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Translated with an Introduction and Commentary by

CHRISTOPHER GILL


Marcus Aurelius- Meditations, Books 1-6
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 Christopher Gill 2013

PREFACE
This book provides a new translation and commentary on the fi rst half of
Marcus Aurelius’ Meditations, together with a full introduction on the
Meditations as a whole. Apart from Hadot’s commentary on Book 1, this is,
I believe, the fi rst commentary on an extended part of the Meditations since
Farquharson’s two- volume study of 1944. As in other volumes in the series,
discussion of part of a text offers a bridge towards understanding the entire
work. The main focus in the introduction and commentary is on the philosophical
content, especially the question how and how far the Meditations
relates to Stoic theory in general. The volume is also designed to bring out
the distinctive style and mode of refl ection in the work and what seems to
be its principal function, to help Marcus to take forward a life- long project
of ethical self- improvement. This project has a special interest in the
modern context, in the light of current concern with personal development
and pathways to happiness.
This volume joins earlier books in the series on Seneca and Epictetus in
presenting versions of what we can describe as ‘practical ethics’ in the
Roman imperial period. The appearance of these three volumes marks a
greater willingness on the part of scholars to take such writings seriously as
philosophy and to explore their characteristic idiom and line of thought.
This book, like others in the series, builds on recent intensive academic
work on Hellenistic and Roman philosophy, including studies of the
Meditations. From my own standpoint, the book continues my examination
of ethics and psychology, including the therapy of emotions, in Hellenistic
and Roman thought, especially Stoicism. The focus here is on a single—
intriguing and suggestive—text. In future work, I plan to refl ect in broader
terms on the signifi cance of Stoicism for modern thought about ethics and
the interface of ethics with psychology and the study of nature, as well as on
the possible uses of Stoic practical ethics for modern purposes.
The completion of this book was made possible by a semester’s research
study leave provided by the University of Exeter, along with a nine- month
Fellowship funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council; this
support has been invaluable and is much appreciated.

I would like to thank, very strongly, the general editors, Jonathan Barnes
and Tony Long, for agreeing to include this work in the series, and for their
acute and detailed comments on all parts of the volume. I am grateful also
to Marcel van Ackeren for his perceptive observations on the introduction
and for the stimulus offered in various ways by his own recent work on the
Meditations. Of course, all the remaining errors of fact and judgement in
this book are my responsibility. I would also like to thank Peter Momtchiloff
for his support and all the staff of Oxford University Press involved in the
preparation of the book for their characteristically careful and helpful
work. I am very grateful to Petra Bielecki for her help towards compiling
the Index Locorum.

The book also builds on my previous work on the Meditations, including
providing the introduction and notes for a complete new translation by
Robin Hard, prepared originally for Wordsworth Classics and subsequently
revised for Oxford World’s Classics. Collaboration with Robin on
these and related volumes has always been both congenial and instructive.
I have also gained from helpful comments by other scholars on several
papers on Marcus. These were given at a 2004 conference on Greek and
Roman philosophy (100 BC–200 AD) at the Institute of Classical Studies in
London University; a 2006 colloquium on Platonism and Stoicism at
Gargnano organized by the University of Milan; a 2007 conference on
Meditations at Cambridge University; and a 2009 conference on Marcus
Aurelius (the fi rst ever, as far as we know) at the University of Cologne.
Three of these papers are cited in the Bibliography as Gill 2007a and 2007b and 2012b.

During a career in university teaching spanning more than forty years
(mostly at Aberystwyth and Exeter), I have been fortunate in being able to
teach regularly Hellenistic and Roman philosophy, including the
Meditations. I have benefi ted greatly from the responses and insights of my
students, and also, more broadly, from those of my colleagues, in discussions
and seminar- papers, especially at Exeter. In a more intangible, but
more important, way, I have also benefi ted from the companionship and
support of colleagues and sometimes students who have become good
friends. This volume is dedicated to them with great warmth.
....

Introduction
Overview
The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius is an exceptional philosophical work,
by ancient—or any other—standards. It is a refl ective notebook by a
Roman emperor, apparently written for his own private use in the last
twelve years of his life when he was campaigning in Germany. Apart from
Book 1, there is no clear organization or system but rather a series of loosely
connected, short observations. Although the main underlying infl uence is,
evidently, Stoicism, the work is non- technical and distinctive in style and
seems at some points out of line with Stoic theory.
What can philosophically minded scholars and students (the main target
audience of this volume) hope to learn from a work of this kind? It would be
unrealistic to expect sustained or authoritative analysis of specifi c aspects
of Stoic doctrines. What we fi nd are repeated attempts to encapsulate, in a
few, highly charged sentences, the broad vision of human life and its larger
cosmic setting offered by Stoicism. Above all, the work communicates with
remarkable power what it means to try to live one’s life—sincerely and
urgently—according to Stoic principles. At the heart of the Meditations, I
think, is an idea central to Stoic ethics, though not perhaps unique to
Stoicism. The key thought is that, over and above the biological or physical
and purely external or formal dimensions of our existence, we should aim
to shape our lives as the expression of an ongoing journey towards an ideal
state of character, understanding, and mode of interpersonal relationship,
which should constitute our target even though we will never achieve it
fully. In the light of this larger project, Marcus addresses challenges of
which he is especially conscious but which are also universal human
concerns. These are, above all, facing the looming presence of our own
death, and recognizing the signifi cance of our communal roles and personal
relationships in spite of our shared mortality and transience. Marcus also
addresses in his own distinctive way broader topics in the interface between
ethics and logic or the study of nature that were crucial for Stoicism. He
looks for reassurance, despite some uncertainties, that the capacities of
human psychology and the nature of the universe support the kind of
ethical vision that Stoicism offers. Understood in this way, the Meditations
can be seen as a genuinely philosophical text, on some accounts of ‘philosophy’
at least, and the work can have its own special resonance for modern
readers as it has done for preceding generations.

