 87
Children’s Antipredator Adaptations 90
■ BOX 3.1: Evolved Navigation Theory and the Descent
Illusion 91
Darwinian Medicine: Combating Disease 92
Why Do People Die? 93
The Theory of Senescence 93
The Puzzle of Suicide 94
Homicide 96
Summary 97
Critical Thinking Questions 98
Suggested Readings 99
Part 3: C hallenges of Sex and
4.Women’s Long-Term Mating Strategies 102
Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Mate
Preferences 103
Parental Investment and Sexual Selection 103
Mate Preferences as Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 104
Preference for Economic Resources 105
Preference for Good Financial Prospects 107
Preference for High Social Status 110
Preference for Somewhat Older Men 111
Preference for Ambition and Industriousness 113
Preference for Dependability and Stability 113
Preference for Height and Athletic Prowess 114
Preference for Good Health: Symmetry and Masculinity 115
Love and Commitment 118
Preference for Willingness to Invest in Children 119
Preference for Similarity 121
Additional Mate Preferences: Kindness, Humor, Incest
Avoidance, and Voice 121
Context Effects on Women’s Mate Preferences 122
Effects of Women’s Personal Resources on Mate
Preferences 122
The Mere Presence of Attractive Others: Mate Copying 124
Effects of Temporal Context on Women’s Mate
Preferences 124
Effects of Women’s Mate Value on Mate Preferences 124
How Women’s Mate Preferences Affect Actual Mating
Behavior 125
Women’s Responses to Men’s Personal Ads 126
Women’s Marriages to Men High in Occupational
Status 126
Women’s Marriages to Men Who Are Older 127
Effects of Women’s Preferences on Men’s Behavior 127
Summary 128
■ BOX 4.1: What about Lesbian Sexual Orientation? 130
Critical Thinking Questions 131
Suggested Readings 131
5. Men’s Long-Term Mating Strategies 133
Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Men’s Mate
Preferences 133
Why Men Might Benefit from Commitment and
Marriage 134
The Problem of Assessing a Woman’s Fertility or Reproductive
Value 134
The Content of Men’s Mate Preferences 136
Preference for Youth 136
Evolved Standards of Physical Beauty 138
Body Fat, Waist-to-Hip Ratio, and Body Mass Index 142
Sex Differences in the Importance of Physical
Appearance 145
Do Men Have a Preference for Ovulating Women? 146
Solutions to the Problem of Paternity Uncertainty 148
■ BOX 5.1: Homosexual Orientation: An Evolutionary Puzzle 151
Context Effects on Men’s Mating Behavior 152
Men in Positions of Power 152
Contrast Effects from Viewing Attractive Models 153
Testosterone and Men’s Mating Strategies 154
The Necessities and Luxuries of Mate Preferences 156
Effect of Men’s Preferences on Actual Mating Behavior 156
Men’s Responses to Women’s Personal Ads 156
Marital Decisions and Reproductive Outcomes 157
Effect of Men’s Preferences on Attention, Vocalization, Tips, and
Engagement Rings 158
Effect of Men’s Mate Preferences on Women’s Competition
Tactics 158
Summary 160
Critical Thinking Questions 161
Suggested Readings 162
6. Short-Term Sexual Strategies 163
Theories of Men’s Short-Term Mating 164
Adaptive Benefits for Men of Short-Term Mating 164
Potential Costs of Short-Term Mating for Men 165
Adaptive Problems Men Must Solve When Pursuing Short-Term
Mating 165
■ BOX 6.1: Functions versus Beneficial Effects of Short-Term
Mating 165
Evidence for an Evolved Short-Term Mating
Psychology 166
Physiological Evidence for Short-Term Mating 167
Psychological Evidence for Short-Term Mating 168
Behavioral Evidence of Short-Term Mating 175
Women’s Short-Term Mating 176
Evidence for Women’s Short-Term Mating 176
Hypotheses about the Adaptive Benefits to Women of Short-Term
Mating 178
Costs to Women of Short-Term Mating 180
Empirical Tests of Hypothesized Benefits to Women 181
Context Effects on Short-Term Mating 184
Individual Differences in Short-Term Mating 184
Other Contexts Likely to Affect Short-Term Mating 186
Summary 189
Critical Thinking Questions 190
Suggested Readings 190
Part 4: C hallenges of Parenting
and Kinship 7. Problems of Parenting 194
Why Do Mothers Provide More Parental Care Than
Fathers? 196
The Paternity Uncertainty Hypothesis 196
The Mating Opportunity Cost Hypothesis 197
An Evolutionary Perspective on Parental Care 198
Genetic Relatedness to Offspring 199
Offspring’s Ability to Convert Parental Care into Reproductive
Success 208
Alternative Uses of Resources Available for Investment in
Children 213
The Theory of Parent–Offspring Conflict 218
Mother–Offspring Conflict in Utero 219
Mother-Child Conflict and Sibling Relatedness 220
Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mating 221
■ BOX 7.1: Killing Parents and the Asymmetry of Valuing Parents
and Children 222
Summary 222
Critical Thinking Questions 224
Suggested Readings 224
8. Problems of Kinship 225
Theory and Implications of Inclusive Fitness 226
Hamilton’s Rule 226
Theoretical Implications of Hamilton’s Rule 227
Empirical Findings that Support the Implications of Inclusive
Fitness Theory 230
Alarm Calling in Ground Squirrels 231
Kin Recognition and Kin Classifications in Humans 232
Patterns of Helping in the Lives of Los Angeles
Women 233
