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INVESTIGATING HISTORY’S INTRIGUING QUESTIONS

Steven L. Danver, Editor

Volume One Prehistory and Early Civilizations
Volume Two The AncientWorld to the Early Middle Ages
Volume Three The High Middle Ages to the ModernWorld
Volume Four The Twentieth Century to the Present


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Contributor List
Claire Brennan
James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
Justin Corfield
Geelong Grammar School, Geelong, Australia
Cheryl Golden
Newman University, Wichita, Kansas
Harald Haarmann
Institute of Archaeomythology, Luum€aki, Finland
Peter N. Jones
Bauu Institute, Boulder, Colorado
Laszlo Kocsis
South East European University, Tetovo, Macedonia
John Lee
Utah Valley State University, Orem, Utah
Thaddeus Nelson
Columbia University, New York, New York
James Seelye
University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio
Talaat Shehata
Columbia University, New York, New York
Olena Smyntyna
Odessa National University, Odessa, Ukraine
Barry Stiefel
Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana
Benjamin D. Thomas
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
Patrick G. Zander
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia


Introduction
In the countless history courses I’ve taught over the years, the one question that
invariably appears at some point (usually from a nonmajor who has to take the
course for some general education requirement) is: ‘‘Why should we study history?’’
This is not an idle question, but an esoteric one that goes to the heart of
what history is and what it can tell us. Usually, the student asking that question
has the notion that history consists of a static set of ‘‘facts,’’ unchanging (or, at
least, it should not change) and ultimately meaningless for modern life. Students
often buy into Henry Ford’s famous take on the subject, ‘‘history is more
or less bunk,’’ rather than George Santayana’s maxim, ‘‘those who cannot
remember the past are condemned to repeat it.’’ In the end, neither of these perspectives
is especially true or helpful. This is because both writing history and
understanding history are complex activities. They are our attempts to make
sense of the past, usually drawing from incomplete or biased accounts of what
actually happened. Even when the accounts are complete, the interpretations of
history can vary radically depending on the perspective of the person writing.
Perhaps the best explanation of the problem comes from the novelist Aldous
Huxley, who, in his novel The Devils of Loudun, said ‘‘The charm of history
and its enigmatic lesson consist in the fact that, from age to age, nothing
changes and yet everything is completely different.’’
This work proceeds on the assumption that history is not a subject, but
rather an activity. The activity of history engages the capability of students to
use reason. On a purely anecdotal basis, I’ve asked many of my colleagues
which skills they believed were the most important for their students to possess
a high proficiency in when they begin college. Almost invariably, the two top
answers were writing and critical thinking. In Taxonomy of Learning, developed
in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom as an effort to show the evolution of mental skills
in pyramidal form, critical thinking skills are integral to the third and fourth
levels: application and analysis. The students who ask why it is important to
study history are proceeding on the assumption that history is only an activity
that engages the first two levels: knowledge and comprehension. If that were all
there is to history, then Ford may have been right. However, application and
analysis are also key to understanding, without which one cannot reach the final
two levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy—synthesis and evaluation—which are essential
to the creation of history. So, to summarize, critical thinking skills are key
to moving from the first two levels—knowledge and comprehension—to the
highest levels—synthesis and evaluation. In order to understand and, eventually,
to write history, critical thinking is the transitional, indispensable skill.
Judging once again from my unscientific survey of my colleagues, it is one
of the skills with which many students who are entering college struggle. This
realization was the genesis of this project. Popular Controversies in World History
takes as its subjects the topics over which there has been considerable historical
debate. Some of these topics will not be familiar to students, but many
of them will. Did the Great Flood, described in both the biblical book of Genesis
and the Epic of Gilgamesh, actually happen? Is the lost continent of Atlantis
just a myth, or was really such a place? Is the Shroud of Turin the actual burial
cloth of Jesus Christ? Was William Shakespeare the sole author of all of the
plays attributed to him? Who was the ‘‘man in the iron mask’’? Did Franklin D.
Roosevelt allow the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor to happen as a pretext for
the U.S. entrance into World War II? Did Lee Harvey Oswald act alone in
assassinating John F. Kennedy in Dallas? These questions and more reveal that
history is not a static set of facts, but rather a living, expanding set of ideas and
interpretations. To understand those interpretations and formulate those ideas,
critical thinking skills are paramount in importance.
The purpose of this work is to present the varying perspectives on events
like these. These topics, as well as the ability to think critically about them, are
vitally important parts of the social science curriculum at both the secondary
and postsecondary levels. Each chapter takes a particular topic that has generated
controversy either within the historical profession or in society as a whole
and offers pro and con points of view, allowing readers to draw their own conclusions.
The work covers all eras of human history, both before and after the
advent of the written record. Each chapter in Popular Controversies in World
History is formatted in the style of a historical debate, with a ‘‘pro’’ and a
‘‘con’’ section that presents contrasting perspectives. In most cases, both of
these perspectives are or have been widely held within academia and supported
by scholarship. The readers are then given the opportunity to exercise their critical
thinking skills to evaluate the evidence presented by each side, to assess the
validity of the arguments made by the authors, and eventually to determine
which conclusions they accept or reject.
Of course, I could never have presented these arguments, ranging across so
many eras and subdisciplines of history, by myself. This work represents the
efforts of 62 other scholars with whom I have had the privilege to work. In
addition, much of the early work on this project, especially determining the format
to be used to accomplish our goals and formulation of the various questions
to be debated, was done in conjunction with Geoff Golson, to whom I give due
credit. I’d also like to thank the editorial and production staff at ABC-CLIO,
including David Tipton, editorial manager; Barbara Patterson, who administered
the considerable paperwork involved; Kim Kennedy-White, who helped me
refine the manuscript submissions; and Donald Schmidt and his team, who
oversaw the production work to turn the manuscript into a book. Without the
efforts of such a fantastic team, this work would not have been possible.


