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How to Make It and How to Hold on to It

Richard Templar

1. Wealth. 2. Finance, Personal. 3. Money. 4. Success.


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 978-0-13-290781-1 (pbk. : alk. paper)
 Copyright©   
 ©Pearson Education 2012 

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....

Introduction
There’s an old saying “Money, money, money—it’s all they can think about.”
Unlikely to be true of course, given that hardly anybody thinks about money
itself (unless they happen to be a coin collector). The reason we all pursue and
desire and fiercely protect money is because of what we can do with it.
And no, of course money can’t buy you love or happiness. Although it can buy a
good deal of pleasure—and remove a lot of unhappiness. But it can buy you
plenty of other things. Over the years I’ve identified the ten things which people
most seem to want to spend their money on:
1 Security: A home of your own and enough money in the bank to support
you in the way you want, plus a bit in hand for emergencies, and a big
enough pension to ensure a comfortable retirement.
2 Comfort: A warm and spacious house, a big car, someone to clean or mow
the lawns or do the laundry or mind the kids, and good quality medical care
whenever you want it.
3 Luxuries: Exotic vacationss, fine wines, meals at top-class restaurants,
expensive clothes, the best seats at sports events or opera or whatever you enjoy.
4 Mobility: First-class train seats and plane tickets, trips on cruise ships,
chauffeur-driven cars wherever you are in the world.
5 Status: Prestigious invitations, access to important people and exclusive
clubs, and perhaps even gratifying deference from others.
6 Influence: As a generous donor of substantial sums, you can make sure that
your views and wishes are listened to and taken seriously.
7 Freedom: Not being dependent on employers, bosses, creditors, clients,
customers. Not being a slave to the calendar, diary, or clock. Knowing you
won’t have to be a burden on your children.
8 Leisure: Time to do the things you want, go where you want, meet who you
want, when you want.
9 Popularity: Being able to entertain friends, acquaintances, and contacts
frequently and generously does wonders for your social life.
10 Philanthropy: Being able to make regular and substantial donations gives
you the satisfaction of helping people, supporting organizations, and furthering
causes you believe in.
Seems a reasonable enough list to me. And whether it’s some or all those things
that you’d like more of, you need to know how to go about generating greater
wealth—which means you need to know what it is that separates the wealthy
from the not-so-wealthy. So, what you need to know is what principles, and what
behaviors the rich have, that you don’t (yet). Some of them you will realize that
you know, but don’t do. None of this is actually rocket science; it’s about
understanding and then doing. I’ve studied a lot of wealthy people, and it’s clear
to me that there are some fundamental common principles followed by almost
all. The bulk of the Rules in this book fall into that category. Then there are also
some principles which some rich people swear by, but not all. I’ve included
some of those too for good measure, just in case you too are one of the people
they do the trick for.
Security, comfort, luxuries, mobility, status, influence, freedom, leisure,
popularity, philanthropy—that’s all some people think about. They may not be
everything; they may not even guarantee a happy life, but they’re a pretty good
basis to build happiness on.
I’ve tried to set out in this book the most important Rules that can help you
achieve these ten things. All of them purport to be about accumulating money,
and of course in a sense they are, but at heart they’re about money only as a
means to an end. A means to achieve those ten ends.
Of course I don’t claim that these hundred or so Rules are the only means to
these particular ends. You may encounter others along the way that you find
helpful. If so, please do feel free to share them. You can email me at
Richard Templar
....


Table of Contents
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Part I Thinking Wealthy
1 Anybody Can Be Wealthy—You Just Need to Apply Yourself
2 Decide on Your Definition of Wealth
3 Set Your Objectives
4 Keep It Under Your Hat
5 Most People Are Too Lazy to Be Wealthy
6 Get a Reality Check
7 Understand Your Money Beliefs and Where They Come From
8 Understand That Wealth Is a Consequence, Not a Reward
9 Decide What You Want Money For
10 Understand That Money Begets Money
11 Calculate the Net Return
12 If You See Money as the Solution, You’ll Find It Becomes the Problem
13 You Can Make Lots of Money, You Can Enjoy Your Job, and You Can
Sleep Nights
14 Don’t Make Money by Being Bad
15 Money and Happiness—Understand Their Relationship
16 Know the Difference Between Price and Value
17 Know How the Wealthy Think
18 Don’t Envy What Others Have
19 It’s Harder to Manage Yourself Than It Is to Manage Your Money
Part II Getting Wealthy
20 You’ve Got to Know Where You Are Before You Start
21 You’ve Got to Have a Plan
22 Get Your Finances Under Control
23 Insurance Pays Someone, and Odds Are It’s Not You
24 Only by Looking Wealthy Can You Become Wealthy
25 Speculate to Accumulate (No, This Isn’t Gambling)
26 Decide Your Attitude to Risk
27 Think Through the Alternatives to Taking a Risk
28 If You Don’t Trust Someone, Don’t Do Business With Them
29 It’s Never Too Late to Start Getting Wealthy
30 Start Saving Young (or Teach Your Kids This One If It’s Too Late for You)
31 Understand That Your Financial Needs Change at Different Stages of Your
Life
32 You Have to Work Hard to Get Rich Enough Not to Have to Work Hard
33 Learn the Art of Deal Making
34 Learn the Art of Negotiating
35 Small Economies Won’t Make You Wealthy but They Will Make You
Miserable
36 Real Wealth Comes from Deals Not Fees
37 Understand That Working for Others Won’t Necessarily Make You Rich—
but It Might
38 Don’t Waste Time Procrastinating—Make Money Decisions Quickly
39 Work as If You Didn’t Need the Money
40 Spend Less Than You Earn
41 Don’t Borrow Money—Unless You Really, Really Have To
42 Consider Consolidating Debts
43 Cultivate a Skill and It’ll Repay You Over and Over Again
44 Pay Off Your Loans and Debts as a Priority
45 Don’t Be Too Busy Earning a Living to Make Some Money
46 Save in Big Chunks—or Should You?
47 Don’t Rent; Buy
48 Understand What Investing Really Means
49 Build a Bit of Capital, Then Invest It Wisely
50 Understand That Property, in the Long Run, Will Not Outpace Shares
51 Master the Art of Selling
52 See Yourself as Others Do
53 Don’t Believe You Can Always Win
54 Don’t Pick Stocks Yourself If You Don’t Know What You’re Doing
55 Understand How the Stock Market Really Works
56 Only Buy Shares (or Anything) You Can Understand
57 Use Your Head
58 By All Means, Use the Investment Professionals (but Don’t Be Used by
Them)
59 If You Are Going to Get Financial Advice, Pay for It
60 Don’t Fiddle
61 Think Long Term
62 Have a Set Time of Day to Work on Your Wealth Strategy
63 Pay Attention to Detail
64 Create New Income Streams
65 Learn to Play “What If?”
66 Control Spending Impulses
67 Don’t Answer Ads That Promise Get-Rich-Quick Schemes—It Won’t Be
You Who Gets Rich Quick
68 There Are No Secrets
69 Don’t Just Read This—Do Something
Part III Get Even Wealthier
70 Carry Out a Finance Health Check Regularly
71 Get Some Money Mentors
72 Play Your Hunches
73 Don’t Sit Back
74 Get Someone to Do the Stuff You Can’t
75 Know Yourself—Solo, Duo, or Team Player
76 Look for the Hidden Asset/Opportunity
77 Don’t Try to Get Rich Too Quickly
78 Always Ask What’s In It for Them
79 Make Your Money Work for You
80 Know When to Let Go of Investments
81 Know Your Own Style
82 Know Why You Should Be Able to Read a Balance Sheet—and How
83 Be One Step Ahead of Your Tax Collector
84 Learn How to Make Your Assets Work for You
85 Don’t Ever Believe You’re Only Worth What You Are Being Paid
86 Don’t Follow the Same Route as Everyone Else
Part IV Staying Wealthy
87 Shop for Quality
88 Check the Small Print
89 Don’t Spend It Before You’ve Got It
90 Put Something Aside for Your Old Age—No, More Than That!
91 Put Something Aside for Emergencies/Rainy Days—the Contingency Fund
92 You Paid What for It? How to Shop Around
93 Never Borrow Money from Friends or Family (but You Can Allow Them to
Invest)
94 Don’t Surrender Equity
95 Know When to Stop
Part V Sharing Your Wealth
96 Use Your Wealth Wisely
97 Never Lend Money to Friends or Family Unless You Are Prepared to Write
It Off
98 Don’t Lend, Take Equities
99 You Really, Really Can’t Take It with You
100 Know When/How to Say No—and Yes
101 Find Ways to Give People Money Without Them Feeling They Are in Your
Debt
102 Don’t Over-Protect Your Children from the Valuable Experience of Poverty
103 Know How to Choose Charities/Good Causes
104 Spend Your Own Money Because No One Will Spend It as Wisely as You
105 Take Responsibility Before You Take Advice
106 Once You’ve Got It, Don’t Flaunt It
107 What’s Next? Pacts with the Devil?