This introduction discusses the Meditations as a whole, although the
translation and commentary deal only with the fi rst half of the work, Books
1–6. The introduction is a rather full one, in comparison with other
volumes in this series. Marcus’ work, with its short and seemingly disconnected
passages (which we call ‘chapters’) and its rather elusive doctrinal
position, benefi ts from a broader interpretative discussion to provide a
context for the commentary, which is focused on the individual chapters. I
begin by outlining the main formal features and what seems to be the
overall function of the Meditations. Next, I consider how far we can identify
a single intellectual or ethical project or programme underlying
Marcus’ mosaic of brief, sometimes oracular or even fragmentary, refl ections.
I do so partly by considering some recent scholarly approaches to this
question and partly by outlining four main strands in the framework of
thinking expressed in the work, which are examined later in this introduction.
The fi rst and most important strand is Marcus’ ethical outlook, above
all his core project in the Meditations, that of living one’s life as an ongoing
journey of self- improvement. Marcus’ understanding of this project
depends on a complex of Stoic ideas about development, society and politics,
and emotions. A second important strand in the work is Marcus’
recurrent preoccupation with human death and transience, especially his
own. Although this theme is often considered by scholars on its own, I
suggest that it is strongly informed by the fi rst major strand, Marcus’
ethical outlook. The two fi nal strands fall within Marcus’ exploration of
the interface between ethics and other branches of philosophy, namely
logic or dialectic and physics or the study of nature. In this connection, I
examine Marcus’ distinctive way of dealing with questions crucial for
Stoicism, namely, how, and how far, human psychological capacities and
the nature of the universe as a whole are compatible with Stoic ethical
ideals. I see these questions as forming the other two main strands in the
work. A recurrent theme of my discussion of these two latter strands is the
much debated question whether the Meditations constitute orthodox Stoic
doctrine, in so far as this can be defi nitely established.2 Although I do not
ignore the features of the Meditations that have been seen as non- standard,
I think Marcus is much more in line with mainstream Stoicism than is
sometimes claimed. On the interpretation offered here, the Meditations do
not only offer a unique and powerful version of ancient practical ethics.
They also provide an eloquent, if unusual, statement of the main principles
of Stoic ethics and of their interconnections with Stoic theory more broadly.
....


Table of Contents
Abbreviations and Conventions xi
INTRODUCTION xiii
Overview xiii
The Meditations—Main Features xv
Is There a Core Project? xxi
Marcus’ Ethical Outlook xxxiv
Confronting Death and Transience xlix
Ethics and Other Branches of Philosophy: Psychology lii
Ethics and Other Branches of Philosophy: the Universe lxiii
INTRODUCTION TO BOOK 1 lxxv
Note on the Text and Translation lxxxv
TRANSLATION 1
Book 1 3
Book 2 9
Book 3 14
Book 4 20
Book 5 30
Book 6 40
COMMENTARY 51
Book 1 53
Book 2 86
Book 3 104
Book 4 119
Book 5 145
Book 6 168
Bibliography 197
List of Main Themes in Meditations 2–6 206
Index Locorum 208
General Index 215

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First Edition published 2013

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Seven Books of Wisdom of the Great Path Arranged

edited by W. Y. Evans-Wentz

Foreword by DR. MARET

Yogic Commentary by TRANSLATOR-PROFESSOR C H E N - C H I C H A NG


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WISDOM-TEACHINGS AND GOOD-WISHES OF THE ADI-BUDDHA SAMANTA-BHADRA
'The Foundation of all is uncreated, uncompounded, independent,
beyond mental concept and verbal definition. Neither the term Sangsara
nor the term Nirvana can be applied to It. To realize It is to attain
Buddhahood. Not to realize It is to wander in the Sangsara. . . .
'Not knowing the Foundation, beings aforetime erred. They were
overwhelmed by the darkness of unconsciousness, whence sprang ignorance
and error. Immersed in error and obscured by ignorance, the
"knower" became bewildered and afraid. Then arose the concepts
" I " and "Others'', together with hatred. When these had grown
strong, there was born an unbroken current of sangsaric evolution. Then
the ''five poisons" of the obscuring passions, lust, anger, selfishness,
delusion, and jealousy, flourished, and there was produced an interminable
chain of evil karma.
'The root-source of error among sentient beings is thus unconscious
ignorance. And, in virtue of the power of the Good-Wishes of Me, the
Adi-Buddha, may each of them realize the radiant, immaculate mind,
innate in every living thing.'
From The Good-Wishes of the All-Good Buddha Samanta-Bhadia
(Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup's Translation).
....