Table of Contents
VOLUME ONE
Prehistory and Early Civilizations
Introduction, xv
List of Contributors, xix
CHAPTER 1
Tool use is characteristic of hominids and apes, but not of other animal
species, 1
PRO Talaat Shehata
CON Patrick G. Zander
CHAPTER 2
Agriculture, or the domestication of plants, diffused from its start in the Middle
East to the rest of the world, 23
PRO Olena Smyntyna
CON Harald Haarmann
CHAPTER 3
The Great Flood referred to in the Book of Noah and in Gilgamesh resulted
from the flooding of the Black Sea by an influx of higher-level water from the
Mediterranean via the Dardenelles and Bosporus, 51
PRO Harald Haarmann
CON John Lee
CHAPTER 4
Much of what is now considered to be Classic culture actually
has Afroasiatic roots, 75
PRO Talaat Shehata
CON Harald Haarmann
CHAPTER 5
China’s head start in technological innovation was retarded by its efficient and
centralized imperial government, 103
PRO Talaat Shehata
CON John Lee
CHAPTER 6
The findings of Neolithic drawings at C¸ atalh€oy€uk in Turkey are a fraud, 127
PRO Justin Corfield
CON Harald Haarmann
CHAPTER 7
The existence of Atlantis is not entirely mythical, 149
PRO Laszlo Kocsis
CON Cheryl Golden
CHAPTER 8
Lemuria is not the invention of religious enthusiasts, but rather, actually
existed, 179
PRO Laszlo Kocsis
CON Claire Brennan
CHAPTER 9
Native American peoples came to North and South America by boat
as well as by land bridge, 207
PRO Peter N. Jones
CON James Seelye
CHAPTER 10
The ancient Egyptians used volunteers, not slaves, to build the pyramids, 227
PRO Harald Haarmann
CON Talaat Shehata
CHAPTER 11
Ancient Egyptian obelisks were raised by a hitherto undiscovered
technology, 249
PRO Talaat Shehata
CON Patrick G. Zander
CHAPTER 12
The Beta Israel (or Falasha) People of Ethiopia are one of the Lost
Tribes of Israel, 271
PRO Barry Stiefel
CON Talaat Shehata
CHAPTER 13
Ancient findings of Ancient Babylonian cities confirm the
Old Testament, 295
PRO Benjamin D. Thomas
CON Thaddeus Nelson
Index, 317
VOLUME TWO
The Ancient World to the Early Middle Ages
Introduction, xv
List of Contributors, xix
CHAPTER 1
The Ark of the Covenant is in Axum, Ethiopia, 1
PRO Talaat Shehata
CON Thaddeus Nelson
CHAPTER 2
The Greek city-states were ‘‘democratic’’ by our modern American
definition, 21
PRO Cenap C¸ akmak
CON John Lee
CHAPTER 3
The Ogham Celtic script is derived from the Norse Rune script, 43
PRO Justin Corfield
CON Harald Haarmann
CHAPTER 4
The ‘‘Trial of Socrates,’’ described by Plato, was an actual event that
occurred in 399 BCE, rather than merely a philosophical device used
by Sophists in teaching Apologia, 63
PRO Todd W. Ewing
CON John Lee
CHAPTER 5
Pushyamitra Sunga, a Hindu ruler in the second century BCE, was a great
persecutor of the Buddhists, 83
PRO Caleb Simmons
CON K. T. S. Sarao
CHAPTER 6
The Shroud of Turin is actually the wrapping shroud of Jesus, 103
PRO Justin Corfield
CON Thaddeus Nelson
CHAPTER 7
A Staffordshire inscription points to the location of the Holy Grail; it
may be in Wales, 125
PRO John Lee
CON Juliette Wood
CHAPTER 8
Nestorius did not intend to argue that Christ had a dual nature, but that view
