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Volume 2 Design, Instrumentation, and Controls

Edited by Myer Kutz
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 978-1-118-93080-9 (ePub)
 978-1-118-93083-0 (Adobe PDF) 
 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc 

The second volume of the fourth edition of the Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook is comprised
of two parts: Part 1, Mechanical Design, with 14 chapters, and Part 2, Instrumentation, Systems,
Controls and MEMS, with 11 chapters. The mechanical design chapters were in Volume
I in the third edition. Given the introduction of 6 new chapters, mostly on measurements, in
Volume I in this edition, it made sense to move the mechanical design chapters to Volume II
and to cull chapters on instrumentation to make way for the measurements chapters, which
are of greater use to readers of this handbook. Moreover, the mechanical design chapters have
been augmented with 4 chapters (updated as needed) from my book, Environmentally Conscious
Mechanical Design, thereby putting greater emphasis on sustainability. The 4 chapters
are Design for Environment, Life-Cycle Design, Design for Maintainability, and Design for
Remanufacturing Processes. They flesh out sustainability issues that were covered in the third
edition by only one chapter, Product Design and Manufacturing Processes for Sustainability.
The other 9 mechanical design chapters all appeared in the third edition. Six of them have
been updated.
In the second part of Volume 2, Instrumentation, Systems, Controls and MEMS, 5 of
the 11 chapters were new to the third edition of the handbook, including the 3 chapters I
labeled as “newdepartures”: Neural Networks in Control Systems,Mechatronics, and Introduction
to Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS): Design and Application. These topics have
become increasingly important to mechanical engineers in recent years and they are included
again. Overall, 3 chapters have been updated for this edition. In addition, I brought over the
Electric Circuits chapter from the fifth edition of Eshbach’s Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals.
Readers of this part of Volume 2 will also find a general discussion of systems
engineering; fundamentals of control system design, analysis, and performance modification;
and detailed information about the design of servo actuators, controllers, and general-purpose
control devices.
All Volume 2 contributors are from North America. I would like to thank all of them for
the considerable time and effort they put into preparing their chapters.