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Pearson Education, Inc

Bruce N. Waller

1. Critical thinking. 2. Verdicts. 3. Logic.


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 Details
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 0-205-15866-8 (alk. paper)
 Copyright©   
 2012, 2005, 2001
 by Pearson Education, Inc

Preface
Critical thinking is a valuable skill: whether you are deciding which courses to take or
career to pursue, what toothpaste to use or what stocks to buy, which candidate to vote for
or which cause to support, which reports to believe or what claims to reject, critical thinking
can be very useful. One of the most important places for careful critical thinking is the
jury room. Serving on a jury is one of the most significant and basic ways that citizens
actively participate in their government, and jury service makes strong demands on citizen-
jurors. Jurors must set aside any biases and judge the issues fairly; they must reason
carefully about what laws are involved and how those laws apply to the specific case at
hand; they must evaluate testimony and weigh both its accuracy and its relevance; and
they must give a fair hearing to both sides, distinguish sound from erroneous arguments,
and ultimately reach a just and reasonable conclusion. The courts offer fascinating cases
for examination and analysis, and the courts have long grappled with many of the key
issues in critical thinking: questions about burden of proof, legitimate analogies, distinctions
between relevant and irrelevant reasons, question-begging arguments and unfair
questions, the weighing of testimony (including expert testimony and appeals to expert
authority), the distinction between argument and testimony, the legitimate and illegitimate
use of ad hominem arguments.

The courtroom demands a high level of critical thinking skill, and it is also a fascinating
place for studying and developing the key skills of critical thinking: determining exactly
what the conclusion is, and who bears the burden of proving it; separating false claims from
reliable information; setting aside irrelevant distractions and focusing on the question at
issue; and distinguishing between erroneous and legitimate arguments. The skills that
make you an effective juror will also make you an intelligent consumer, an effective planner,
and a wise citizen.

focus for developing basic critical thinking skills, but it does not stop there. Those skills
are also applied to the various arguments and issues that arise in our daily lives as
consumers, students, planners, and citizens. While the courtroom and the jury room are
valuable laboratories for learning and testing and applying critical thinking abilities,
those abilities must also be exercised when reading editorial columns, debating social
issues, making intelligent consumer choices, working effectively at a career, and
fulfilling one’s responsibilities as a thoughtful critical citizen of a democracy. Thus, most
of the exercises and examples are drawn from advertisements, social debates, political
campaigns, editorials, and letters to the editor. Critical thinking skills are valuable in the
jury room, but they are also valuable in the classroom, the boardroom, the laboratory,
and the grocery store.

Critical thinking is often regarded as an adversarial process, where the stronger
arguments triumph over the weaker. Adversarial critical thinking is common and is often
valuable: Cases in court usually proceed through an adversarial process, and that can be
a useful way of bringing out both strong and weak points in the arguments presented. But
not all critical thinking follows the adversarial model, and the sixth edition of Critical
Thinking: Consider the Verdict gives careful attention to the contexts when cooperative critical
thinking may prove particularly useful. Several factors enhance effective cooperative
critical thinking, and several argument fallacies are especially damaging to a cooperative
critical thinking process. Both the promise and the pitfalls of cooperative critical thinking
are examined in this new edition.
The sixth edition of Critical Thinking: Consider the Verdict contains a number of important
changes and additions.
• Extensive new discussion of cooperative critical thinking (as distinguished from adversarial
critical thinking), and examination of its special strengths and the contexts in which it is most effective.
• New and updated exercises and examples in every chapter.
• A new section on definitions, including examination of misleading definitions.
• Extensive new material on statistical fallacies and deceptions.
• A new section on the importance of scientific integrity and scientific cooperation.
• Additional new exercises in the special-review sections (the sections of cumulative exercises).

Critical Thinking: Consider the Verdict, sixth edition, provides a solid introduction to critical
thinking; Chapters 18 and 19 offer introductory instruction in symbolic logic. Those two
chapters are self-contained, and you may do either or both at any point in the course, or
skip them altogether. The boxed exercises and examples throughout the text are not
essential to understanding the chapters, but they do present interesting material and
challenging questions. You can skip them, but you’ll miss a lot of the fun.
....