became labeled Nestorianism, 145
PRO Mark Dickens
CON Annette Morrow
CHAPTER 9
The Celtic Church that arose after 400 CE as distinct from Roman Catholicism
is a modern construct, rather than a historical reality, 175
PRO Michael Greaney
CON Joseph P. Byrne
CHAPTER 10
The inhabitants of Easter Island who erected the monoliths were from South
America, not from Polynesia, 203
PRO Chris Howell
CON Harald Haarmann
CHAPTER 11
The Roman Empire’s collapse was primarily due to social and political
problems rather than the Barbarian invasions, 229
PRO Heather Buchanan
CON Laszlo Kocsis
CHAPTER 12
The Hawaiian and other Polynesian seafarers developed navigation methods
based on observation of constellations and currents, so that they could sail
intentionally from Tahiti to Hawaii and back, 257
PRO Harald Haarmann
CON Claire Brennan
CHAPTER 13
The Toltecs and Maya developed wheels for religious reasons, but not for
wheelbarrows or other practical uses. The reason is that they had sufficient
slave labor, 281
PRO Talaat Shehata
CON Harald Haarmann
CHAPTER 14
Native American languages can be traced to three grand linguistic roots, 301
PRO Harald Haarmann
CON Peter N. Jones
CHAPTER 15
The historical Buddha was born in 563 BCE and lived to 483 BCE, 325
PRO Anita Sharma
CON K. T. S. Sarao
Index, 347
VOLUME THREE
The High Middle Ages to the Modern World
Introduction, xv
List of Contributors, xix
CHAPTER 1
North American rune stones point to extensive exploration by the Norse of
North America, 1
PRO Justin Corfield
CON Harald Haarmann
CHAPTER 2
The Ancestral Puebloans lined up their communities so that, although miles
apart, they could signal each other with fires by line of sight to
communicate, 25
PRO Linda Karen Miller
CON Peter N. Jones
CHAPTER 3
The Mayan kingdoms died out from disease, 49
PRO Justin Corfield
CON Chris Howell
CHAPTER 4
The Chinese explorations of the 1420s reached both coasts of North and South
America, 69
PRO Justin Corfield
CON Eric Cunningham
CHAPTER 5
The technologies that allowed Europe to dominate the world were all imported
from the East: compass, lateen-rigged sail, gunpowder, windmill, stirrup,
moveable type, 93
PRO David Blanks
CON Talaat Shehata
CHAPTER 6
Richard III was innocent of the charge of murder, 117
PRO Charles Beem
CON Jeffrey Mifflin
CHAPTER 7
Columbus intentionally underestimated the circumference of Earth in order to
get funding, 141
PRO Talaat Shehata
CON Joseph P. Byrne
CHAPTER 8
European pathogens caused the decline of Cahokia and Mississippian mound
builders, 165
PRO Chris Howell
CON James Seelye
CHAPTER 9
Shakespeare’s plays were written by someone other than William Shakespeare
of Stratford-upon-Avon, 191
PRO Alexander Hugo Schulenburg
CON Jeffrey Mifflin
CHAPTER 10
Galileo willfully violated the injunctions of the Inquisition and was thus guilty
at his 1633 trial, 225
PRO Joseph P. Byrne
CON Arthur K. Steinberg
CHAPTER 11
The Man in the Iron Mask was Count Ercole Antonio Mattioli, 249
PRO Justin Corfield
CON Heather K. Michon
CHAPTER 12
Prince Louis Charles (Louis XVII), also known as the ‘‘Lost Dauphin,’’