Seven Books of Wisdom of the Great Path
Arranged and edited by W. Y. Evans-Wentz
Seven authentic Tibetan yoga texts, almost unknown to the occidental
world until their first publication in English in 1935, are now available
in this Galaxy Book edition. A companion to the unique Tibetan Book
of the Dead (GB 39), which the late Dr. Evans-Wentz also edited, this
volume, illustrated with photographs and reproductions of yoga paintings
and manuscripts, contains some of the principal meditations used by
illustrious Hindu and Tibetan gurus and philosophers through the ages
in attaining Right Knowledge and Enlightenment. The editor, whose
inquiry and research extended through more .than fifteen years in the
Orient, spent much time as a pupil of Hindu sages and Buddhist lamas.
He has included a body of orally transmitted tradition and teachings
received at first hand. These will be of particular interest to anthropologists
and psychologists, and to students of comparative religion and
practically applied Mahayana Yoga. Special commentaries precede each
carefully rendered text, and a comprehensive preface contrasts the tenets
of Buddhism with European concepts of religion, philosophy, and science.
Yoga, the tap root of Hinduism, Jainism, Zen Buddhism, and Taoism,
has also influenced the development of Judaism, Islam and Christianity.
These seven distinct but intimately related books, arranged in orderly
sequence, afford a comprehensive view of the spiritual teachings which
have shaped the culture of the Orient, and which are now increasingly
enriching the West's appreciation of the depths of the human psyche.
The late W. Y. Evans-Wentz, formerly of Jesus College, Oxford, is
also the editor of The Tibetan Book of the Dead (GB 39), The Tibetan
Book of the Great Liberation (GB 260), and Tibet's Great Yogi,
Milarepa (GB 294). His substantial tetralogy of works on yoga, based
on translations from the Tibetan, offers an "interpretation from within"
rarely found in the works of Western scholars. During the early years
of this century Dr. Evans-Wentz lived in India and in Sikkim, at the
invitation at the Maharaja Sidkyong Tulku, 
where he studied occult doctrines intensively.
....


Table of Contents
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION vii
DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIONS xviii
FOREWORD: From the Celtic Faith in Fairies to the Tibetan
Science of Yoga, by Dr. R. R. Marett xxii
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION . . . . xxv
YOGIC COMMENTARY, by Translator-Professor Chen-Chi Chang xxvii
GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1
I. The Importance and Original Sources of this Volume . I
II. The Commentary 3
III. Some Misconceptions Concerning Buddhism . . . 3
IV. The Incompleteness of the Occident's Knowledge of Buddhism 9
V. The Joyous Optimism of Buddhism 10
VI. The Wisdom of the Mahayana 14
VII. The Yoga Philosophy 21
VIII. Yoga and Religion 35
IX. Buddhistic Yoga .38
X. The Psychology o f the Yogic Visualizations . . . 44
XI. Karma and Rebirth 46
XII. The Exoteric Versus the Esoteric Teachings . . . 49
XIII. The Translating and Editing o f the Texts . . . 51
XIV. The Unity and Practical Value of the Texts 53
XV. The New Renaissance and the Masters of Wisdom. . 54

BOOK I
THE SUPREME PATH OF DISCIPLESHIP: THE
PRECEPTS OF THE GURUS
THE INTRODUCTION -57
I. The Book's Compiler and his Fellow Disciple . . . 57
II. The Transmission of the Teachings 58
III. The Texts of The Precious Rosary 59
IV. The Precepts Compared with Elegant Sayings' . . 60
THE OBEISANCE AND FOREWORD 67
THE TWENTY-EIGHT CATEGORIES OF YOGIC PRECEPTS 67
I. The Ten Causes of Regret 67
II, The Ten Requirements 68
III. The Ten Things to be Done 69
IV. The Ten Things to be Avoided 70
V. The Ten Things Not t o b e Avoided . . . . 70
VI. The Ten Things one Must Know. . . . 71
VII. The Ten Things to be Practised 71
VIII. The Ten Things to be Persevered in . . . 73
IX. The Ten Incentives 73
X. The Ten Errors 74
XI. The Ten Resemblances Wherein One May Err . 75
XII. The Ten Things Wherein One Erreth Not . . 76
XIII. The Thirteen Grievous Failures 76
XIV. The Fifteen Weaknesses 78
XV. The Twelve Indispensable Things . . . . 79
XVI. The Ten Signs o f a Superior Man . . . . 80
XVII. The Ten Useless Things 81
XVIII. The Ten Self-imposed Troubles 82
XIX. The Ten Things Wherein One Doeth Good to Oneself 84
XX. The Ten Best Things 85
XXI. The Ten Grievous Mistakes 86
XXII. The Ten Necessary Things 87
XXIII. The Ten Unnecessary Things 88
XXIV. The Ten More Precious Things 90
XXV. The Ten Equal Things 91
XXVI. The Ten Virtues o f the Holy Dharma. . . . 92
XXVII. The Ten Figurative Expressions. . . . . 96
XXVIII. The Ten Great Joyful Realizations . . . . 98
THE CONCLUSION 99
THE COLOPHON . 100