Vision for the Fourth Edition
Basic engineering disciplines are not static, no matter how old and well established they are.
The field ofmechanical engineering is no exception. Movement within this broadly based discipline
is multidimensional. Even the classic subjects, on which the discipline was founded, such
as mechanics of materials and heat transfer, keep evolving. Mechanical engineers continue to
be heavily involved with disciplines allied to mechanical engineering, such as industrial and
manufacturing engineering, which are also constantly evolving. Advances in other major disciplines,
such as electrical and electronics engineering, have significant impact on the work
of mechanical engineers. New subject areas, such as neural networks, suddenly become all
the rage.
In response to this exciting, dynamic atmosphere, the Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook
expanded dramatically, from one to four volumes for the third edition, published in November
2005. It not only incorporated updates and revisions to chapters in the second edition, published
seven years earlier, but also added 24 chapters on entirely new subjects, with updates
and revisions to chapters in the Handbook ofMaterials Selection, published in 2002, as well as
to chapters in Instrumentation and Control, edited by Chester Nachtigal and published in 1990,
but never updated by him.
The fourth edition retains the four-volume format, but there are several additional major
changes. The second part of Volume I is now devoted entirely to topics in engineering mechanics,
with the addition of five practical chapters on measurements from the Handbook of Measurement
in Science and Engineering, published in 2013, and a chapter from the fifth edition of
Eshbach’s Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals, published in 2009. Chapters on mechanical
design have been moved from Volume I to Volumes II and III. They have been augmented
with four chapters (updated as needed) from Environmentally Conscious Mechanical Design,
published in 2007. These chapters, together with five chapters (updated as needed, three from
Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing, published in 2007, and two from Environmentally
Conscious Materials Handling, published in 2009 ) in the beefed-up manufacturing section of
Volume III, give the handbook greater and practical emphasis on the vital issue of sustainability.
Prefaces to the handbook’s individual volumes provide further details on chapter additions,
updates and replacements. The four volumes of the fourth edition are arranged as follows:
Volume 1: Materials and Engineering Mechanics—27 chapters
Part 1. Materials—15 chapters
Part 2. Engineering Mechanics—12 chapters
Volume 2: Design, Instrumentation and Controls—25 chapters
Part 1. Mechanical Design—14 chapters
Part 2. Instrumentation, Systems, Controls and MEMS —11 chapters
Volume 3: Manufacturing and Management—28 chapters
Part 1. Manufacturing—16 chapters
Part 2. Management, Finance, Quality, Law, and Research—12 chapters
Volume 4: Energy and Power—35 chapters
Part 1: Energy—16 chapters
Part 2: Power—19 chapters
The mechanical engineering literature is extensive and has been so for a considerable
period of time. Many textbooks, reference works, and manuals as well as a substantial number
of journals exist. Numerous commercial publishers and professional societies, particularly
in the United States and Europe, distribute these materials. The literature grows continuously,
as applied mechanical engineering research finds new ways of designing, controlling, measuring,
making, and maintaining things, as well as monitoring and evaluating technologies,
infrastructures, and systems.
Most professional-level mechanical engineering publications tend to be specialized,
directed to the specific needs of particular groups of practitioners. Overall, however, the
mechanical engineering audience is broad and multidisciplinary. Practitioners work in a
variety of organizations, including institutions of higher learning, design, manufacturing, and
consulting firms, as well as federal, state, and local government agencies. A rationale for a
general mechanical engineering handbook is that every practitioner, researcher, and bureaucrat
cannot be an expert on every topic, especially in so broad and multidisciplinary a field, and
may need an authoritative professional summary of a subject with which he or she is not
intimately familiar.
Starting with the first edition, published in 1986, my intention has always been that the
Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook stand at the intersection of textbooks, research papers, and
design manuals. For example, I want the handbook to help young engineers move from the
college classroom to the professional office and laboratory where they may have to deal with
issues and problems in areas they have not studied extensively in school.
With this fourth edition, I have continued to produce a practical reference for the mechanical
engineer who is seeking to answer a question, solve a problem, reduce a cost, or improve
a system or facility. The handbook is not a research monograph. Its chapters offer design techniques,
illustrate successful applications, or provide guidelines to improving performance, life
expectancy, effectiveness, or usefulness of parts, assemblies, and systems. The purpose is to
show readers what options are available in a particular situation and which option they might
choose to solve problems at hand.
The aim of this handbook is to serve as a source of practical advice to readers. I hope that
the handbook will be the first information resource a practicing engineer consults when faced
with a new problem or opportunity—even before turning to other print sources, even officially
sanctioned ones, or to sites on the Internet. In each chapter, the reader should feel that he or she
is in the hands of an experienced consultant who is providing sensible advice that can lead to
beneficial action and results.
Can a single handbook, even spread out over four volumes, cover this broad, interdisciplinary
field? I have designed the Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook as if it were serving as a
core for an Internet-based information source. Many chapters in the handbook point readers
to information sources on the Web dealing with the subjects addressed. Furthermore, where
appropriate, enough analytical techniques and data are provided to allow the reader to employ
a preliminary approach to solving problems.
The contributors have written, to the extent their backgrounds and capabilities make possible,
in a style that reflects practical discussion informed by real-world experience. I would
like readers to feel that they are in the presence of experienced teachers and consultants who
know about the multiplicity of technical issues that impinge on any topic within mechanical
engineering. At the same time, the level is such that students and recent graduates can find the
handbook as accessible as experienced engineers.

Table of Contents
Preface ix
Vision for the Fourth Edition xi
Contributors xiii

1. Computer-Aided Design 3
Emory W. Zimmers Jr., Charalambos A. Marangos, Sekar Sundararajan,
and Technical Staff
2. Product Design for Manufacturing and Assembly 55
Gordon Lewis
3. Design-for-Environment Processes and Tools 75
Daniel P. Fitzgerald, Thornton H. Gogoll, Linda C. Schmidt, Jeffrey W. Herrmann,
and Peter A. Sandborn
4. Design Optimization: An Overview 97
A. Ravi Ravindran and G. V. Reklaitis
5. Total Quality Management in Mechanical System Design 125
B. S. Dhillon
6. Reliability in the Mechanical Design Process 149
B.S. Dhillon
7. Product Design and Manufacturing Processes for Sustainability 177
I. S. Jawahir, P. C. Wanigarathne, and X. Wang
8. Life-Cycle Design 207
Abigail Clarke and John K. Gershenson
9. Design for Maintainability 249
O. Geoffrey Okogbaa and Wilkistar Otieno
10. Design for Remanufacturing Processes 301
Bert Bras
11. Design for Manufacture and Assembly with Plastics 329
James A. Harvey
12. Design for Six Sigma: A Mandate for Competitiveness 341
James E. McMunigal and H. Barry Bebb
13. Engineering Applications of Virtual Reality 371
Wenjuan Zhu, Xiaobo Peng, and Ming C. Leu
14. Physical Ergonomics 417
Maury A. Nussbaum and Jaap H. van Dieën