survived captivity during the French Revolution and was allowed to escape in
1795, 267
PRO John Lee
CON Lorri Brown
CHAPTER 13
Charles Darwin got his idea of evolution from ‘‘social Darwinist’’ Herbert
Spencer who published first, 287
PRO Ian Morley
CON A. J. Angelo
CHAPTER 14
Slavery was unprofitable for slave owners, 309
PRO Radica Mahase
CON Jerry C. Drake
CHAPTER 15
Lincoln maneuvered the South into firing the first shot at Fort Sumter, 333
PRO Rolando Avila
CON Lee Oberman
Index, 355
VOLUME FOUR
The Twentieth Century to the Present
Introduction, xv
List of Contributors, xix
CHAPTER 1
The Progressive movement in the United States and in other countries in the
first decade of the 20th century represented a middle-class, conservative
reaction against the rise of both big business and big labor that had created a
status revolution, 1
PRO Kevin Wilson
CON Arthur K. Steinberg
CHAPTER 2
The captain of the ship Californian was guilty of gross negligence in not
coming to the rescue of the survivors of the Titanic, 25
PRO Tim J. Watts
CON Elizabeth D. Schafer
CHAPTER 3
The assassins of Archduke Ferdinand were funded by the Serbian
government, 49
PRO Laszlo Kocsis
CON Steve Garrin
CHAPTER 4
The deaths of over one million Armenians in Turkey were due to a Turkish
government policy of genocide, 83
PRO James Frusetta
CON Cenap C¸ akmak
CHAPTER 5
The British had shipped weapons aboard the Lusitania, in effect using women
and children as ‘‘human shields’’ for a war cargo, 107
PRO Ardhana Mudambi
CON Justin Corfield
CHAPTER 6
Woodrow Wilson’s neutrality in World War I was so blatantly pro-British that
he forced the Germans into attacking U.S. shipping, 127
PRO Walter F. Bell
CON Justin Corfield
CHAPTER 7
Mahatma Gandhi would not have been a world leader without the
influence of Rabindranath Tagore, 147
PRO Rajini Pani
CON Rajshekhar
CHAPTER 8
Sacco and Vanzetti were innocent, 171
PRO Annessa Babic
CON Arthur K. Steinberg
CHAPTER 9
Warren Harding was murdered, rather than dying of food poisoning, 193
PRO Elizabeth D. Schafer
CON Kimberly K. Porter
CHAPTER 10
Marcus Garvey was ‘‘railroaded,’’ 217
PRO Kelton R. Edmonds
CON Tim J. Watts
CHAPTER 11
Franklin D. Roosevelt had knowledge of an impending Japanese attack and
used Pearl Harbor as an excuse to spur American entry into World War II, 241
PRO Rolando Avila
CON Paul W. Doerr
CHAPTER 12
Alger Hiss’s 1950 conviction for espionage was not an example of Cold War
hysteria. He was a Soviet spy and deserved his punishment, 263
PRO Jeffrey H. Bloodworth
CON Annessa Babic
CHAPTER 13
John F. Kennedy was elected U.S. president in 1960 only because of voter
fraud committed by his connections in the mafia, 287
PRO Christian Nuenlist
CON John H. Barnhill
CHAPTER 14
Lee Harvey Oswald was not the sole assassin of John F. Kennedy, 309
PRO Rajshekhar
CON Tim J. Watts
CHAPTER 15
Considering the refusal of Saddam Hussein to comply with United Nations–
imposed inspections, it was reasonable for George W. Bush and his
advisers to assume that Iraq harbored weapons of mass destruction
and that justified the invasion, 333
PRO Dan Tamir
CON Christian Nuenlist
Index, 361