BOOK II
THE NIRVANIC PATH: THE YOGA OF
THE GREAT SYMBOL
THE INTRODUCTION 101
I. The History of the Great Symbol Teachings . . . 101
II. The Text and the Translation 103
III. The Character of the Great Symbol Teachings . . . 108
IV. The Line of the Gurus 110
THE OBEISANCE AND FOREWORD . . . . 115
PART I: THE PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS: THE
TEMPORAL AND SPIRITUAL TEACHINGS . . 115
PART I I : THE ESSENTIAL SUBJECT MATTER . . 121
The Ordinary Practices 121
1, The Yoga of One-Pointedness 122
2. The Yoga of the Uncreated 135
TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii
The Extra-Ordinary Practices 145
1. The Yoga of Transmuting Phenomena and Mind into
At-One-Ment 145
2. The Yoga of Non- Meditation 148
PART I I I : THE CONCLUSION 150
Recognizing the Great Symbol; and the Four Yogic Attainments 150
Analysing the Impediments and Errors while Treading the Path 151
Differentiating Experiences and Practical from Theoretical Knowledge 153
THE COLOPHON 153

BOOK III
THE PATH OF KNOWLEDGE: THE YOGA OF
THE SIX DOCTRINES
THE INTRODUCTION 155
I. The Four Classes of Tantras 155
II. The Doctrine of the Psychic-Heat 156
III. The Doctrine of the Illusory Body 161
IV. The Doctrine of the Dream-State 164
V. The Doctrine of the Clear Light 166
VI. The Doctrine of the After-Death State . . . .167
VII. The Doctrine of the Consciousness-Transference . . 169
THE OBEISANCE AND FOREWORD 171
CHAPTER I: THE DOCTRINE OF THE PSYCHIC-HEAT 172
Part I: The Five Preliminary Exercises 173
1. Visualizing the Physical Body as being Vacuous . . 173
2. Visualizing the Psychic Nerve-System as being Vacuous 176
3. Visualizing the Protective Circle 177
4. Training the Psychic Nerve-Paths 180
5. Conferring the Gift-Waves' upon the Psychic Nerve-Centres 181
Part II: The Three Fundamental Practices . . . . 184
1. Producing Psychic-Heat 184
2. Psychic-Heat Experiences 195
3. Transcendental Psychic-Heat 200
Part I I I : The Practical Application 202
1 . Obtaining the Benefit o f the Warmth . . . . 202
2. Obtaining the Benefit of the Bliss 204
CHAPTER II: THE DOCTRINE OF THE ILLUSORY BODY 209
Part I: Realizing the Impure Illusory Body to be Maya . 209
Part I I : Realizing the Pure Illusory Body to be Maya . . 210
1. The Maya of the Visualizing State 210
2. The Maya of the Perfected State 212
Part I I I : Realizing All Things t o b e Maya . . . . 214
CHAPTER III: THE DOCTRINE OF THE DREAMSTATE 215
Part I: Comprehending the Nature of the Dream-State. . 215
1. Comprehending It by the Power of Resolution . . 216
2. Comprehending It by the Power of Breath . . . 216
3. Comprehending It by the Power of Visualization . 217
Part I I : Transmuting the Dream-Content . . . . 220
Part I I I : Realizing the Dream-State to be Maya . . . 221
Part IV: Meditating upon the Thatness of the Dream-State . 222
CHAPTER IV: THE DOCTRINE OF THE CLEAR LIGHT 223
Part I : The Fundamental Clear Light . . . . . 223
Part I I : The Clear Light on the Path 224
1. Blending the Nature of the Clear Light with the Path
During the Day-Time 224
2. Blending the Nature of the Clear Light with the Path
During the Night-Time 226
3. Blending the Nature of the Clear Light with the Path
During the After-Death State 229
Part I I I : The Resultant Clear Light 230
CHAPTER V: THE DOCTRINE OF THE AFTER-DEATH STATE 232
Part I: Realizing the State of the Clear Light of the Dharma-
Kaya while in the Bardo 233
1. The Bardo o f the Moments o f Death . . . . 235
2. The Yogic Art of Dying 237
Part I I : Realizing the State of the Sambhoga-Kaya while in the Bardo 238
1. Karmic Results of Inability to Recognize the Clear Light 239
2. Description of the After-Death Existence . . . 240
3. The After-Deat.h Attaining of Enlightenment . . 241
Part I I I : Realizing the State of the Nirmana-Kaya while in the Bardo 242
1. The Bardo of Seeking Rebirth 242
2. The Yogic Art o f Choosing a Womb . . . . 245
TABLE OF CONTENTS xv
CHAPTER VI: THE DOCTRINE OF CONSCIOUSNESSTRANSFERENCE 246
Part I: The Three Transferences 246
Part I I : The Transference of the Consciousness by Meditating upon the Guru 247
1. The Practising 248
2. The Practical Application 250
THE COLOPHON 250

BOOK IV
THE PATH OF TRANSFERENCE: THE YOGA
OF CONSCIOUSNESS-TRANSFERENCE
THE INTRODUCTION 253
I. Pho-wa and its Mastery 253
II. The Related Doctrine of Trongjug 254
III. The Yogic Tale Told by the Gurus 255
IV. The Yogic Tale Concerning Typhoo 256
V. The Secret Lore and its Survival 256
PARTI: THE PROFOUND PATH OF CONSCIOUSNESSTRANSFERENCE 261
The Refuge 261
The Visualizing of Vajra- Yogin! and the Gurus . . . 261
The Prayer to the Gurus 262
The Prayer to the Root-Guru 264
The Meditation upon the Guru 264
The Visualizing of Vajra-Dakini and the Gurus . . . 265
The Colophon 268
PART I I : THE TRANSFERENCE OF THE CONSCIOUSNESS
OF ONE DECEASED 269
The Visualization for Devotees of Lower Degree . . 270
The Application of the Transference by Devotees of Higher Degree 272
The State of the Highest Devotees 273
The Colophon 274
PART I I I : THE DESCRIPTION OF THE LINE OF THE GURUS . 274

