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what on earth am I here for?

Rick Warren

1. Christian life.
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Book Details
 214 p
 File Size 
 2,639 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 2002 by Rick Warren

Getting the Most from This Book
This is more than a book; it is a guide to a 40-day spiritual journey that will enable you to discover the answer to life's most important question: What on earth am I here for? By the end of this journey you will know God's purpose for your life and will understand the big picture-how all the pieces of your life fit together. Having this perspective will reduce your stress, simplify your decisions, increase your satisfaction, and, most important, prepare you for eternity.

Today the average life span is 25,550 days. That's how long you will live if you are typical. Don't you think it would be a wise use of time to set aside 40 of those days to figure out what God wants you to do with the rest of them?
The Bible is clear that God considers 40 days a spiritually significant time period. Whenever God wanted to prepare someone for his purposes, he took 40 days:
• Noah's life was transformed by 40 days of rain.
• Moses was transformed by 40 days on Mount Sinai.
• The spies were transformed by 40 days in the Promised Land.
• David was transformed by Goliath's 40-day challenge.
• Elijah was transformed when God gave him 40 days of strength from a single meal.
• The entire city of Nineveh was transformed when God gave the people 40 days to change.
• Jesus was empowered by 40 days in the wilderness.
• The disciples were transformed by 40 days with Jesus after his resurrection.
The next 40 days will transform your life.
This book is divided into 40 brief chapters. I strongly urge you to read only one chapter a day, so you will have time to think about the implications for your life. The Bible says, "Let God transform you into a new person by changing the way you think. Then you will know what God wants you to do."
One reason most books don't transform us is that we are so eager to read the next chapter, we don't pause and take the time to seriously consider what we have just read. We rush to the next truth without reflecting on what we have learned.
Don't just read this book. Interact with it. Underline it.
Write your own thoughts in the margins. Make it your book. Personalize it! The books that have helped me most are the ones that I reacted to, not just read.

At the end of each chapter is a section called "Thinking about My Purpose." There you will find:
• A Point to Ponder. This is a nugget of truth that summarizes a principle of purpose-driven living that you can reflect on throughout your day. Paul told Timothy, "Reflect on what I am saying, for the Lord will give you insight into all this."
• A Verse to Remember. This is a Bible verse that teaches a truth from that chapter. If you really want to improve your life, memorizing Scripture may be the most important habit you can begin. You can either copy these verses onto small cards to carry with you, or purchase a Purpose-Driven Life Scripture Keeper Plus.
• A Question to Consider. These questions will help you think about the implications of what you have read and how it applies to you personally. Let me encourage you to write your answers in the margin of this book or in a notebook, or obtain a copy of The Purpose-Driven Life journal, a companion book designed for this purpose. Writing down your thoughts is the best way to clarify them.
In appendix 1 you will find:
• Discussion Questions. I strongly urge you to get one or more friends to join you in reading this book during the next 40 days. A journey is always better when it is shared. With a partner or a small reading group you can discuss what you read and bounce ideas off each other. This will help you grow stronger and deeper spiritually. Real spiritual growth is never an isolated, individualistic pursuit. Maturity is produced through relationships and community.
The best way to explain God's purpose for your life is to allow the Scripture to speak for itself, so in this book the Bible is quoted extensively, using over a thousand different verses from fifteen English translations and paraphrases. I have varied the versions used for several important reasons, which I explain in appendix 3.

As I wrote this book, I often prayed that you would experience the incredible sense of hope, energy, and joy that comes from discovering what God put you on this planet to do. There's nothing quite like it. I am excited because I know all the great things that are going to happen to you. They happened to me, and I have never been the same since I discovered the purpose of my life.
Because I know the benefits, I want to challenge you to stick with this spiritual journey for
the next 40 days, not missing a single daily reading. Your life is worth taking the time to think about it. Make it a daily appointment on your schedule. If you will commit to this, let's sign a covenant together. There is something significant about signing your name to a commitment. If you get a partner to read through this with you, have him or her sign it, too. Let's get started together!