Support for Instructors and Students
The moment you know. Educators know it. Students know it. It’s that inspired moment
when something that was difficult to understand suddenly makes perfect sense. Our
MyLab products have been designed and refined with a single purpose in mind—to help
educators create that moment of understanding with their students. The new
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And, it comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and an eye on the future.
MyThinkingLab can be used by itself or linked to any learning management system
(LMS). MyThinkingLab—the moment you know.
Instructor’s Manual with Tests (0-205-15875-7): For each chapter in the text, this valuable
resource provides a detailed outline, list of objectives, and discussion questions. In addition,
test questions in multiple-choice, true/false, fill-in-the-blank, and short answer formats
are available for each chapter; the answers are page referenced to the text. For easy
access, this manual is available at www.pearsonhighered.com/irc.
PowerPoint Presentation Slides for Critical Thinking: Consider the Verdict
(0-205-15877-3): These PowerPoint Slides help instructors convey critical thinking principles
in a clear and engaging way. For easy access, they are available at www.pearsonhighered.com/irc.
MyTest Test Generator (0-205-15878-1): This computerized software allows instructors to
create their own personalized exams, edit any or all of the existing test questions, and add
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and test preview before printing. For easy access, this software is available at
....


Table of Contents
Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
1 Introduction 1
Critical Thinking in Everyday Life 1
Play Fair 2
Seating a Jury 2
Jury Research: Eliminating or Selecting Bias? 3
Impartial Critical Thinking 4
Adversarial Critical Thinking 5
Cooperative Critical Thinking 7
Internet Resources 12
Additional Reading 12
2 A Few Important Terms 14
Arguments 14
Statements 14
Premises and Conclusions 16
Deductive and Inductive Arguments 19
Deduction, Validity, and Soundness 21
Induction, Strong Arguments, and Cogent Arguments 23
Review Questions 27
Internet Resources 27
Additional Reading 27
3 Ad Hominem Arguments 28
The Ad Hominem Fallacy 28
Nonfallacious Ad Hominem Arguments 29
Ad Hominem and Testimony 31
Distinguishing Argument from Testimony 33
Tricky Types of Ad Hominem 41
Bias Ad Hominem 41
Inconsistency and Ad Hominem 44
Psychological Ad Hominem 47
Inverse Ad Hominem 48
Attacking Arguments 49
Review Questions 54
Internet Resources 55
Additional Reading 54
4 The Second Deadly Fallacy: The Strawman Fallacy 56
Straw Man 57
The Principle of Charity 58
The Strawman Fallacy 58
Special Strawman Varieties 63
Limits on Critical Thinking 63
Review Questions 65
Internet Resources 66
Additional Reading 65
5 What’s the Question? 67
Determine the Conclusion 67
What Is the Exact Conclusion? 68
Review Question 74
6 Relevant and Irrelevant Reasons 76
Premises Are Relevant or Irrelevant Relative
to the Conclusion 77
Irrelevant Reason Fallacy 81
The Red Herring Fallacy 81
Review Questions 90
Internet Resources 91
Additional Reading 91
7 Analyzing Arguments 92
Argument Structure 92
Convergent Arguments 92
Linked Arguments 95
Subarguments 96
Assumptions: Their Use and Abuse 109
Legitimate Assumptions 109
Enthymemes 111
Illegitimate Assumptions 111
Review Questions 113
Internet Resources 114
Additional Reading 114
8 The Burden of Proof 115
Who Bears the Burden of Proof? 115
Appeal to Ignorance 117
The Burden of Proof in the Courtroom 117
Presumption of Innocence 118
When the Defendant Does Not Testify 119
Juries and the Burden of Proof 120
Unappealing Ignorance 123
Review Questions 127
Internet Resources 128
Additional Reading 128
9 Language and Its Pitfalls 129
Definitions 129
Stipulative Definitions 130
Controversial Definitions 131
Deceptive Language 131
The Fallacy of Ambiguity 132
Amphiboly 136
Review Questions 139
Internet Resources 139
Additional Reading 139
10 Appeal to Authority 140
Authorities as Testifiers 141
Conditions for Legitimate Appeal to Authority 141
Popularity and Tradition 148
Review Questions 154
Internet Resources 154
Additional Reading 154
Cumulative Exercises One 156
(Chapters 1 through 10)
11 Arguments by Analogy 164
Figurative Analogy 164
Deductive Argument by Analogy 165
The Fallacy of Faulty Analogy 170
Analyzing a Deductive Argument by Analogy 175
Deductive Arguments by Analogy and Cooperative Critical Thinking 179
The Fallacy of Analogical Literalism 180
Caution! Watch for Analogies That Look Like Slippery Slopes! 182
Inductive Arguments by Analogy 184
Review Questions 201
Internet Resources 202
Additional Reading 202
12 Some Distinctive Arguments and Potential
Pitfalls: Slippery Slope, Dilemma, and Golden
Mean Arguments 204
Slippery Slope 204
Separating Slippery Slopes from Straw Men 205
The Slippery Slope Fallacy 206
Genuine Slippery Slopes 206
Dilemmas, False and True 211
Genuine Dilemmas 212
False Dilemmas 212
False Dilemma Combined with Straw Man 216
Consider the Possibilities 216
Golden Mean 220
The Golden Mean Fallacy 220
Constructing Golden Mean Fallacies 220
Review Questions 224
Internet Resources 225
Additional Reading 225
13 Begging the Question 226
The Problem with Question-Begging
Arguments 226
A New and Confusing Use of “Begs the Question” 227
Subtle Forms of Question Begging 227
Synonymous Begging the Question 227
Generalization Begging the Question 228
Circular Begging the Question 229
False Charges of Begging the Question 231
Self-Sealing Arguments 231
Complex Questions 233
Review Questions 238
Internet Resources 238
Additional Reading 238
Cumulative Exercises Two 239
(Chapters 1 through 13)
14 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 253
Necessary Conditions 253
Distinguishing Necessary from Sufficient Conditions 255
Sufficient Conditions 256
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Ordinary Language 256
Conditional Statements 258
Alternative Ways of Stating Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 259
Both Necessary and Sufficient 261
Valid Inferences from Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 267
Modus Ponens 267
Modus Tollens 269
Fallacies Based on Confusion between Necessary and Sufficient
Conditions 269
The Fallacy of Denying the Antecedent 269
The Fallacy of Affirming the Consequent 270
Detecting Argument Forms 271
Review Questions 277
Internet Resources 277
Additional Reading 277
15 Scientific and Causal Reasoning 278
Distinguishing Causation from Correlation 279
The Questionable Cause Fallacy 283
The Method of Science 286
Randomized Studies and Prospective Studies 287
Making Predictions 288
When Predictions Go Wrong 289
Faulty “Scientific” Claims 291
Confirmation Bias 293
Scientific Integrity, Scientific Cooperation, and Research
Manipulation 294
Review Questions 297
Internet Resources 298
Additional Reading 298
16 The Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing but the Truth 299
Eyewitness Testimony 300
Potential Sources of Eyewitness Error 300
Judging the Honesty of a Witness 307
The Whole Truth 309
Are the Premises True? 312
Digging for Truth 312
Consider the Source 313
Review Questions 314
Internet Resources 315
Additional Reading 316
Cumulative Exercises Three 318
(Chapters 1 through 16)
17 Thinking Critically about Statistics 343
All Children Are Above Average 343
Empty Statistics 345
Finding the Appropriate Context 345
Caught Off Base 346
Statistical Apples and Oranges 346
Statistical Half-Truths 348
Sample Size and “Statistical Significance” 348
How to Make Your Study Yield the Results You Want 349
Surveys 352
Review Questions 356
Internet Resources 356
Additional Reading 357
18 Symbolic Sentential Logic 358
Truth-Functional Definitions 358
Negation 358
Disjunction 359
Conjunction 360
Conditional 360
Material Implication 361
Testing for Validity and Invalidity 363
Punctuation 366
The Truth-Table Method of Testing for Validity 370
The Short-Cut Method for Determining Validity or Invalidity 374
Review Questions 387
19 Arguments about Classes 388
Types of Categorical Propositions 389
Relations among Categorical Propositions 390
Venn Diagrams 391
Diagramming Statements 391
Diagramming Arguments 396
Translating Ordinary-Language Statements into Standard-Form
Categorical Propositions 407
Reducing the Number of Terms 409
Review Questions 410
Additional Reading 410
Consider Your Verdict 411
Comprehensive Critical Thinking in the Jury Room
State v. Ransom 411
Judge Schwebel’s Summation and Charge to the Jury 424
Internet Resources 425
Additional Reading 425
Key Terms 427
Answers to Selected Exercises 433
Index 445