BOOK V
THE PATH OF THE MYSTIC SACRIFICE: THE
YOGA OF SUBDUING THE LOWER SELF
THE INTRODUCTION 277
I . The History o f the Doctrine o f Non-Ego . . . . 277
II. The Tibetan Versification 278
III. The Practitioners of the Chad Rite 280
IV. The Essential Teachings 281
V. The Chod Rite as a Mystic Drama 282
VI. The Comparison with the Tibetan Mystery- Play . . 284
VII. The Origin of Disease According to the Lamas . . 285
VIII. The Comparison with the Bali Ceremony of Ceylon . 287
IX. The Art of Exorcism 287
X. The Performance o f the Mystery-Play . . . . 289
XI. The Kinchenjunga War-Dance 294
XII. The Anthropological Interpretation 295
XIII. The Bodhisaltva's Mystic Sacrifice 297
THE YOGIC DANCE WHICH DESTROYETH ERRONEOUS BELIEFS 301
THE YOGIC DANCE OF THE FIVE DIRECTIONS . . 303
THE TRANSFIXING OF THE ELEMENTALS OF SELF . 306
THE VISUALIZING OF THE GURUS AND DEITIES . 307
THE YOGINS PRAYER, AND RESOLUTION . . 308-9
THE DEDICATION OF THE ILLUSORY BODY IN SACRIFICE 309
THE PRAYER TO THE GURU 310
THE VISUALIZING OF THE CORPSE AND WRATHFUL GODDESS 311
THE SUMMONS TO THE SACRIFICIAL FEAST . . 312
THE OFFERING OF THE SACRIFICIAL FEAST IN WORSHIP 314
THE OFFERING OF THE SACRIFICIAL FEAST TO SPIRITUAL BEINGS 315
THE DEDICATING OF THE ACT OF SACRIFICE . . 315
THE DEDICATING OF THE MERIT OF THE ACT OF SACRIFICE 316
THE COLOPHON 318
THE ADDENDUM 319
I. The Objects Needed for Practising the Rite . . . 319
II. The Place and the Mental Imagery Prescribed . . 321
III. Directions to the Yogin 323
IV. The Visualizing of the Mandala 324
V. The Mixed, the Red, and the Black Feast . . . 325
VI. The Meditation to Accompany the Sacrificial Offering . 327
VII. The Time for Performing the Various Feasts . . . 328
VIII. The Visualizing of the Human Skeleton and Wrathful
Dakini . . . . . . . . . . 329
IX. The State of Mind Necessary 331
X. The Final Meditation 332
XI. The Good-Wishes and Benediction . . . . 333
XII. The Conclusion 333

BOOK VI
THE PATH OF THE FIVE WISDOMS: THE
YOGA OF THE LONG HUM
THE INTRODUCTION: THE YOGA OF THE FIVE WISDOMS . 335
THE SYMBOLIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LONG HUM . 339
THE OBEISANCE AND MEDITATION . . . .340
THE CONCLUDING MANTRA 341

BOOK VII
THE PATH OF THE TRANSCENDENTAL
WISDOM: THE YOGA OF THE VOIDNESS
THE INTRODUCTION 343
I. The Prajna-Paramita: its History and Esotericism . . 343
II. Translations from a n Apocr3'phal Text . . . . 346
III. The Canonical Texts and Commentaries . . . . 347
IV. The Doctrine of the Voidness Viewed Historically . . 349
V. The Absolute a s Inherent i n Phenomena . . . . 351
VI. The Practising o f the Prajna-Paramita . . . . 352
THE OBEISANCE 355
THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TITLE . . . . 355
THE QUESTION OF SHARI-PUTRA 355
THE REPLY BY AVALOKITESHVARA . . . .356
THE MANTRA OF THE PRAJNA-PARAMITA . . . 358
THE BUDDHA'S APPROVAL 358
THE ADDENDUM 359
I . The Superiority o f the Prajna-Paramita . . . . 359
II. The Three Kinds of Prajna 361
III. The Personal Ego 362
IV. The Existence or Non-Existence of Atoms . . . 363
INDEX 365


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First published by Oxford University Press, London, 1935
Second Edition, 1958
First published as an Oxford University Press paperback, 1967
This reprint 1978
Printed in the United States of America

How Russian hackers and trolls helped elect a president 

KATHLEEN HALL JAMIESON

. - what we don’t, can’t, and do know -.