Table of Contents
A Journey with Purpose
Day 1 It All Starts with God
Day 2 You Are Not an Accident
Day 3 What Drives Your Life?
Day 4 Made to Last Forever
Day 5 Seeing Life from God's View
Day 6 Life Is a Temporary Assignment
Day 7 The Reason for Everything
PURPOSE #1: You Were Planned for God's Pleasure
Day 8 Planned for God's Pleasure
Day 9 What Makes God Smile?
Day 10 The Heart of Worship
Day 11 Becoming Best Friends with God
Day 12 Developing Your Friendship with God
Day 13 Worship That Pleases God
Day 14 When God Seems Distant
PURPOSE #2: You Were Formed for God's Family
Day 15 Formed for God's Family
Day 16 What Matters Most
Day 17 A Place to Belong
Day 18 Experiencing Life Together
Day 19 Cultivating Community
Day 20 Restoring Broken Fellowship
Day 21 Protecting Your Church
PURPOSE #3: You Were Created to Become Like Christ
Day 22 Created to Become Like Christ
Day 23 How We Grow
Day 24 Transformed by Truth
Day 25 Transformed by Trouble
Day 26 Growing through Temptation
Day 27 Defeating Temptation
Day 28 It Takes Time
PURPOSE #4: You Were Shaped for Serving God
Day 29 Accepting Your Assignment
Day 30 Shaped for Serving God
Day 31 Understanding Your Shape
Day 32 Using What God Gave You
Day 33 How Real Servants Act
Day 34 Thinking Like a Servant
Day 35 God's Power in Your Weakness
PURPOSE #5: You Were Made for a Mission
Day 36 Made for a Mission
Day 37 Sharing Your Life Message
Day 38 Becoming a World-Class Christian
Day 39 Balancing Your Life
Day 40 Living with Purpose
Appendix 1: Discussion Questions
Appendix 2: Resources
Appendix 3: Why Use So Many Translations?

The Purpose-Driven° Life
Printed in the United States of America

This title is also available as a Zondervan audio product.
Visit for more information.
Requests for information should be addressed to: Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49530

Illustrations by Michael Halbert, Copyright © 2002 Michael Halbert Interior design by Jim Dobbs, Mary Deschenes, Julie Head

A Guide to Reclaiming the Wisdom of the Ancients

Diana Cooper with Shaaron Hutton

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Book Details
 273 p
 File Size 
 1,150 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 Diana Cooper & Shaaron Hutton 2005

The Aim of the Book
In Golden Atlantis, for 1,500 years, the spiritual energy on our planet
was the highest it has ever been. It was a time of heaven on Earth
when everyone had incredible spiritual power. Now we have the
opportunity to bring the energy of pure Atlantis back.Diana Cooper
and Shaaron Hutton were asked by their guide, Kumeka, to explain
the extraordinary gifts, qualities and powers that existed in the
Golden Age. They were also asked to include special exercises in this
book that will allow you to develop these skills for yourselves.

About the Authors
Diana’s Story
Shaaron and I spent the evening of December 31, 1994 together,
intending to meditate and write our New Year’s resolutions. When
we meditated together, the most extraordinary occurrence took
place. A huge energy entered the room and both of us were given
the same message. We were told that this presence was Kumeka,
Lord of Light. He came from a different universe and explained
that Earth had now earned the right to have his guidance. He was
the Master of the Eighth Ray, which was due to enter this planet
bringing clarity and deep transmutation. He said that he had
watched us both for many years and had brought us together to
work with him. I had been living in the West Indies when he first
noticed my energy and for the next fifteen years he acted to ensure we met.

The energy of Kumeka was so overpowering that I still remember
it as one of the most exciting and life-changing events of my entire
life. At first, Shaaron and I had to be together to connect with him.
Since then Shaaron has become incredibly psychic and clairvoyant.
She can see Kumeka and has a direct communication with him,
receiving very specific information and answers to questions. I
work differently; he downloads chunks of spiritual knowledge to
me, often when I am sitting at the computer or out walking.He also
makes sure I read or come across any other information I need.
Occasionally he writes information across my third eye.
Now, for the first time, he has asked us to write this book on
Atlantis together so that people can help to bring back the energy of
pure Atlantis. This has been a fascinating and awe-inspiring project
and our thanks, love and gratitude go to Kumeka and the angels.