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Tony Gaddis

Haywood Community College

LCSH: Python (Computer program language)


Contents in a Glance

Introduction to Computers and Programming
Input, Processing, and Output
Decision Structures and Boolean Logic
Repetition Structures
Functions
Files and Exceptions 
Lists and Tuples
More About Strings
Dictionaries and Sets
Classes and Object-Oriented Programming
Inheritance 
Recursion
GUI Programming
Appendix A Installing Python 
Appendix B Introduction to IDLE
Appendix C The ASCII Character Set
Appendix D Predefined Named Colors 
Appendix E More About the import Statement
Appendix F Installing Modules with the pip Utility 
Appendix G Answers to Checkpoints

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Book Details
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 ISBN
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 0-13-4444329 (alk. paper)
 Copyright©   
 2018, 2015, 2012, 2009
 Pearson Education, Inc

Preface
Welcome to Starting Out with Python, Fourth Edition. This book uses the
Python language to teach programming concepts and problem-solving
skills, without assuming any previous programming experience. With
easy-to-understand examples, pseudocode, flowcharts, and other tools,
the student learns how to design the logic of programs then implement
those programs using Python. This book is ideal for an introductory
programming course or a programming logic and design course using
Python as the language.
As with all the books in the Starting Out With series, the hallmark of this
text is its clear, friendly, and easy-to-understand writing. In addition, it is
rich in example programs that are concise and practical. The programs in
this book include short examples that highlight specific programming
topics, as well as more involved examples that focus on problem solving.
Each chapter provides one or more case studies that provide step-bystep
analysis of a specific problem and shows the student how to solve it.

Control Structures First, Then Classes
Python is a fully object-oriented programming language, but students do
not have to understand object-oriented concepts to start programming in
Python. This text first introduces the student to the fundamentals of data
storage, input and output, control structures, functions, sequences and
lists, file I/O, and objects that are created from standard library classes.
Then the student learns to write classes, explores the topics of
inheritance and polymorphism, and learns to write recursive functions.
Finally, the student learns to develop simple event-driven GUI applications.

Organization of the Text
The text teaches programming in a step-by-step manner. Each chapter
covers a major set of topics and builds knowledge as students progress
through the book. Although the chapters can be easily taught in their
existing sequence, you do have some flexibility in the order that you wish
to cover them. Figure P-1 shows chapter dependencies. Each box
represents a chapter or a group of chapters. An arrow points from a
chapter to the chapter that must be covered before it.