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PROLOGUE
“You would ‘have to believe in unicorns’ to conclude that
Russian meddling changed the 2016 election results.”1
Former Arkansas governor Mike Huckabee. December 12, 2016.
“We learned that the Russians are more involved in our election process than
the League of Women Voters.”2
Humorist Dave Barry. 2016 year- end review.
“When I decided, I said to myself, I said, ‘You know, this Russia thing with
Trump and Russia is a made up story.’ ”3
President Donald J. Trump on the context for his firing of FBI director
James Comey. May 11, 2017.
“I haven’t seen, even once, any direct proof of Russian interference in the
presidential election.”4
Russian President Vladimir Putin. June 2017.
“We do not know . . . how to place an advert on Facebook. We have never done
this, and the Russian side has never been involved in it.”5
A Kremlin spokesperson. September 2017.
“The Russia hoax continues, now it’s ads on Facebook. What about the totally
biased and dishonest Media coverage in favor of Crooked Hillary?”6
President Donald J. Trump. September 22, 2017.
“He [Putin] said he didn’t meddle— I asked him again. . . . You can only ask so
many times. I just asked him again. He said he absolutely did not meddle in
our election. He did not do what they are saying he did.”7
President Donald J. Trump. November 11, 2017.
In December 2017 BuzzFeed reported that in July 2017 Putin’s Deputy
Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov offered a State Department under secretary
a pact under which neither country would interfere in the other’s
internal affairs. According to the BuzzFeed account, the Trump administration
rejected the overture.8
“[T] he big emerging journalism story is the Russians, who, according to
many unnamed sources, messed with the election. Nobody seems to know
how, specifically, the Russians affected the election, but everybody is pretty
sure they did something.”9
Humorist Dave Barry. 2017 year- end review.
“Today, Sen. Jeff Flake gave a big speech on the Senate floor, and he compared
President Trump to Russian dictator Joseph Stalin. Trump said, ‘Why?
Because we were both elected by Russians?’ ”10
Comedian Jimmy Fallon, host of The Tonight Show. January 17, 2018.
“Russia started their anti- US campaign in 2014, long before I announced that
I would run for President. The results of the election were not impacted. The
Trump campaign did nothing wrong— no collusion!”11
President Donald Trump. February 16, 2018. 
Response to the February
2018 Mueller grand jury indictment of thirteen Russians for their
interventions in the 2016 election.
“Could anyone really believe that Russia, thousands of miles
away . . . influenced the outcome of the election? Doesn’t that sound ridiculous
even to you?”12
Vladimir Putin to NBC’s Megyn Kelly in a March 2, 2018, interview,
aired in the United States on March 9, 2018.
“The Russians had no impact on our votes whatsoever, but certainly there was
meddling and probably there was meddling from other countries and maybe
other individuals.” Asked about Russia interfering in the 2018 midterm election,
he added, “No, because we’ll counteract whatever they do.”13
President Donald J. Trump. March 6, 2018.
On July 16, 2018, at the joint Putin-Trump press conference in Helsinki,
Jeff Mason of Reuters asked the Russian president, “Did you want President
Trump to win the election, and did you direct any of your officials to help him
do that?” Putin responded, “Yes, I did. Yes, I did. Because he talked about
bringing the US-Russia relationship back to normal.” Mason later told NPR
that “my suspicion is he heard the first part of my question and may not have
heard the second part” (July 18, 2018).

After Chris Wallace of Fox News handed him a copy of the July 13, 2018
US indictment of twelve Russian military intelligence agents for hacking
the Democratic accounts, Putin stated, “Was it rigging of facts? Was it
some forgery of facts? That’s the important…point…. Was there any false
information planted? No, it wasn’t. These hackers…hacked a certain e-mail
account and there was information about manipulations conducted within
the Democratic Party to incline the process in favor of one candidate and
as far as I know the entire party leadership resigned…. Manipulation of the
public opinion should stop and an apology should be made to the public at
large instead of looking for those responsible or the party at fault.”
Interview with Chris Wallace, Fox News, July 16, 2018.
....

Introduction
US Susceptibilities, Troll
and Hacker Synchronies,
and My Suppositions

Imagine a strategy memo forecasting cyberattacks by Russian hackers,
trolls, and bots designed to roil social discontent and damage the
electoral prospects of a major party US presidential nominee, or, if she
winds up winning, sabotage her ability to govern. Guaranteed payoff. No
fingerprints. No keystroke record. No contrails in the cloud. To ensure
that Americans would believe that disparaging messages about her were
made in the US, use bitcoin to buy space and set up virtual private networks
(VPNs) on American servers. Distribute hacked content stolen from the
accounts of her staff and associates through an intermediary, WikiLeaks.
Use identity theft, stolen Social Security numbers, and appropriated IDs to
circumvent Facebook and PayPal’s demand for actual names, birth dates,
and addresses. On platforms such as Instagram and Twitter, register under
assumed names. Diffuse and amplify your attack and advocacy through
posts on Facebook, tweets and retweets on Twitter, videos on YouTube,
reporting and commentary on RT, blogging on Tumblr, news sharing on
Reddit, and viral memes and jokes on 9GAG.1 Add to the mix a video game
called Hilltendo in which a missile- straddling Clinton figure vaporizes
classified emails sought by the FBI.2 Employ “online agitators” and bots to
upvote posts from imposter websites such as BlackMattersUS.com to the
top of such subreddits as r/ The_ Donald and r/ HillaryForPrison.3 Drive content to trend.

To maximize the impact of your handiwork, use data analytics and searchengine
maximization tools built into the social media platforms. To test and
fuel doubts about the security of US voter information, hack the election systems
of states.4 And, throughout the primary and general election season,
seed the notion that if Hillary Clinton were to win, she would have done so
by rigging the election, an outcome that would repay her assaults on the legitimacy
of their leader’s presidency with doubts about her own. Were she instead
to lose, she would no longer be a thistle in the toned torso of the hackers
and trolls’ boss’s likely boss.