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Decrypted Secrets
Methods & Maxims of Cryptology


Dr. rer. nat. Dr. ès sc. h.c. Dr. rer. nat. h.c. mult. Friedrich L. Bauer
Professor Emeritus of Mathematics and Computer Science
Munich Institute of Technology
Department of Computer Science
Boltzmannstr. 3
85748 Garching, Germany

__________________________________________________
ACM Computing Classification (1998): E.3, D.4.6, K.6.5, E.4
Mathematics Subject Classification (1991): 94A60, 68P25
_______________________________________
Library of Congress Control Number: 2006933429

ISBN-10 3-540-24502-2 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York
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Preface
Towards the end of the 1960s, under the influence of the rapid development
of microelectronics, electromechanical cryptological machines began to be
replaced by electronic data encryption devices using large-scale integrated
circuits. This promised more secure encryption at lower prices. Then, in
1976, Diffie and Hellman opened up the new cryptological field of public-key
systems. Cryptography, hitherto cloaked in obscurity, was emerging into the
public domain. Additionally, ENIGMA revelations awoke the public interest.
Computer science was a flourishing new field, too, and computer scientists
became interested in several aspects of cryptology. But many of them were
not well enough informed about the centuries-long history of cryptology and
the high level it had attained. I saw some people starting to reinvent the
wheel, and others who had an incredibly naive belief in safe encryption,
and I became worried about the commercial and scientific development of
professional cryptology among computer scientists and about the unstable
situation with respect to official security services.

This prompted me to offer lectures on this subject at the Munich Institute of
Technology. The first series of lectures in the winter term 1977/78, backed
by the comprehensive and reliable book The Codebreakers (1967) by David
Kahn, was held under the code name ‘Special Problems of Information
Theory’ and therefore attracted neither too many students nor too many
suspicious people from outside the university.

Next time, in the summer term of 1981, my lectures on the subject were
announced under the open title ‘Cryptology’. This was seemingly the first
publicly announced lecture series under this title at a German, if not indeed
a Continental European, university.

The series of lectures was repeated a few times, and in 1986/87 lecture notes
were printed which finally developed into Part I of this book. Active interest
on the side of the students led to a seminar on cryptanalytic methods in the
summer term of 1988, from which Part II of the present book originated.
The 1993 first edition (in German) of my book Kryptologie, although written
mainly for computer science students, found lively interest also outside the
field. It was reviewed favorably by some leading science journalists, and
the publisher followed the study book edition with a 1995 hardcover edition
under the title Entzifferte Geheimnisse [Decrypted Secrets], which gave me
the opportunity to round out some subjects. Reviews in American journals
recommended also an English version, which led in 1997 to the present book.
It has become customary among cryptologists to explain how they became
acquainted with the field. In my case, this was independent of the Second
World War. In fact, I was never a member of any official service—and I
consider this my greatest advantage, since I am not bound by any pledge of
secrecy. On the other hand, keeping eyes and ears open and reading between
the lines, I learned a lot from conversations (where my scientific metier was
a good starting point), although I never know exactly whether I am allowed
to know what I happen to know.

Luigi Sacco (1883–1970)
It all started in 1951, when I told my former professor
of formal logic at Munich University, Wilhelm Britzelmayr,
of my invention of an error-correcting code
for teletype lines1. This caused him to make a wrong
association, and he gave me a copy of Sacco’s book,
which had just appeared2. I was lucky, for it was the
best book I could have encountered at that time—
although I didn’t know that then. I devoured the
book. Noticing this, my dear friend and colleague
Paul August Mann, who was aware of my acquaintance
with Shannon’s redundancy-decreasing encoding,
gave me a copy of the now-famous paper by
Claude Shannon called Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems3 (which
in those days as a Bell Systems Technical Report was almost unavailable in
Germany). I was fascinated by this background to Shannon’s information
theory, which I was already familiar with. This imprinted my interest in
cryptology as a subfield of coding theory and formal languages theory, fields
that held my academic interest for many years to come.

Strange accidents—or maybe sharper observation—then brought me into
contact with more and more people once close to cryptology, starting with
Willi Jensen (Flensburg) in 1955, Karl Stein (Munich) in 1955, Hans Rohrbach,
my colleague at Mainz University, in 1959, as well as Helmut Grunsky,
Gisbert Hasenj¨ager, and Ernst Witt. In 1957, I became acquainted with
Erich H¨uttenhain (Bad Godesberg), but our discussions on the suitability of
certain computers for cryptological work were in the circumstances limited
by certain restrictions. Among the American and British colleagues in numerical
analysis and computer science I had closer contact with, some had
been involved with cryptology in the Second World War; but no one spoke
about that, particularly not before 1974, the year when Winterbotham’s book
The Ultra Secret appeared. In 1976, I heard B. Randall and I. J. Good reveal
some details about the Colossi in a symposium in Los Alamos. As a scienceoriented
civilian member of the cryptology academia, my interest in cryptology
was then and still is centered on computerized cryptanalysis. Other
aspects of signals intelligence (‘SIGINT’), for example, traffic analysis and direction
finding, are beyond the scope of this book; the same holds for physical
devices that screen electromechanical radiation emitted by cipher machines.