15. Electric Circuits 439
Albert J. Rosa
16. Measurements 565
E. L. Hixson and E. A. Ripperger
17. Signal Processing 579
John Turnbull
18. Data Acquisition and Display Systems 597
Philip C. Milliman
19. Systems Engineering: Analysis, Design, and Information Processing for Analysis
and Design 625
Andrew P. Sage
20. Mathematical Models of Dynamic Physical Systems 667
K. Preston White Jr.
21. Basic Control Systems Design 747
William J. Palm III
22. General-Purpose Control Devices 805
James H. Christensen, Robert J. Kretschmann, Sujeet Chand, and Kazuhiko Yokoyama
23. Neural Networks in Feedback Control Systems 843
K. G. Vamvoudakis, F.L. Lewis, and Shuzhi Sam Ge
24. Mechatronics 895
Shane Farritor and Jeff Hawks
25. Introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS):
Design and Application 943
M. E. Zaghloul
Index 955


Cover image: © denisovd / Thinkstock
Cover design: Wiley
This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
Published simultaneously in Canada

Andrew Pytel
The Pennsylvania State University

Jaan Kiusalaas
The Pennsylvania State University
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Book Details
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 2012, 2003 Cengage Learning 

This textbook is intended for use in a first course in mechanics of materials.
Programs of instruction relating to the mechanical sciences, such as mechanical,
civil, and aerospace engineering, often require that students take this
course in the second or third year of studies. Because of the fundamental
nature of the subject matter, mechanics of materials is often a required course,
or an acceptable technical elective in many other curricula. Students must
have completed courses in statics of rigid bodies and mathematics through
integral calculus as prerequisites to the study of mechanics of materials.
This edition maintains the organization of the previous edition. The
first eight chapters are dedicated exclusively to elastic analysis, including
stress, strain, torsion, bending and combined loading. An instructor can
easily teach these topics within the time constraints of a two-or three-credit
course. The remaining five chapters of the text cover materials that can be
omitted from an introductory course. Because these more advanced topics
are not interwoven in the early chapters on the basic theory, the core material
can e‰ciently be taught without skipping over topics within chapters.
Once the instructor has covered the material on elastic analysis, he or she
can freely choose topics from the more advanced later chapters, as time
permits. Organizing the material in this manner has created a significant
savings in the number of pages without sacrificing topics that are usually
found in an introductory text.
The most notable features of the organization of this text include the
following: . Chapter 1 introduces the concept of stress (including stresses acting on
inclined planes). However, the general stress transformation equations
and Mohr’s circle are deferred until Chapter 8. Engineering instructors
often hold o¤ teaching the concept of state of stress at a point due to
combined loading until students have gained su‰cient experience analyzing
axial, torsional, and bending loads. However, if instructors wish
to teach the general transformation equations and Mohr’s circle at the
beginning of the course, they may go to the freestanding discussion in
Chapter 8 and use it whenever they see fit. . Advanced beam topics, such as composite and curved beams, unsymmetrical bending, and shear center, appear in chapters that are distinct
from the basic beam theory. This makes it convenient for instructors to
choose only those topics that they wish to present in their course. . Chapter 12, entitled ‘‘Special Topics,’’ consolidates topics that are
important but not essential to an introductory course, including energy
methods, theories of failure, stress concentrations, and fatigue. Some,
but not all, of this material is commonly covered in a three-credit
course at the discretion of the instructor.
. Chapter 13, the final chapter of the text, discusses the fundamentals of
inelastic analysis. Positioning this topic at the end of the book enables
the instructor to present an e‰cient and coordinated treatment of
elastoplastic deformation, residual stress, and limit analysis after
students have learned the basics of elastic analysis. . Following reviewers’ suggestions, we have included a discussion of the torsion of rectangular bars. In addition, we have updated our
discussions of the design of columns and reinforced concrete beams.
The text contains an equal number of problems using SI and U.S. Customary
units. Homework problems strive to present a balance between directly
relevant engineering-type problems and ‘‘teaching’’ problems that illustrate the
principles in a straightforward manner. An outline of the applicable problemsolving
procedure is included in the text to help students make the sometimes
di‰cult transition from theory to problem analysis. Throughout the text and
the sample problems, free-body diagrams are used to identify the unknown
quantities and to recognize the number of independent equations. The three
basic concepts of mechanics—equilibrium, compatibility, and constitutive
equations—are continually reinforced in statically indeterminate problems.
The problems are arranged in the following manner: . Virtually every section in the text is followed by sample problems and homework problems that illustrate the principles and the problemsolving
procedure introduced in the article. . Every chapter contains review problems, with the exception of optional topics. In this way, the review problems test the students’ comprehension
of the material presented in the entire chapter, since it is not
always obvious which of the principles presented in the chapter apply to
the problem at hand. . Most chapters conclude with computer problems, the majority of
which are design oriented. Students should solve these problems using
a high-level language, such as MATHCAD= or MATLAB=, which
minimizes the programming e¤ort and permits them to concentrate on
the organization and presentation of the solution.