Table of Contents
Preface xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers and Programming 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Hardware and Software 2
1.3 How Computers Store Data 7
1.4 How a Program Works 12
1.5 Using Python 20
Review Questions 24
Chapter 2 Input, Processing, and Output 31
2.1 Designing a Program 31
2.2 Input, Processing, and Output 35
2.3 Displaying Output with the print Function 36
2.4 Comments 39
2.5 Variables 40
2.6 Reading Input from the Keyboard 49
2.7 Performing Calculations 53
2.8 More About Data Output 65
2.9 Named Constants 73
2.10 Introduction to Turtle Graphics 74
Review Questions 100
Programming Exercises 104
Chapter 3 Decision Structures and Boolean Logic 109
3.1 The if Statement 109
3.2 The if-else Statement 118
3.3 Comparing Strings 121
3.4 Nested Decision Structures and the if-elif-else Statement
125
3.5 Logical Operators 133
3.6 Boolean Variables 139
3.7 Turtle Graphics: Determining the State of the Turtle 140
Review Questions 148
Programming Exercises 151
Chapter 4 Repetition Structures 159
4.1 Introduction to Repetition Structures 159
4.2 The while Loop: A Condition-Controlled Loop 160
4.3 The for Loop: A Count-Controlled Loop 168
4.4 Calculating a Running Total 179
4.5 Sentinels 182
4.6 Input Validation Loops 185
4.7 Nested Loops 190
4.8 Turtle Graphics: Using Loops to Draw Designs 197
Review Questions 201
Programming Exercises 203
Chapter 5 Functions 209
5.1 Introduction to Functions 209
5.2 Defining and Calling a Void Function 212
5.3 Designing a Program to Use Functions 217
5.4 Local Variables 223
5.5 Passing Arguments to Functions 225
5.6 Global Variables and Global Constants 235
5.7 Introduction to Value-Returning Functions: Generating
Random Numbers 239
5.8 Writing Your Own Value-Returning Functions 250
5.9 The math Module 261
5.10 Storing Functions in Modules 264
5.11 Turtle Graphics: Modularizing Code with Functions 268
Review Questions 275
Programming Exercises 280
Chapter 6 Files and Exceptions 287
6.1 Introduction to File Input and Output 287
6.2 Using Loops to Process Files 304
6.3 Processing Records 311
6.4 Exceptions 324
Review Questions 337
Programming Exercises 340
Chapter 7 Lists and Tuples 343
7.1 Sequences 343
7.2 Introduction to Lists 343
7.3 List Slicing 351
7.4 Finding Items in Lists with the in Operator 354
7.5 List Methods and Useful Built-in Functions 355
7.6 Copying Lists 362
7.7 Processing Lists 364
7.8 Two-Dimensional Lists 376
7.9 Tuples 380
7.10 Plotting List Data with the matplotlib Package 383
Review Questions 399
Programming Exercises 402
Chapter 8 More About Strings 407
8.1 Basic String Operations 407
8.2 String Slicing 415
8.3 Testing, Searching, and Manipulating Strings 419
Review Questions 431
Programming Exercises 434
Chapter 9 Dictionaries and Sets 439
9.1 Dictionaries 439
9.2 Sets 462
9.3 Serializing Objects 474
Review Questions 480
Programming Exercises 485
Chapter 10 Classes and Object-Oriented Programming 489
10.1 Procedural and Object-Oriented Programming 489
10.2 Classes 493
10.3 Working with Instances 510
10.4 Techniques for Designing Classes 532
Review Questions 543
Programming Exercises 546
Chapter 11 Inheritance 551
11.1 Introduction to Inheritance 551
11.2 Polymorphism 566
Review Questions 572
Programming Exercises 574
Chapter 12 Recursion 577
12.1 Introduction to Recursion 577
12.2 Problem Solving with Recursion 580
12.3 Examples of Recursive Algorithms 584
Review Questions 592
Programming Exercises 594
Chapter 13 GUI Programming 597
13.1 Graphical User Interfaces 597
13.2 Using the tkinter Module 599
13.3 Display Text with Label Widgets 602
13.4 Organizing Widgets with Frames 605
13.5 Button Widgets and Info Dialog Boxes 608
13.6 Getting Input with the Entry Widget 611
13.7 Using Labels as Output Fields 614
13.8 Radio Buttons and Check Buttons 622
13.9 Drawing Shapes with the Canvas Widget 629
Review Questions 651
Programming Exercises 654
Appendix A Installing Python 659
Appendix B Introduction to IDLE 663
Appendix C The ASCII Character Set 671
Appendix D Predefined Named Colors 673
Appendix E More About the import Statement 679
Appendix F Installing Modules with the pip Utility 683
Appendix G Answers to Checkpoints 685
Index 703
Credits 721


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About the Author
Tony Gaddis is the principal author of the Starting Out With series of
textbooks. Tony has nearly two decades of experience teaching
computer science courses at Haywood Community College. He is a
highly acclaimed instructor who was previously selected as the North
Carolina Community College “Teacher of the Year” and has received the
Teaching Excellence award from the National Institute for Staff and
Organizational Development. The Starting Out with series includes
introductory books covering C++, Java™, Microsoft Visual Basic ,
Microsoft C# , Python , Programming Logic and Design, Alice, and App
Inventor, all published by Pearson. More information about all these

Strategy, Implementation and Practice 

Dave Chaffey . Fiona Ellis-Chadwick

BRIEF CONTENTS

Part 1 Digital marketing fundamentals
 Introducing digital marketing 
Online marketplace analysis: micro-environment
The online macro-environment 
Part 2 Digital marketing strategy development
Digital marketing strategy
The impact of digital media and technology on the marketing mix
Relationship marketing using digital platforms
Part 3 Digital marketing: implementation and practice
Delivering the online customer experience
Campaign planning for digital media
Marketing communications using digital media channels
Evaluation and improvement of digital channel performance
Business-to-consumer digital marketing practice
Business-to-business digital marketing practice

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Book Details
 Price
 4.00 USD
 Pages
 729 p
 File Size
 22,789 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 978-1-292-07761-1 (print)
 978-1-292-07764-2 (PDF)
 978-1-292-07762-8 (eText)
 978-1-292-12564-0 (ePub)
 Copyright   
 Pearson Education Limited 2012, 2016
 (print and electronic) 

About the Author
Dave Chaffey BSc, PhD, FCIM, MIDM
Dave is CEO of Smart Insights (www.smartinsights.com), an online publisher and analytics
company providing advice and alerts on best practice and industry developments for digital
marketers and e-commerce managers. The advice is also created to help readers of Dave’s
books. The most relevant information is highlighted at www.smartinsights.com/book-support.
Dave also works as an independent digital marketing trainer and consultant for Marketing Insights
Limited. He has consulted on digital marketing and e-commerce strategy for companies of a
range of sizes from larger organisations like 3M, Barclaycard, HSBC, Mercedes-Benz, Nokia and
The North Face to smaller organisations like Arco, Confused.com, Euroffice, Hornbill and i-to-i.
Dave’s passion is educating students and marketers about latest and best practices in digital
marketing, so empowering businesses to improve their online performance through getting the
most value from their web analytics and market insight. In other words, making
the most of online opportunities and avoiding waste.
He is proud to have been recognised by the Department of Trade and Industry as one of the
leading individuals who have provided input and influence on the development and growth of
e-commerce and the Internet in the UK over the last ten years. Dave has also been recognised
by the Chartered Institute of Marketing as one of 50 marketing ‘gurus’ worldwide who have
helped shape the future of marketing. He is also proud to be an Honorary Fellow of the IDM.
Dave is a visiting lecturer on e-commerce courses at different universities including Birmingham,
Cranfield, Derby, Manchester Metropolitan and Warwick Universities. He is also
a tutor on the IDM Diploma in Digital Marketing, for which he is senior examiner.
In total, Dave is author of five best-selling business books including Digital Business
and Ecommerce Management, Digital Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice,
eMarketing eXcellence (with P.R. Smith) and Total Email Marketing. Many of these books
have been published in new editions since 2000 and translations include Chinese, Dutch,
German, Italian and Serbian.
When offline Dave enjoys fell-running, indie guitar music and travelling with his family.
Fiona Ellis-Chadwick PhD, BSc, PGCE

Fiona-Ellis Chadwick (www.ellis-chadwick.com) is a Senior Lecturer at Loughborough University
School of Business & Economics, where she is the Director of the Institute of Consultancy
and Research Application and is an active researcher, lecturer and author. As part of her role
Fiona is a leading researcher in the field of online e-commerce in retailing and is an active member
of the Town Centre Research Interest Group. She is a leading thinker in the development of
innovative blended-learning for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching in the subject areas
of retailing and marketing, having built her expertise working with leading international publishers
and universities, particularly The Open University over the past 20 years. She had a successful
commercial career before becoming an academic and completing her PhD. Having made
a significant contribution in the area of online retailing she continues to focus her research and
academic publications in the areas of strategic adoption of the Internet. Her work on these topics
has been published in Industrial Marketing Management, Journal of Business Research, European
Journal of Marketing, Internet Research, International Journal of Retail Distribution
and Management, plus additional textbooks and practitioner journals. She is also a member of
the Independent Standards Board for The Retail Ombudsman. Fiona is passionate about how
technology and education can help business development in the future.