Cryptology is a discipline with an international touch and a particular terminology.
It may therefore be helpful sometimes to give in this book some
explanations of terms that originated in a language other than English.
The first part of this book presents cryptographic methods. The second part
covers cryptanalysis, above all the facts that are important for judging cryptographic
methods and for saving the user from unexpected pitfalls. This
follows from Kerckhoffs’ maxim: Only a cryptanalyst can judge the security
of a cryptosystem. A theoretical course on cryptographic methods alone
seems to me to be bloodless. But a course on cryptanalysis is problematic:
Either it is not conclusive enough, in which case it is useless, or it is conclusive,
but touches a sensitive area. There is little clearance in between. I have
tried to cover at least all the essential facts that are in the open literature or
can be deduced from it. No censorship took place.

Certain difficulties are caused by the fact that governmental restrictions during
and after World War II, such as the ‘need to know’ rule and other gimmicks,
misled even people who had been close to the centers of cryptanalysis.
Examples include the concept of Banburismus and the concept of a ‘cilli’.
The word Banburismus—the name was coined in Britain—was mentioned in
1985 by Deavours and Kruh in their book, but the method was only vaguely
described. Likewise, the description Kahn gave in 1991 in his book is rather
incomplete. On the other hand, in Kozaczuk’s book of 1979 (English edition
of 1984), Rejewski gave a description of R´o˙zycki’s ‘clock method’, which
turned out to be the same—but most of the readers could not know of this
connection. Then, in 1993, while giving a few more details on the method,
Good (in ‘Codebreakers’) confirmed that “Banburism was an elaboration
of ... the clock method ... [of] ... R´o˙zycki”. He also wrote that this elaboration
was ‘invented at least mainly by Turing’, and referred to a sequential
Bayesian process as the “method of scoring”. For lack of declassified concrete
examples, the exposition in Sect. 19.4.2 of the present book, based on the recently
published postwar notes of Alexander and of Mahon and articles by
Erskine and by Noskwith in the recent book Action This Day, cannot yet be
a fully satisfactory one. And as to cillies, even Gordon Welchman admitted
that he had misinterpreted the origin of the word, thinking of ‘silly’. Other
publications gave other speculations, see Sect. 19.7, fn. 29. Ralph Erskine, in
Action This Day, based on the recently declassified ‘Cryptanalytic Report
on the Yellow Machine’, 71-4 (NACP HCC Box 1009, Nr. 3175), gives the
following summary of the method:
‘Discovered by Dilly Knox in late January 1940, cillies reduced enormously
the work involved in using the Zygalski sheets, and after 1 May, when the
Zygalski sheets became useless, they became a vital part of breaking Enigma
by hand during most of 1940. They were still valuable in 1943.
Cillies resulted from a combination of two different mistakes in a multi-part
message by some Enigma operators. The first was their practice of leaving
the rotors untouched when they reached the end of some part of the message.
Since the letter count of each message part was included in the preamble, the
message key of the preceding part could be calculated within fine limits. The
second error was the use of non-random message keys—stereotyped keyboard
touches and 3-letter-acronyms. In combination, and in conjunction with the
different turnover points of rotors I to V, they allowed one to determine which
rotors could, and which could not, be in any given position in the machine.’
Although Banburismus and cillies were highly important in the war, it is
hard to understand why Derek Taunt in 1993 was prevented by the British
censor from telling the true story about cillies. Possibly, the same happened
to Jack Good about Banburismus.
***
My intellectual delight in cryptology found an application in the collection
‘Informatik’ of the Deutsches Museum in Munich which I built up in 1984
–1988, where there is a section on cryptological devices and machines. My
thanks go to the Deutsches Museum for providing color plates of some of the
pieces on exhibit there.

And thanks go to my former students and co-workers in Munich, Manfred
Broy, Herbert Ehler, and Anton Gerold for continuing support over the years,
moreover to Hugh Casement for linguistic titbits, and to my late brotherin-
law Alston S. Householder for enlightenment on my English. Karl Stein
and Otto Leiberich gave me details on the ENIGMA story, and I had fruitful
discussions and exchanges of letters with Ralph Erskine, Heinz Ulbricht, Tony
Sale, Frode Weierud, Kjell-Ove Widman, Otto J. Horak, Gilbert Bloch, Arne
Frans´en, and Fritz-Rudolf G¨untsch. Great help was given to me by Kirk
H. Kirchhofer from Crypto AG, Zug (Switzerland). Hildegard Bauer-Vogg
supplied translations of difficult Latin texts, Martin Bauer, Ulrich Bauer and
Bernhard Bauer made calculations and drawings. Thanks go to all of them.