Life-or-Death Helping among Humans 234
Genetic Relatedness and Emotional Closeness: Is Blood Thicker
Than Water? 236
Vigilance over Kin’s Romantic Relationships 237
Kinship and Stress 237
Kinship and Survival 237
Patterns of Inheritance—Who Leaves Wealth
to Whom? 238
Investment by Grandparents 240
■ BOX 8.1: Investment by Aunts, Uncles, and Cousins 244
A Broader Perspective on the Evolution of the Family 245
The Dark Side of Families 248
Summary 250
Critical Thinking Questions 252
Suggested Readings 253
Part 5: Problems of Group Living
9. Cooperative Alliances 256
The Evolution of Cooperation 257
The Problem of Altruism 257
A Theory of Reciprocal Altruism 257
Tit for Tat 258
■ BOX 9.1: Strategies for Promoting Cooperation 260
Cooperation among Nonhumans 260
Food Sharing in Vampire Bats 260
Chimpanzee Politics 261
Cooperation and Altruism among Humans 262
Social Contract Theory 262
Evidence for Cheater-Detection Adaptations 264
Do People Remember Cheaters? 267
The Detection of Prospective Altruists 268
Indirect Reciprocity Theory 269
Costly Signaling Theory 269
The Psychology of Friendship 270
Costs and Benefits of Friendship 275
Cooperative Coalitions 278
Summary 282
Critical Thinking Questions 283
Suggested Readings 284
10. Aggression and Warfare 285
Aggression as a Solution to Adaptive Problems 286
Co-opt the Resources of Others 286
Defend against Attack 287
Inflict Costs on Intrasexual Rivals 287
Negotiate Status and Power Hierarchies 288
Deter Rivals from Future Aggression 288
Deter Long-Term Mates from Sexual Infidelity 288
The Context-Specificity of Aggression 289
Why Are Men More Violently Aggressive than Women? 290
■ BOX 10.1: The Recalibration Theory of Anger 292
Empirical Evidence for Distinct Adaptive Patterns of
Aggression 292
Evidence for Sex Differences in Same-Sex Aggression 293
Contexts Triggering Men’s Aggression against Men 297
Contexts Triggering Women’s Aggression against
Women 299
Contexts Triggering Men’s Aggression against Women 300
Contexts Triggering Women’s Aggression against Men 301
Warfare 301
■ BOX 10.2: Yanomamö Warfare 302
■ BOX 10.3: The Puzzle of Suicide Terrorism 309
Do Humans Have Evolved Homicide Mechanisms? 309
Summary 312
Critical Thinking Questions 313
Suggested Readings 314
11. Conflict between the Sexes 315
Strategic Interference Theory 316
Conflict about the Occurrence and Timing of Sex 318
Conflict over Sexual Access 318
Sexual Aggression, Sexual Exploitation, and Women’s
Coevolved Defenses 322
Sexual Harassment 322
Sexual Exploitation and Cues to Sexual Exploitability 323
Sexual Aggressiveness 324
Do Men Have Evolved Rape Adaptations? 325
Individual Differences in Rape Proclivity 326
Do Women Have Evolved Antirape Adaptations? 328
Jealous Conflict 329
Sex Differences in Jealousy 330
From Vigilance to Violence: Tactics of Mate
Retention 336
Sex Differences in the Use of Mate-Retention Tactics 337
Contexts Influencing the Intensity of Mate-Retention
Tactics 337
Violence toward Partners 340
Conflict over Access to Resources 342
Causes of Resource Inequality: Women’s Mate Preferences
and Men’s Competitive Tactics 343
■ BOX 11.1: Are All Men United to Control Women? 344
Summary 344
Critical Thinking Questions 347
Suggested Readings 347
12. Status, Prestige, and Social Dominance 348
The Emergence of Dominance Hierarchies 349
Dominance and Status in Nonhuman Animals 350
Evolutionary Theories of Dominance, Prestige, and
Status 351
An Evolutionary Theory of Sex Differences in Status Striving 354
■ BOX 12.1: Tactics of Hierarchy Negotiation 355
Dominance Theory 360
Social Attention-Holding Theory 362
Indicators of Dominance 364
■ BOX 12.2: Facial Dominance 367
Self-Esteem as a Status-Tracking Mechanism 369
Strategies of Submissiveness 371
Summary 374
Critical Thinking Questions 375
Suggested Readings 376
Part 6: A n Integrated Psychological
Science 13. Toward a Unified Evolutionary Psychology 378
Evolutionary Cognitive Psychology 379
Attention and Memory 381
Problem Solving: Heuristics, Biases, and Judgment under
Uncertainty 383
The Evolution of Language 388
The Evolution of Extraordinary Human Intelligence 390
Evolutionary Social Psychology 393
Capitalizing on Evolutionary Theories about Social
Phenomena 394
The Evolution of Moral Emotions 395
The Return of Group Selection as Multilevel Selection Theory 397
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology 398
Theory of Mind Mechanisms 399
Life-History Strategies 400
Evolutionary Personality Psychology 402
Alternative Niche Picking or Strategic Specialization 403
Adaptive Assessment of Heritable Qualities 403
Frequency-Dependent Adaptive Strategies 404
Evolutionary Clinical Psychology 407
Causes of Mechanism Failure 407
Evolutionary Insights into Problems Erroneously Thought
to Be Dysfunctions 408
Evolutionary Cultural Psychology 410
Evoked Culture 411
Transmitted Culture 413
The Evolutionary Psychology of Religion 415
The Evolution of Art, Fiction, Movies, and Music 416
Toward a Unified Psychology 418
Critical Thinking Questions 419
Suggested Readings 420
Bibliography 421
Credits 463
Index 470

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