Every result but one produces desirable results for the Kremlin. Outcome
one: Clinton is off the international stage. Outcome two: she wins but can’t
govern effectively. Outcome three: the former Secretary of State is elected
and the country simply moves on, but the sabotage nonetheless has magnified
cultural tensions and functioned as a pilot from which to birth later success—
perhaps when she runs for a second term. The only eventuality that damages
the Russian cybersoldiers and their commander- in- chief is the fourth in
which, in real time, the cyberattackers are unmasked by a vigilant intelligence
community, condemned by those in both major political parties and around
the world, characterized by the media as spies and saboteurs, the Russian
messaging is blocked or labeled as Russian propaganda, and, when included
in media accounts, the stolen content is relentlessly tied to its Russian origins
and sources. None of that happened.

Instead, to the surprise of the Russian masterminds as well as both
Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, he won the Electoral College and with
it a four- year claim on 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue. Although countrywide
she bested him by almost 2.9 million votes,5 he unexpectedly captured an
Electoral College majority by running the table. By the end of the evening
of November 8, Florida as well as Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania
were in his column. The ways in which Russian hacking and social media
messaging altered the content of the electoral dialogue and contributed to
Donald Trump’s victory are the subjects of this book.

To begin my exploration, this overview chapter will highlight key findings
of the US intelligence community; preview my focus on the hackers and trolls
and the synergies between them; justify casting the Russian machinations
as acts of cyberwar; outline ways in which susceptibilities in our system of
government and media structures magnified their effects; and note five
presuppositions that will shape my analysis of the Russian trolls’ work and
one that will guide my study of the effects of the hackers.
....


Table of Contents
Acknowledgments ix
Prologue xi
Introduction: US Susceptibilities, Troll and Hacker
Synchronies, and My Suppositions 1
Part One Who Did It, Why, and What Research Says about
How It Might Matter
1 How Do We Know That Russian Spies and Saboteurs (aka Hackers
and Trolls) Intervened in the 2016 Presidential Election? 21
2 A Theory of Communication That Posits Effects 36
Part Two The Prerequisites of Troll Influence
3 The First Troll Prerequisite: Widespread Messaging 67
4 The Second Troll Prerequisite: Messages Aligned with
Trump’s Electoral Interests 76
5 The Third Troll Prerequisite: Mobilizing Veterans
and White Christians, Demobilizing Blacks and
Sanders’s Supporters, and Shifting Liberals to Stein 96
6 The Fourth Troll Prerequisite: Persuasive Appeals 118
7 The Fifth Troll Prerequisite: Well- Targeted Content 131
Part Three How the Russians Affected the News and Debate
Agendas in the Last Month of the Campaign
8 The Effect of Russian Hacking on Press Coverage 153
9 The Effect of Hacked Content on the Last Two Presidential Debates 179
10 The Russian Effect on the Media Agenda in the
Last Days of the Election 189
Part Four What We Don’t, Can’t, and Do Know About How Russian
Hackers and Trolls Helped Elect Donald J. Trump
Afterword: Where Does This Leave Us? 215
Appendices: Evaluations of Clinton and Trump Traits in October 225
Appendix One: Changes in Perceptions of Clinton
and Trump in October 227
Appendix Two: Debate 2 and Debate 3 Exposure Effect on
Candidate Trait Evaluations 233
Appendix Three: Association between Perception Changes
and Vote Intentions 239
Appendix Four: Effect of Traits on Vote Intention 245
Notes 249
Index 305

Screenbook
Cyberwar. How Russian hackers and trolls helped elect a president - what we don’t, can’t, and do knowe
....
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Printed by Sheridan Books, Inc., United States of America

- Six Strategic Principles for Managers -

Mark McNeilly

I. Strategic planning. 2. Sun-tzu, 6th cent. B.C.—Views on management


Sun Tzu and the Art of Business- Six Strategic Principles for Managers
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PREFACE
Sun Tzu's The Art of War has proved to be a classic work on strategy,
applicable to both military and business situations. While it has been
relatively easy to apply the military concepts to wars, both past and
current, it has proved much more difficult to translate Sun Tzu's strategic
concepts into successful business strategies. The purpose of this
book is to crystalize the concepts and ideas put forth in The Art of War
into six strategic principles that can be more easily understood and
applied in the world of business. These principles are then illustrated
by business examples, which explicitly describe how the principles can
have a direct impact on the strategies of real companies around the world.

My interest in writing this book resulted from the combination of
insights I gained working as a business strategist for a major global
corporation, the thoughts I'd compiled from my readings as an amateur
military historian, and my interest in Sun Tzu's strategic philosophy.
These three forces led me to begin work on Sun Tzu and the Art of
Business five years ago.

It should be of comfort to the reader that, in the process of researching
this book, I found more and more evidence of the soundness
of its principles. For example, when I started writing, I began by using
business examples that were still in the process of sorting themselves
out. Many of the companies I followed were involved in situations that
only came to closure as the book neared its final draft. It was very
reassuring that the examples I had chosen of good and bad implementation
of strategy turned out as the principles of Sun Tzu had predicted.

The problems of Kmart, AT&T Global Information Systems, and Philip
Morris as well as the effectiveness of Southwest Airlines, to name a few,
proved that the principles are extremely useful in predicting business
success or failure and implementing strategy. I believe that if you understand
and use the principles of Sun Tzu and the Art of Business appropriately,
you too will see their effectiveness.
M.R.M.
Zumbrota, Minnesota. May 1996
....