Preface
Digital media and technology, an opportunity and threat
The development of the Internet, World Wide Web and other digital technologies have
transformed marketing. For consumers, they give a much wider choice of products, services
and prices from different suppliers and a more convenient way to select and purchase items.
There is also a choice of technology platforms from desktops and laptops to smartphone
and tablet devices for consumers to use. For organisations, digital media and new technology
platforms give the opportunity to expand into new markets, offer new services, apply
new online communications techniques and compete on a more equal footing with larger
businesses. For those working within these organisations it gives the opportunity to develop
new skills and to use these new tools to improve the competitiveness of the company.
At the same time, the Internet and related digital technology platforms give rise to many
threats to organisations. For example, online companies such as ASOS.com (clothing),
Amazon.com (books and retail), iTunes (music) and Expedia (travel) have captured a significant
part of their market and struck fear into the existing players. Many consumers
now regularly use social networks like Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn and Twitter as part
of their daily lives. Engaging these consumers is an ongoing challenge, but as we will see,
companies like ASOS have taken advantage of these opportunities to interact with customers
and this has helped them develop as a worldwide brand.

Management of digital marketing
With the success stories of companies capturing market share following the rapidly increasing
adoption of the Internet by consumers and business buyers has come a fast-growing
realisation that all organisations must have an effective online presence to prosper, or
possibly even survive! Michael Porter said in 2001:
The key question is not whether to deploy Internet technology – companies have no
choice if they want to stay competitive – but how to deploy it.
What are the techniques that businesses need to master to make effective use of digital
marketing? Figure P.1 gives an indication of the range of marketing activities that now
need to be managed effectively and which are covered in this text. RACE describes the
range of tactics needed to reach, interact with, convert and engage online audience across
the customer lifecycle from generating awareness, conversion to sale (online and offline)
and retention and growth of customers.
The figure shows the range of different marketing activities or operating processes
needed to support acquiring new customers through communicating with them on thirdparty
websites and social media, attracting them to a company website, converting website
visits into sales and then using online media to encourage further sales. You can see
that applying social media is a part of RACE and therefore is one of the key management
challenges in digital marketing, so we consider approaches to managing social media marketing
throughout the text. Applying digital platforms as part of multichannel marketing
to integrate customer journeys between traditional and ‘new’ media is also a major challenge
and a theme throughout this text. Management processes related to governance of
digital marketing include planning how digital marketing can be best resourced to contribute
to the organisation and integrating with other marketing activities. The increased
adoption of digital marketing also implies a significant programme of change that needs
to be managed. New objectives need to be set, new communications strategies developed
and staff developed through new responsibilities and skills.