To access additional course materials, please visit
At the home page, search for the ISBN of your title (from the back cover of your book) using the search box at the top of the page, where these resources can be found, for instructors and students. The following ancillaries are available at . Study Guide to Accompany Pytel and Kiusalaas Mechanics of Materials, Second Edition, J. L Pytel and A. Pytel, 2012. The goals of the Study Guide are twofold. First, self-tests are included to help the student focus on the salient features of the assigned reading. Second, the study guide uses ‘‘guided’’ problems which give the student an opportunity to work through representative problems before attempting to solve the
problems in the text. The Study Guide is provided free of charge. . The Instructor’s Solution Manual and PowerPoint slides of all figures and tables in the text are available to instructors through

We would like to thank the following reviewers for their
valuable suggestions and comments:
Roxann M. Hayes, Colorado School of Mines Daniel C. Jansen, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Ghyslaine McClure, McGill University J.P. Mohsen, University of Louisville Hassan Rejali, California Polytechnic State University, Pomona In addition, we are indebted to Professor Thomas Gavigan, Berks
Campus, The Pennsylvania State University, for his diligent proofreading.
Andrew Pytel
Jaan Kiusalaas

Table of Contents
Stress 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Analysis of Internal Forces; Stress 2
1.3 Axially Loaded Bars 4
a. Centroidal (axial) loading 4
b. Saint Venant’s principle 5
c. Stresses on inclined planes 6
d. Procedure for stress analysis 7
1.4 Shear Stress 18
1.5 Bearing Stress 19

Strain 31
2.1 Introduction 31
2.2 Axial Deformation; Stress-Strain
Diagram 32
a. Normal (axial) strain 32
b. Tension test 33
c. Working stress and factor of safety 36
2.3 Axially Loaded Bars 36
2.4 Generalized Hooke’s Law 47
a. Uniaxial loading; Poisson’s ratio 47
b. Multiaxial loading 47
c. Shear loading 48
2.5 Statically Indeterminate Problems 54
2.6 Thermal Stresses 63

Torsion 75
3.1 Introduction 75
3.2 Torsion of Circular Shafts 76
a. Simplifying assumptions 76
b. Compatibility 77
c. Equilibrium 77
d. Torsion formulas 78
e. Power transmission 79
f. Statically indeterminate problems 80
3.3 Torsion of Thin-Walled Tubes 91
*3.4 Torsion of Rectangular Bars 99

Shear and Moment in Beams 107
4.1 Introduction 107
4.2 Supports and Loads 108
4.3 Shear-Moment Equations and
Shear-Moment Diagrams 109
a. Sign conventions 109
b. Procedure for determining shear
force and bending moment diagrams 110
4.4 Area Method for Drawing Shear-Moment Diagrams 122
a. Distributed loading 122
b. Concentrated forces and couples 124
c. Summary 126

Stresses in Beams 139
5.1 Introduction 139
5.2 Bending Stress 140
a. Simplifying assumptions 140
b. Compatibility 141
c. Equilibrium 142
d. Flexure formula; section modulus 143
e. Procedures for determining bending stresses 144
5.3 Economic Sections 158
a. Standard structural shapes 159
b. Procedure for selecting standard shapes 160
5.4 Shear Stress in Beams 164
a. Analysis of flexure action 164
b. Horizontal shear stress 165
c. Vertical shear stress 167
d. Discussion and limitations of the shear stress formula 167
e. Rectangular and wide-flange sections 168
f. Procedure for analysis of shear stress 169
5.5 Design for Flexure and Shear 177
5.6 Design of Fasteners in Built-Up Beams 184

Deflection of Beams 195
6.1 Introduction 195
6.2 Double-Integration Method 196
a. Di¤erential equation of the elastic curve 196
b. Double integration of the di¤erential equation 198
c. Procedure for double integration 199
6.3 Double Integration Using Bracket Functions 209
*6.4 Moment-Area Method 219
a. Moment-area theorems 220
b. Bending moment diagrams by parts 222
c. Application of the moment-area method 225
6.5 Method of Superposition 235

Statically Indeterminate Beams 249
7.1 Introduction 249
7.2 Double-Integration Method 250
7.3 Double Integration Using Bracket Functions 256
*7.4 Moment-Area Method 260
7.5 Method of Superposition 266