With the guidance of my angels and spiritual masters I have written
thirteen books and produced many CDs, crystal CD packs,
angel cards and oracles. I spend much of my time traveling round
the world with the intention of inspiring people with higher spiritual
understandings. But it was not always so. Just over twenty
years ago I was in the depths of despair over my impending
divorce. I had no psychic, religious or spiritual background and
more important, I had no self-worth or confidence. I could see no
future ahead. One day I cried out in anguish for help and an angel
appeared. It was a golden being of light about six feet tall. This
wonderful being took me on a journey and showed me my future.
When I returned, I understood cosmic concepts that I had never
previously considered. Slowly my life mission started.
At that time my greatest desire was to be a healer and to help
people. I trained to be a hypnotherapist, counselor and healer, and
soon learned that this is a fast track to personal and spiritual
growth; every client I saw was a mirror of something within me. If
three clients presented with the same problem, I would look very
hard at myself and gradually I became wiser.
For years I worked with my guides and was occasionally aware of
angels around.With guidance I wrote my first four spiritual books
and then, suddenly and dramatically, my life changed again.While
I was lying in the bath, an angelic voice told me that they wanted
me to introduce people to angels. I argued that I did not know
anything about angels and did not want to do that. I really thought
the world would think I was crazy. Eventually, I agreed and three
angels appeared in front of me and gave me much information,
which later became my first angel book, A Little Light on Angels.
From that time I have worked closely with the angels and then
with the archangels, masters and eventually Kumeka,my guide and master.

However, the angels are sometimes hard taskmasters. Because
they have never experienced a physical body they do not understand
physical limitations. I was working really hard to finish my
first spiritual novel, The Silent Stones, before I left for a six-month
trip to Australia. The angels woke me up in the middle of the night
and surrounded my bed. I felt as if I was levitating and was filled
with a sense of awe and love. The angels told me I was to write a
book called Angel Inspiration and they wanted me to start immediately.
Then they cocooned me back to sleep. In the morning I knew
I had no alternative but to set aside The Silent Stones and start on
Angel Inspiration. I could feel the angels enfolding me as I sat at the
computer writing for fourteen hours a day, until it was finished.
Then I just had time to complete the novel before I set off on my travels.

In Australia, I talked to many Aborigine elders and learned
about their sacred wisdom and connections with Lemuria. I wove
their ancient wisdom, with esoteric secrets of Atlantis and
Lemuria, into a second novel, The Codes of Power. Then, most
exciting of all, I was introduced to the angels of Atlantis, who are
returning with a message for us now. This became the start of the
third novel, The Web of Light, which was set in Africa and was
fascinating to conceive and write.
Now our guide, Kumeka, Master of the Eighth Ray, has expanded
on the information revealed in the novels, as it is becoming
more urgent to reclaim the energy of Atlantis. You will find more
information than this book will allow about the twelve rays, the
Illumined Ones and the new spiritual hierarchy, as well as the colors
and purposes of the higher chakras, in my book A New Light
on Ascension (see Further Reading).
For twenty years I have been on my own journey of personal
development and spiritual growth, traveling to all the places
described in my books and many others. At the same time, I have
been privileged to share my experiences and understandings in
talks and workshops around the world. And now I offer you this
book that Shaaron and I have written together. It has been a fascinating
project and writing it has changed my life. I believe it can
change your life too – and the world.

Shaaron’s story
I was born ‘knowing’. Even as a small child I was the person that my
friends came to for guidance and support. My creative energy was
utilized by making up stories and writing plays, which I directed
and starred in. Like so many people, when I left school and went
into the adult world this energy dissolved into the rigors of survival.
In my adult years, I developed migraines until they made life
unbearable. My doctor sent me to Diana, who was at that time a
hypnotherapist. We soon realized that the headaches were a manifestation
of the blocking of my third eye, and as we worked together
using hypnosis, my clairvoyant abilities became stronger, clearer
and more sharply honed, while the original symptoms disappeared.
We also realized much later that this was how our spirit guide,
Kumeka, brought us together so that we could connect directly with him.