The English version was greatly improved by J. Andrew Ross, with whom
working was a pleasure. In particular, my sincere thanks go to David Kahn
who encouraged me (“The book is an excellent one and deserves the widest
circulation”) and made quite a number of proposals for improvements of the
text. For the present edition, additional material that has been made public
recently has been included, among others on Bletchley Park, the British attack
on Tunny, Colossus and Max Newman’s pioneering work. Moreover, my
particular thanks go to Ralph Erskine who indefatigably provided me with
a lot of additional information and checked some of the dates and wordings.
In this respect, my thanks also go to Jack Copeland, Heinz Ulbricht, and
Augusto Buonafalce. Finally, I have to thank once more Hans W¨ossner for
a well functioning cooperation of long standing, and the new copy editor
Ronan Nugent for very careful work. The publisher is to be thanked for the
fine presentation of the book. And I shall be grateful to readers who are kind
enough to let me know of errors and omissions.
Grafrath, Spring 2006 
F. L. Bauer


Table of Contents
Part I: Cryptography—The People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1 Introductory Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
1.1 Cryptography and Steganography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2 Semagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3 Open Code: Masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4 Cues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.5 Open Code: Veiling by Nulls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.6 Open Code: Veiling by Grilles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.7 Classification of Cryptographic Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2 Aims and Methods of Cryptography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.1 The Nature of Cryptography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.2 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3 Cryptosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.4 Polyphony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.5 Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.6 Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3 Encryption Steps: Simple Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.1 Case V (1) −−− W (Unipartite Simple Substitutions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.2 Special Case V ≺−−−− V (Permutations) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.3 Case V (1) −−− Wm (Multipartite Simple Substitutions) . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.4 The General Case V (1) −−− W(m) , Straddling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4 Encryption Steps: Polygraphic Substitution and Coding . 58
4.1 Case V 2 −−− W(m) (Digraphic Substitutions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.2 Special Cases of Playfair and Delastelle: Tomographic Methods . . . . 64
4.3 Case V 3 −−− W(m) (Trigraphic Substitutions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.4 The General Case V (n) −−− W(m) : Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5 Encryption Steps: Linear Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.1 Self-reciprocal Linear Substitutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.2 Homogeneous Linear Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.3 Binary Linear Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
5.4 General Linear Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
5.5 Decomposed Linear Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
5.6 Decimated Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.7 Linear Substitutions with Decimal and Binary Numbers . . . . . . . . . 91
6 Encryption Steps: Transposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.1 Simplest Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.2 Columnar Transpositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.3 Anagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7 Polyalphabetic Encryption: Families of Alphabets. . . . . . . . .106
7.1 Iterated Substitutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
7.2 Cyclically Shifted and Rotated Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
7.3 Rotor Crypto Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
7.4 Shifted Standard Alphabets: Vigen`ere and Beaufort . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
7.5 Unrelated Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
8 Polyalphabetic Encryption: Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
8.1 Early Methods with Periodic Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
8.2 ‘Double Key’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
8.3 Vernam Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
8.4 Quasi-nonperiodic Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
8.5 Machines that Generate Their Own Key Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
8.6 Off-Line Forming of Key Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
8.7 Nonperiodic Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158
8.8 Individual, One-Time Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
8.9 Key Negotiation and Key Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
9 Composition of Classes of Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
9.1 Group Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
9.2 Superencryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
9.3 Similarity of Encryption Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
9.4 Shannon’s ‘Pastry Dough Mixing’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
9.5 Confusion and Diffusion by Arithmetical Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
9.6 DES and IDEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
10 Open Encryption Key Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
10.1 Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
10.2 One-Way Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
10.3 RSA Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
10.4 Cryptanalytic Attack upon RSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
10.5 Secrecy Versus Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
10.6 Security of Public Key Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
11 Encryption Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
11.1 Cryptographic Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
11.2 Maxims of Cryptology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
11.3 Shannon’s Yardsticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
11.4 Cryptology and Human Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Part II: Cryptanalysis—The Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
12 Exhausting Combinatorial Complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
12.1 Monoalphabetic Simple Encryptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
12.2 Monoalphabetic Polygraphic Encryptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
12.3 Polyalphabetic Encryptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
12.4 General Remarks on Combinatorial Complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