Stresses Due to Combined Loads 277
8.1 Introduction 277
8.2 Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels 278
a. Cylindrical vessels 278
b. Spherical vessels 280
8.3 Combined Axial and Lateral Loads 284
8.4 State of Stress at a Point (Plane Stress) 293
a. Reference planes 293
b. State of stress at a point 294
c. Sign convention and subscript notation 294
8.5 Transformation of Plane Stress 295
a. Transformation equations 295
b. Principal stresses and principal planes 296
c. Maximum in-plane shear stress 298
d. Summary of stress transformation procedures 298
8.6 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress 305
a. Construction of Mohr’s circle 306
b. Properties of Mohr’s circle 307
c. Verification of Mohr’s circle 308
8.7 Absolute Maximum Shear Stress 314
a. Plane state of stress 315
b. General state of stress 316
8.8 Applications of Stress Transformation to Combined Loads 319
8.9 Transformation of Strain; Mohr’s Circle for Strain 331
a. Review of strain 331
b. Transformation equations for plane strain 332
c. Mohr’s circle for strain 333
8.10 The Strain Rosette 338
a. Strain gages 338
b. Strain rosette 339
c. The 45 strain rosette 340
d. The 60 strain rosette 340
8.11 Relationship between Shear Modulus and
Modulus of Elasticity 342

Composite Beams 349
9.1 Introduction 349
9.2 Flexure Formula for Composite Beams 350
9.3 Shear Stress and Deflection in Composite Beams 355
a. Shear stress 355
b. Deflection 356
9.4 Reinforced Concrete Beams 359
a. Elastic Analysis 360
b. Ultimate moment analysis 361

Columns 371
10.1 Introduction 371
10.2 Critical Load 372
a. Definition of critical load 372
b. Euler’s formula 373
10.3 Discussion of Critical Loads 375
10.4 Design Formulas for Intermediate Columns 380
a. Tangent modulus theory 380
b. AISC specifications for steel columns 381
10.5 Eccentric Loading: Secant Formula 387
a. Derivation of the secant formula 388
b. Application of the secant formula 389

Additional Beam Topics 397
11.1 Introduction 397
11.2 Shear Flow in Thin-Walled Beams 398
11.3 Shear Center 400
11.4 Unsymmetrical Bending 407
a. Review of symmetrical bending 407
b. Symmetrical sections 408
c. Inclination of the neutral axis 409
d. Unsymmetrical sections 410
11.5 Curved Beams 415
a. Background 415
b. Compatibility 416
c. Equilibrium 417
d. Curved beam formula 418

Special Topics 425
12.1 Introduction 425
12.2 Energy Methods 426
a. Work and strain energy 426
b. Strain energy of bars and beams 426
c. Deflections by Castigliano’s theorem 428
12.3 Dynamic Loading 437
a. Assumptions 437
b. Mass-spring model 438
c. Elastic bodies 439
d. Modulus of resilience; modulus of toughness 439
12.4 Theories of Failure 444
a. Brittle materials 445
b. Ductile materials 446
12.5 Stress Concentration 452
12.6 Fatigue Under Repeated Loading 458

Inelastic Action 463
13.1 Introduction 463
13.2 Limit Torque 464
13.3 Limit Moment 466
13.4 Residual Stresses 471
a. Loading-unloading cycle 471
b. Torsion 471
c. Bending 472
d. Elastic spring-back 473
13.5 Limit Analysis 477
a. Axial loading 477
b. Torsion 478
c. Bending 479

Review of Properties of Plane Areas 487
A.1 First Moments of Area; Centroid 487
A.2 Second Moments of Area 488
a. Moments and product of inertia 488
b. Parallel-axis theorems 489
c. Radii of gyration 491
d. Method of composite areas 491
A.3 Transformation of Second Moments of Area 500
a. Transformation equations for
moments and products ofinertia 500
b. Comparison with stress transformation equations 501
c. Principal moments of inertia and principal axes 501
d. Mohr’s circle for second moments of area 502

Tables 509
B.1 Average Physical Properties of Common Metals 510
B.2 Properties of Wide-Flange Sections (W-Shapes): SI Units 512
B.3 Properties of I-Beam Sections (S-Shapes): SI Units 518
B.4 Properties of Channel Sections: SI Units 519
B.5 Properties of Equal and Unequal Angle
Sections: SI Units 520
B.6 Properties of Wide-Flange
Sections (W-Shapes): U.S. Customary Units 524
B.7 Properties of I-Beam Sections (S-Shapes): U.S. Customary Units 532
B.8 Properties of Channel Sections: U.S. Customary Units 534
B.9 Properties of Equal and Unequal Angle
Sections: U.S. Customary Units 535
Answers to Even-Numbered
Problems 539
Index 547


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