Kumeka has come from another universe and is here now to help
Earth and all of us on our journey to ascension. His energy is
anchoring more and more powerfully into the planet as his ray, the
Eighth Ray of Transmutation, enters Earth. My experience with
Kumeka is grounded and fun. I consider him a beloved friend and
have a very special relationship with him, which I value and enjoy.
Although Kumeka has never incarnated on Earth, and so has never
had a human body, my projection of him is a very tall, broad,
bearded and strong man who exudes a very beautiful, gentle and
often playful energy. At first Diana and I had to be together to connect
with him, but very quickly I could sense what he was imparting
and I could see him clearly. Now he is as visible as a physical
human being. When I am making a decision I can literally feel a
hand on my shoulder, holding me back or encouraging me forward
as appropriate.When we were working on this book, if I was unable
to grasp a concept he would write or draw the information on a
blackboard in my third eye.

Originally he communicated only with Diana and me, but now
he can work through millions of people at a time. In order for peo-
ple to get to know about him and connect with his energy, he asked
me to commission someone to write music that would express all
of his qualities, from his strength and incisiveness to his power and
glory. Diana and I asked Andrew Brel to compose what is now the
Music for Kumeka CD. Later Kumeka said that it was important for
a new wave of light to go out across the planet. In order for this to
happen, he requested that we put together a set of crystal meditation
CD packs. Under his direction we produced a set of six, using
crystals, color, music and a guided meditation to enable people to
make higher connections with angels and archangels.

From palmistry and other psychic sources I have always understood
that I would not find my true spiritual path until I reached
my fifties, and so this has proved to be. The first thing Kumeka initiated
was my doing soul readings to help other people understand
their pathway in this lifetime. Now he has guided Diana and me to
work together on this important book. I hope you gain as much
value from reading it as we have from writing it.

Table of Contents
The Aim of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1 The Establishment of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 The Early Days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3 Birth, Marriage and Death in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4 Animals in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5 Homes and Leisure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6 Farming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7 Life After the Second Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
8 Evolution of Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
9 Spirituality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
10 The Energy Dome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
11 The Temples of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
12 The Priesthood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
13 The High Priests and Priestesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
14 Atlantean Energies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
15 Genetic Healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
16 The Chakras of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
17 The Psychic Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
18 The Power of the Mind in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
19 Using and Changing Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
20 Opening the Third Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
21 Astrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
22 Numerology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
23 Healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
24 Working with Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
25 Crystals in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
26 The Year 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
27 Crystal Remedies and Essences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
28 Master Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
29 The Fall of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
30 The Twelve Tribes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
31 Preparing for the Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
List of Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

Discover Atlantis.Diana Cooper
This US edition prepared by Shari Mueller
Cover and interior design by Damian Keenan
Printed and bound in the USA

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 12 11 10 09 08 07
Published by
Findhorn Press
305a The Park, Findhorn
Forres IV36 3TE
Scotland, UK




Editorial Board
Chinua Achebe
Bard College
Kwame Gyekye
University of Ghana
Maulana Karenga
California State University, Long Beach
Marta Moreno Vega
Caribbean Cultural Center
Isidore Okpewho
Binghamton University,
State University of New York

Kofi Asare Opoku
Lafayette College
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Book Details
 897 p
 File Size 
 14,949 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 978-1-4129-3636-1 (cloth : alk. paper)
 2009 by SAGE Publications, Inc