Table of Contents
Preface xiii
About the authors xxiv
Acknowledgements xxv
Part 1 Digital marketing fundamentals 2
1 Introducing digital marketing 4
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 4
Introduction – how have digital technologies
transformed marketing? 6
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Nick Dutch,
Head of Digital at Domino’s Pizza 9
Definitions – what are digital marketing and
multichannel marketing? 11
Paid, owned and earned media 11
The growing range of digital marketing platforms 12
Introduction to digital marketing strategy 16
Key features of digital marketing strategy 16
Applications of digital marketing 16
Benefits of digital marketing 17
Alternative digital business models 20
What is the difference between e-commerce
and e-business? 22
Different forms of online presence 24
Challenges in developing and managing digital marketing
strategy 25
A strategic framework for developing a digital marketing
strategy 27
Introduction to digital marketing communications 29
The relationship between digital and traditional
communications 30
Using digital media channels to support
business objectives 31
The key types of digital media channels 32
Different types of social media marketing tools 34
Benefits of digital media 37
Key challenges of digital communications 43
Key communications concepts for digital marketing 43
Case study 1
eBay thrives in the global marketplace 46
Summary 49
Exercises 49
Self-assessment exercises 49
Essay and discussion questions 50
Examination questions 50
References 50
Weblinks 52
2 Online marketplace analysis: micro-environment 54
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 54
Introduction 56
Situation analysis for digital marketing 56
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Michael Welch of
Blackcircles.com 57
The digital marketing environment 59
Understanding customer journeys 61
Customer analysis 68
Demand analysis and implications for
marketing planning 69
Implications for marketing planning:
conversion models 69
Consumer choice and digital influence 72
Consumer transactions 74
Online consumer behaviour and implications for
marketing 76
Customer characteristics 76
Consumer personas 79
The buying process 79
Competitors 88
The shape and nature of online competitive markets 88
Competitor analysis and benchmarking 91
Suppliers 93
Online marketing intermediaries 94
Portals 96
New channel structures 96
Business models for e-commerce 99
Revenue models 103
Case study 2
Boo hoo – learning from the largest European
dot-com failure 108
Summary 111
Exercises 112
Self-assessment exercises 112
Essay and discussion questions 112
Examination questions 112
References 113
Weblinks 116
3 The online macro-environment 118
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 118
Introduction 120
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Fred Bassett of
Blue Latitude 121
The rate of environment change 123
Technological forces 123
A short introduction to Internet technology 123
URL strategy 125
How does the Internet work? 125
Infrastructure components of the Internet 126
Web page standards 126
Text information – HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) 127
Text information and data – XML (eXtensible Markup
Language) 127
Graphical images (GIF, JPEG and PNG files) 128
Animated graphical information (Flash and plug-ins) 128
Audio and video standards 128
The difference between the Internet, intranets
and extranets 129
Web application frameworks and application servers 129
Digital security 130
Approaches to developing secure systems 133
Technology convergence 135
SMS messaging and applications 135
Mobile apps 136
QR codes 137
Wi-Fi 137
Bluetooth wireless applications 138
Emerging technologies 138
Assessing the marketing value of technology innovation 139
Economic forces 142
Market growth and employment 142
International market growth and emerging economies 143
Economic disruption 143
Political forces 144
Political control and democracy 145
Internet governance 145
Taxation 145
Tax jurisdiction 146
Legal forces 147
Legal activities can be considered unethical 147
1 Data protection and privacy law 148
2 Disability and discrimination law 159
3 Brand and trademark protection 159
4 Intellectual property rights 161
5 Contract law 162
6 Online advertising law 163
Social forces 164
Social exclusion 164
Cultural forces 165
Environmental and green issues related to Internet usage 165
Case study 3
Zopa launches a new lending model 167
Summary 169
Exercises 169
Self-assessment exercises 169
Essay and discussion questions 170
Examination questions 170
References 170
Weblinks 172
Part 2 Digital marketing strategy development 174
4 Digital marketing strategy 176
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 176
Introduction 178
Digital marketing strategy as a channel marketing strategy 178
The scope of digital marketing strategy 179
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Sajjad Bhojani
of Dunelm 182
The need for an integrated digital marketing strategy 184
How to structure a digital marketing strategy 186
Situation analysis 190
Internal audit for digital marketing 191
Customer research 192
Resource analysis 192
Stage models of the digital marketing capability 193
Competitor analysis 194
Intermediary analysis 194
Assessing opportunities and threats 195
Setting goals and objectives for digital marketing 196
The online revenue contribution 200
Setting SMART objectives 203
Frameworks for objective setting 205
Strategy formulation for digital marketing 208
Decision 1: Market and product development strategies 210
Decision 2: Business and revenue models strategies 213
Decision 3: Target marketing strategy 215
Decision 4: Positioning and differentiation strategy
(including the marketing mix) 220
Decision 5: Customer engagement and social
media strategy 223
Decision 6: Multichannel distribution strategy 225
Decision 7: Multichannel communications strategy 228
Decision 8: Online communications mix and budget 231
Decision 9: Organisational capabilities (7S framework)
and governance 232
Strategy implementation 236
Assessing different Internet projects 236
The online lifecycle management grid 238
Case study 4
Tesco online development strategy supports
global expansion 239
Summary 242
Exercises 242
Self-assessment exercises 242
Essay and discussion questions 243
Examination questions 243
References 243
Weblinks 246
5 The impact of digital media and
technology on the marketing mix 248
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 248
Introduction 250
What is the marketing mix? 250
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Roberto Hortal 252
Product 255
1 Options for varying the core product 256
2 Options for offering digital products 257
3 Options for changing the extended product 258
4 Conducting research online 259
5 Velocity of new product development 260
6 Velocity of new product diffusion 260
The long tail concept 261
Branding in a digital environment 262
Price 267
1 Increased price transparency 269
2 Downward pressure on price 270
3 New pricing approaches (including auctions) 274
4 Alternative pricing structure or policies 276
Place 277
1 Place of purchase 277
2 New channel structures 280
3 Channel conflicts 281
4 Virtual organisations 282
Promotion 284
People, process and physical evidence 285
People 286
Process 288
Physical evidence 288
Case study 5
Spotify streaming develops new revenue models 290
Summary 293
Exercises 293
Self-assessment exercises 293
Essay and discussion questions 293
Examination questions 293
References 294
Weblinks 297
6 Relationship marketing using
digital platforms 298
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 298
Introduction 300
From e-CRM to social CRM 302
Structure of this chapter 303
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview:
Guy Stephens of IBM 304
The challenge of customer engagement 308
Benefits of using e-CRM to support
customer engagement 308
Marketing applications of e-CRM 311
CRM technologies and data 311
Customer lifecycle management 311
Permission marketing 313
‘Right touching’ through developing online
contact strategies 319
The ‘emotionally unsubscribed’ email list members 320
Personalisation and mass customisation 322
Using digital media to increase customer
loyalty and value 324
Determining what customers value 324
The relationship between satisfaction and loyalty 325
Measuring the voice of the customer in
digital media 327
Differentiating customers by value and engagement 328
Lifetime value modelling 331
Recency–frequency–monetary value (RFM) analysis 335
The ‘Big Data’ concept 339
Product recommendations and propensity modelling 340
Applying virtual communities and social
networks for CRM 340
Marketing to consumers using independent
social networks 343
Customer experience – the missing element
required for customer loyalty 343
Case study 6
Dell gets closer to its customers through
its social media strategy 344
Summary 347
Exercises 347
Self-assessment exercises 347
Essay and discussion questions 347
Examination questions 348
References 348
Weblinks 350
Part 3 Digital marketing:
implementation and practice 352
7 Delivering the online customer experience 354
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 354
Introduction 356
Creating effective digital experiences 356
Structure of the chapter 359
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Ben Jesson and
Karl Blanks of agency Conversion Rate Experts 360
Planning website design and redesign projects 362
Who should be involved in a website project? 364
Prototyping and agile software development 366
Initiation of the website project 370
Domain name selection and registration 370
Uniform resource locators (URLs) 371
Selecting a hosting provider 372
Website performance optimisation 372
The availability of the website 373
Defining site or app requirements 374
Business requirements 374
Usability requirements 375
Web accessibility requirements 378
Localisation 379
Reviewing competitors’ websites 380
Designing the information architecture 381
Card sorting 382
Blueprints 383
Wireframes 383
Landing pages 386
Designing the user experience 388
Evaluating designs 389
Elements of site design 389
Mobile design considerations and techniques 391
Site navigation schemes 395
Development and testing of content 400
Criteria for selecting a content management system 400
Testing the experience 401
Online retail merchandising 402
Site promotion or ‘traffic building’ 404
Service quality 404
Tangibles 407
Reliability 407
Assurance 407
Multichannel communications preferences 407
Empathy 408
The relationship between service quality, customer
satisfaction and loyalty 410
Case study 7
Refining the online customer experience
at i-to-i.com 410
Summary 412
Exercises 413
Self-assessment exercises 413
Essay and discussion questions 413
Examination questions 413
References 414
Weblinks 416
8 Campaign planning for
digital media 418
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 418
Introduction 420
The structure of this chapter 421
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview:
Mike O’Brien of the Jam Partnership 422
The characteristics of digital media 424
1 From push to pull 424
2 From monologue to dialogue to trialogue 424
3 From one-to-many to one-to-some and one-to-one 425
4 From one-to-many to many-to-many
communications 426
5 From ‘lean-back’ to ‘lean-forward’ 427
6 The medium changes the nature of standard
marketing communications tools such
as advertising 427
7 Increase in communications intermediaries 428
8 Integration 428
9 Timing of campaign communications have
additional ‘always-on’ and real-time marketing
components 428
Step 1. Goal setting and tracking for
interactive marketing communications 432
Terminology for measuring digital campaigns 432
Examples of digital campaign measures 436
Campaign response mechanisms 438
Step 2. Campaign insight 441
Customer insight for digital marketing campaigns 442
Step 3. Segmentation and targeting 443
Step 4. Offer, message development and creative 447
Focus on content marketing 449
Step 5. Budgeting and selecting the
digital media mix 451
1 Level of investment in digital media techniques in
comparison to offline promotion 451
2 Selecting the right mix of digital media
communications tools 454
3 Level of investment in digital assets 460
Step 6. Integration into overall media
schedule or plan 463
Planning integrated marketing communications 463
Key activities in media selection and planning 464
Case Study 8
A short history of Facebook 468
Summary 472
Exercises 472
Self-assessment exercises 472
Essay and discussion questions 472
Examination questions 473
References 473
Weblinks 475
9 Marketing communications
using digital media channels 476
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 476
Introduction 478
How is this chapter structured? 478
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Kate Webb,
online marketing manager at Vision Express 480
Search engine marketing 484
What is SEO? 485
Advantages and disadvantages of SEO 488
Best practice in planning and managing SEO 489
Paid search marketing 495
Advantages and disadvantages of paid
search marketing 498
Best practice in planning and managing paid search
marketing 499
Online public relations 502
What is online public relations (e-PR)? 502
Advantages and disadvantages of online
public relations 504
Best practice in planning and managing
online public relations 506
Online partnerships including affiliate marketing 510
Affiliate marketing 510
Advantages and disadvantages of affiliate marketing 511
Best practice in planning and managing
affiliate marketing 512
Online sponsorship 513
Interactive display advertising 515
What is display advertising? 515
Advantages and disadvantages of display advertising 516
Best practice in planning and managing
display ad campaigns 519
Opt-in email marketing and mobile
text messaging 522
What is email marketing? 522
Opt-in email options for customer acquisition 522
Opt-in email options for prospect conversion
and customer retention (house list) 523
Advantages and disadvantages of email marketing 524
Best practice in planning and managing
email marketing 525
Mobile text messaging 528
Social media and viral marketing 528
Developing a social media communications strategy 529
Viral marketing 529
Advantages and disadvantages of social media
and viral marketing 532
Best practice in planning and managing viral marketing 534
Offline promotion techniques 535
Advantages and disadvantages of using offline
communications to support e-commerce 536
Incidental and specific advertising of the
online presence 537
Public relations 537
Direct marketing 538
Other physical reminders 538
Word-of-mouth marketing 538
Case study 9
Innovation at Google 539
Summary 541
Exercises 543
Self-assessment exercises 543
Essay and discussion questions 543
Examination questions 543
References 544
Weblinks 546
10 Evaluation and improvement of
digital channel performance 548
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 548
Introduction 550
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Avinash Kaushik,
analytics evangelist at Google 551
Performance management for digital channels 553
Stage 1: Creating a performance management system 553
Stage 2: Defining the performance metrics framework 555
Stage 3: Tools and techniques for collecting metrics
and summarising results 560
Customer experience and content
management process 573
How often should content be updated? 574
Responsibilities for customer experience and
site management 575
Who owns the process? 576
Who owns the content? 577
Who owns the format? 579
Who owns the technology? 580
Content management systems 581
Case study 10
Learning from Amazon’s culture of metrics 582
Summary 587
Exercises 588
Self-assessment exercises 588
Essay and discussion questions 588
Examination questions 588
References 589
Weblinks 590
11 Business-to-consumer digital
marketing practice 592
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 592
Introduction 594
Key themes and concepts 596
The consumer perspective: online
consumer behaviour 596
Who are the online customers? 596
The retail perspective: online retailing 606
Development of online retailing 607
Online retail formats and strategic approaches 609
Implications for e-retail marketing strategy 612
Case study 11
ASOS leads the way with social media
and reinvents fashion
retailing online 614
Summary 617
Exercises 618
Mapping your path to purchase 618
Self-assessment exercises 618
Essay and discussion questions 618
Examination questions 619
References 619
12 Business-to-business
digital-marketing practice 622
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 622
Introduction 624
Key themes and concepts 625
Types of B2B organisational marketing and
trading environments 625
Using digital marketing to support customer
acquisition in B2B marketing 627
Lead-generation and conversion optimisation
for B2B marketing 629
Customer retention in B2B marketing 630
Options for online inter-organisational trading 633
B2B e-marketplaces 635
Drivers of adoption of e-marketplaces 636
Case study 12.1
Covisint – a typical history of a
B2B marketplace? 637
How digital technologies can support
B2B marketing 639
How organisations make efficiency gains 640
Analysing the factors which influence the
degree of adoption of Internet technologies 640
Digital marketing strategies 642
Case study 12.2
B2B adoption of the Internet:
Inspirational Cosmetics 645
Summary 646
Exercises 646
Self-assessment exercises 646
Essay and discussion questions 647
Examination questions 647
References 647
Glossary 649
Index 679