12.5 Cryptanalysis by Exhaustion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
12.6 Unicity Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
12.7 Practical Execution of Exhaustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
12.8 Mechanizing the Exhaustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
13 Anatomy of Language: Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
13.1 Invariance of Repetition Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
13.2 Exclusion of Encryption Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
13.3 Pattern Finding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
13.4 Finding of Polygraphic Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
13.5 The Method of the Probable Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
13.6 Automatic Exhaustion of the Instantiations of a Pattern . . . . . . . . . 264
13.7 Pangrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
14 Polyalphabetic Case: Probable Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
14.1 Non-Coincidence Exhaustion of Probable Word Position . . . . . . . . . 268
14.2 Binary Non-Coincidence Exhaustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
14.3 The De Viaris Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
14.4 Zig-Zag Exhaustion of Probable Word Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
14.5 The Method of Isomorphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
14.6 A clever brute force method: EINSing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
14.7 Covert Plaintext-Cryptotext Compromise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
15 Anatomy of Language: Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
15.1 Exclusion of Encryption Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
15.2 Invariance of Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
15.3 Intuitive Method: Frequency Profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
15.4 Frequency Ordering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
15.5 Cliques and Matching of Partitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297
15.6 Optimal Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
15.7 Frequency of Multigrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
15.8 The Combined Method of Frequency Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
15.9 Frequency Matching for Polygraphic Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
15.10 Free-Style Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
15.11 Unicity Distance Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
16 Kappa and Chi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
16.1 Definition and Invariance of Kappa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
16.2 Definition and Invariance of Chi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
16.3 The Kappa-Chi Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
16.4 The Kappa-Phi Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
16.5 Symmetric Functions of Character Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
17 Periodicity Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
17.1 The Kappa Test of Friedman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
17.2 Kappa Test for Multigrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
17.3 Cryptanalysis by Machines: Searching for a period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
17.4 Kasiski Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
17.5 Building a Depth and Phi Test of Kullback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
17.6 Estimating the Period Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
18 Alignment of Accompanying Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
18.1 Matching the Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
18.2 Aligning Against Known Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
18.3 Chi Test: Mutual Alignment of Accompanying Alphabets. . . . . . . . 358
18.4 Reconstruction of the Primary Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
18.5 Kerckhoffs’ Symmetry of Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
18.6 Stripping off Superencryption: Difference Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
18.7 Decryption of Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
18.8 Reconstruction of the Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
19 Compromises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
19.1 Kerckhoffs’ Superimposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
19.2 Superimposition for Encryptions with a Key Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
19.3 COLOSSUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
19.4 Adjustment ‘in depth’ of Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
19.5 Cryptotext-Cryptotext Compromises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
19.6 Cryptotext-Cryptotext Compromise: ENIGMAIndicator Doubling 431
19.7 Plaintext-Cryptotext Compromise: Feedback Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
20 Linear Basis Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
20.1 Reduction of Linear Polygraphic Substitutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
20.2 Reconstruction of the Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
20.3 Reconstruction of a Linear Shift Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
21 Anagramming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
21.1 Transposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
21.2 Double Columnar Transposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
21.3 Multiple Anagramming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
22 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
22.1 Success in Breaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
22.2 Mode of Operation of the Unauthorized Decryptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
22.3 Illusory Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
22.4 Importance of Cryptology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
Appendix: Axiomatic Information Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
Photo Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525

List of Color Plates
Plate A The disk of Phaistos
Plate B Brass cipher disks
Plate C The ‘Cryptograph’ of Wheatstone
Plate D The US Army cylinder device M-94
Plate E The US strip device M-138-T4
Plate F The cipher machine of Kryha
Plate G The Hagelin ‘Cryptographer’ C-36
Plate H The US Army M-209, Hagelin licensed
Plate I The cipher machine ENIGMA with four rotors
Plate K Rotors of the ENIGMA
Plate L The British rotor machine TYPEX
Plate M Uhr box of the German Wehrmacht
Plate N Cipher teletype machine Lorenz SZ 42
Plate O Russian one-time pad
Plate P Modern crypto board
Plate Q CRAY Supercomputers


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Product details
 Price
 Pages
 555 p
 File Size
 17,598 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN-10
 ISBN-13
 3-540-24502-2
 978-3-540-24502-5
 Copyright
 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 
 1997, 2000, 2002, 2007
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