About the Editors
Molefi Kete Asante is professor in the Department
of African American Studies at Temple University.
Dr. Asante has published 67 books; among the
most recent are Afrocentric Manifesto (2008);
The History of Africa: The Quest for Eternal
Harmony (2007); Cheikh Anta Diop: An
Intellectual Portrait (2006); Spear Masters: An
Introduction to African Religion (2006), coauthored
with Emeka Nwadiora; Handbook of
Black Studies (2005), coedited with Maulana
Karenga; Encyclopedia of Black Studies (2005),
coedited with Ama Mazama; Race, Rhetoric, and
Identity: The Architecton of Soul (2005); Erasing
Racism: The Survival of the American Nation
(2003); Ancient Egyptian Philosophers (2000);
Scattered to the Wind (2002); Custom and
Culture of Egypt (2002); and 100 Greatest
African Americans (2003).
He has recently been recognized as one of the
most widely cited scholars. In the 1990s, he was
recognized as one of the most influential leaders in
American education. Dr. Asante completed his
MA at Pepperdine and received his PhD from the
University of California, Los Angeles, at the age of
26, and was appointed a full professor at the age
of 30 at the State University of New York at
Buffalo. At Temple University, he created the first
PhD program in African American Studies in
1987. He has directed more than 140 PhD dissertations.
He has written more than 300 articles for
journals and magazines and is the founder of the
theory of Afrocentricity.
Dr. Asante was born in Valdosta, Georgia, in the
United States, of Sudanese and Nigerian heritage,
1 of 16 children. He is a poet, dramatist, and painter.
Hiswork on African language,multiculturalism, and
human culture and philosophy has been cited by
journals such as the Africalogical Perspectives,
Quarterly Journal of Speech, Journal of Black
Studies, Journal of Communication, American
Scholar,Daedalus,Western Journal of Black Studies,
and Africaological Perspectives. The Utne Reader
called him one of the “100 Leading Thinkers” in
America. Dr. Asante has appeared on more than 50
TV programs. In 2002, he received the distinguished
Douglas Ehninger Award for Rhetorical Scholarship
from the National Communication Association. He
regularly consults with the African Union. In 2004,
he was asked to give one of the keynote addresses at
the Conference of Intellectuals of Africa and the
Diaspora in Dakar, Senegal. He was inducted into
the Literary Hall of Fame for Writers of African
Descent at the Gwendolyn Brooks Center at Chicago
State University in 2004, and he is the recipient of
more than 100 national and international awards,
including three honorary degrees.
Dr. Asante is the founding editor of the Journal
of Black Studies (1969) and was the president of
the civil rights organization, the Student Non-
Violent Coordinating Committee chapter at
UCLA, in the 1960s. In 1995, he was made a
traditional king, Nana Okru Asante Peasah,
Kyidomhene of Tafo, Akyem, Ghana.

Ama Mazama is associate professor of African
American Studies at Temple University. She was
born and grew up in Guadeloupe, Eastern
Caribbean. She received her PhD in Linguistics
from the University of La Sorbonne, Paris, at the
age of 26, with Highest Distinction. Before joining
Temple, Dr. Mazama taught at the University of
Texas, Austin, and Penn State, College Park, and
was a visiting professor at Georgetown University
and Howard University.
She has published eight books in French or English,
including The Afrocentric Paradigm (2003),
L’Impératif Afrocentrique (2003), The Encyclopedia
of Black Studies (2005) (coedited with Molefi Kete
Asante), and Africa in the 21st Century: Toward a
New Future (2007), as well as more than 60 articles
in French and English in national and international
journals. Dr. Mazama’s early work was on the
African roots of Caribbean creole languages.
Dr. Mazama is the associate editor of the
Journal of Black Studies, the top scholarly journal
in Black Studies. In 2007, the National Council of
Black Studies presented her with the Ana Julia
Cooper and CLR James Award for her contributions
to the advancement of the discipline of Black Studies.
Dr. Mazama has lectured nationally, throughout
the United States and internationally, in Paris,
Vienna, London, Birmingham, South America,
Benin,West Africa, Canada, and, of course, in the
Caribbean, her place of origin. She is a highly
sought after lecturer and workshop leader in the
field of African and African American infusion in
school curricula. An expert in linguistics and cultural
theory, Dr. Mazama has been cited by
numerous school districts for her work in Pan African culture.
In 2002, she was initiated in Haiti to
become a Mambo, that is, a Vodu priestess.
Thus, Ama Mazama’s knowledge of African
religion is not only academic but also, and
most important, stems from a lived experience.
The mother of three, Dr. Mazama is
committed to recording and transmitting
knowledge of the African cultural traditions
to present and future generations.

comprehensive work to assemble ideas, concepts,
discourses, and extensive essays on African religion.
Over the years, there have been numerous
encyclopedias on religion from other parts of the
world, but African religion has often been relegated
to “primitive religions,” “African mythologies,”
or “tribal religions” sections of such works
on religion. It is as if African religion is an afterthought
in the eyes of the authors and editors of
such volumes. Of course, these designations are
clearly based on outmoded and problematic
Western notions of Africa, and we have created
this encyclopedia as a monument to the memory
of those Africans who left us enough information
from which to rediscover for the world the original
beauty and majesty of African culture.