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Digital marketing – new skills required?
The aim of this text is to provide you with a comprehensive guide to the concepts, techniques
and best practice to support all the digital marketing processes shown in Figure P.1. This text
is based on emerging academic models together with best practice from leading adopters of
digital media. The practical knowledge developed through reviewing these concepts and best
practice is intended to enable graduates entering employment and marketing professionals to
exploit the opportunities of digital marketing while minimising the risks.
Specifically, this text addresses the following needs:
●● There is a need to know to what extent digital technology and media changes existing
marketing models and whether new models and strategies can be applied to exploit the
medium effectively.
●● Marketing practitioners need practical digital marketing skills to market their products
effectively. Knowledge of the new jargon – terms such as ‘marketing automation’,
‘click-through’, ‘cookie’, ‘uniques’ and ‘page impressions’ – and of effective methods of
site design and promotion such as search engine marketing will be necessary, either for
direct ‘hands-on’ development of a site or to enable communication with other staff or
agencies that are implementing and maintaining the site.
●● Given the rapidly changing market characteristics and best practices of digital marketing,
web-based information sources are needed to update knowledge regularly. This text
and the supporting companion website contain extensive links to websites to achieve this.
The text assumes some existing knowledge of marketing in the reader, perhaps developed
through experience or by students studying introductory modules in marketing fundamentals,
marketing communications or buyer behaviour. However, basic concepts of marketing,
communications theory, buyer behaviour and the marketing mix are outlined.
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