Introduction
Some time around 400 B.C., during a period in China known as the
Age of the Warring States, there arose a general from the state of Ch'i
known as Sun Tzu. His ability to win victories for his warlord gained
him fame and power.

To hand down the wisdom he had gained from his years of battles,
Sun Tzu wrote a book, The Art of War, that became the classic work
on strategy in China. His book, which details a complete philosophy
on how to decisively defeat one's opponent, has given guidance to
military theorists and generals throughout the ages, both in the East and
the West. The Art of War not only contains Sun Tzu's insights but also
provides additional elucidation by military commentators who came
after him, such as Li Ch'iian, Tu Mu, and others. In The Art of War,
military readers found an holistic approach to strategy that was powerful
yet succinctly communicated—it is truly a masterpiece on strategy.1

Uses of The Art of War
In China, the first Emperor Qin Shihuang studied The Art of War.
Adhering to its principles, he united China for the first time around
200 B.C.2 Twenty-one centuries later, Mao Zedong used Sun Tzu's
writings to defeat Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists in 1949, again
reuniting China. Sun Tzu also influenced Mao's writings on guerilla
warfare, which in turn provided the strategy for communist insurgencies
from Southeast Asia to Africa to the Americas.

Japan was introduced to Sun Tzu's •writings around 760 A.D. and
her generals quickly absorbed its lessons. The three most well-known
of her samurai—Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa
leyasu—all mastered The Art of War. This mastery enabled them to
transform Japan from a collection of feudal states into a single nation.
In the West, The Art of War first made its appearance in 1772 in
Europe after being translated into French by a Jesuit missionary. It is
possible that Napoleon read and was influenced by Sun Tzu's work,
given both his interest in all things military and his culture's interest in
Chinese literature.

B. H. Liddell Hart, the British military historian whose theories on
armored warfare led to the development of the German blitzkrieg, was
amazed at the depth of Sun Tzu's military philosophy and instruction.
He was impressed by how closely Sun Tzu's ideas mirrored his own
theories of warfare and thought that, had The Art of War been more
widely read and accepted by World War I generals, much of the terrible
slaughter of trench warfare could have been avoided.

The principles discussed in The Art of War have been used successfully
in countless battles throughout time. Speed was an essential
factor in the victories of Genghis Khan and his Mongolian horde. Shaping
their enemies by the skillful use of alliances allowed the Romans
to expand and maintain their empire. Secrecy and deception were used
in major World War II battles, both by the Japanese in their attack on
Pearl Harbor and by the Allies to mislead the Germans about the exact
location of their invasion of France. The use of intelligence was critical
to American success in the Cuban missile crisis. The Viet Cong lived
by the rule of avoiding strength and attacking weakness, while the Red
Army used this principle to deal Germany's Sixth Army a devastating
defeat at Stalingrad.

Most recently, Sun Tzu's principles were put to the test in Desert
Storm. By controlling the air both to follow Iraqi movements and mask
his own troops' movements, General H. Norman Schwartzkopf fooled
Saddam Hussein as to the location of his attack. Threatening an amphibious
assault in the east, Schwartzkopf did an end-run on the Iraqi
army in the west, thus winning a stunning victory with extremely low
casualties. Deception, speed, and attacking the enemy's weakness—all
part of Sun Tzu's philosophy—added up to amazing success.

The Six Principles and the Plan of This Book
To make the transition from Sun Tzu's The Art of War to Sun Tzu and
the Art of Business, I have extracted what I believe are the most important
and pertinent strategic principles from Sun Tzu and devoted a
chapter to each.12 These principles are:
1. Win All Without Fighting
Capturing Your Market Without Destroying It
2. Avoid Strength, Attack Weakness
Striking Where They Least Expect It
3. Deception and Foreknowledge
Maximizing the Power of Market Information
4. Speed and Preparation
Moving Swiftly To Overcome Your Competitors
5. Shape Your Opponent
Employing Strategy To Master The Competition
6. Character-based Leadership
Providing Effective Leadership In Turbulent Times
Each chapter discusses how these principles apply in the real world
of business, giving examples of companies that have used them effectively.

The final chapter describes how to go about putting the principles
into practice. It provides a systematic way of creating winning strategies
based on the timeless ideas of Sun Tzu. The book is made complete
by the inclusion of the original translation of The Art of War by Samuel
B. Griffith. Throughout, quotations are referenced in parentheses to
that translation.
....


Table of Contents
Introduction 3
1. Win All Without Fighting:
Capturing Your Market Without Destroying It g
2. Avoid Strength, Attack Weakness:
Striking Where They Least Expect It 23
3. Deception and Foreknowledge;
Maximizing the Power of Market Information 40
4. Speed and Preparation:
Moving Swiftly To Overcome Your Competitors 59
5. Shape Your Opponent:
Employing Strategy To Master the Competition 90
6. Character-Based Leadership:
Providing Effective Leadership in Turbulent Times
7. Putting The Art of Business into Practice 141
Notes 155
Suggested Readings of The Art of War 165
Original Translation by Samuel B. Griffith 167
Bibliography 251
Index 257
1


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Sun Tzu and the Art of Business- Six Strategic Principles for Managers
....
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