There were two objectives in advancing this
work to the public. First, we wanted to provide
the primary material necessary for further
research, analysis, and exposition of the concrete
beliefs of African people. Second, we sought to
elevate the discourse around African religion, suggesting
by the presentation of nearly 500 entries
that there was still much we did not know about
African culture. Africa is the second largest continent
in the world. Yet its intellectual and cultural
contributions remain among the least understood
if we take the written records about the continent
and its people as sources of knowledge about the
continent. There are still those whose knowledge
of Africa is grounded in the perceptions and attitudes
of missionaries, merchants, and marines
who have occupied the continent through foreign
religions, trade, or guns. The enormity of African
contribution to ideas of religion, spirituality, and
ethics has gone unappreciated by religious scholars,
although at the beginning of human history,
Africa makes its case for the origin of religion in
an official, formal manner. It is our hope that the
reflection on African religion occasioned by these
entries will enhance our understanding of the
African world and provide a new adventure for
comparative studies.

Unquestionably, a work as innovative and comprehensive
as this encyclopedia makes its mark in
the area of intellectual inquiry by staking out new
areas of knowledge. It provides the reader with
new metaphors, tropes, figures of speech, modes
of reasoning, etymologies, analogies, and cosmogonies
to satiate the intellect. Only in such an
encyclopedia as this can one truly grasp the enormity
of Africa’s contribution to religious ideas.
Thus, this work presents richly textured ideas of
spirituality, ritual, and initiation while advancing
new theological categories, cosmological narratives,
and ways to conceptualize ethical behavior.

Given that we viewed African religion as one
religion and the African continent as a whole, we
were inclined to introduce classical African religious
ideas, from the beginning of Kemet to the
arrival of Christianity and later Islam in Africa, as
significant forerunners of much of continental
African thought. The same appeal to ethics, based
on righteous character; the same search for eternal
life, found in living a life where good outweighs
evil; and the same openness to ancestral spirits,
kas, as remaining among the community of the living,
creates an appreciation of the recurring cycle
of humanity. Correspondences of language and
concept as with Amen, Amani, and Imani, which
are transgenerational and transcontinental, remain
vibrant parts of the African legacy of religion.
When the Akan use the words Kwame, Asare, and
Nkwa, they recall the more ancient Amen, Ausar,
and Ankh. Several books, starting with the older
works of Eva Meyerowitz, have examined these
correspondences. Of course, in more recent times,
Afrocentric authors such as Mubabinge Bilolo,
Chinweizu Chinweizu, and Theophile Obenga
have identified other correspondences in the religious
and philosophical traditions of Africa.

The fact that Western or Islamic categories,
which come much later than African religion, have
often been employed in the discourse on African
religion means that we have not yet established
enough concrete data for asserting the African religion.
Because of this reality, much of African religious
thought has been distorted and confused as
authors have tried to force newly discovered or
uncovered or different concepts into old and familiar
classes. Therefore, as editors, we have avoided
ironclad classificatory schemes and sought entries
that revealed as closely as possible the actualities of
African societies. What we wanted the entries to
reveal was the thinking of African people about
religion from the earliest of times.

Table of Contents
List of Entries vii
Reader’s Guide xi
About the Editors xv
Contributors xvii
Introduction xxi
A 1 N 439
B 85 O 469
C 149 P 517
D 191 Q 555
E 229 R 557
F 257 S 583
G 279 T 645
H 303
I 325
J 353
K 359
L 375
M 397
U 679
V 685
W 703
X 729
Y 731
Z 741
Appendix: African Names of God 747
Bibliography: African Religious Sources 751
Index 797

Encyclopedia of African Religion
Printed in the United States of America.

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1. Demonology—Encyclopedias. 2. Religions—Encyclopedias.
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 2012 Theresa Bane

Table of Contents
Preface 1
Introduction 5
Bibliography 339
Index 371

As a writer, editor, and compiler of myths,
it is my goal to contribute to the academic
studies in the fields of anthropology, folklore,
mythology, and religion. Being a professional
vampirologist—a mythologist who specializes
in cross- cultural vampire studies—I have come
across a number of vampiric entities who were
also described as being demonic in nature. According
to their original mythologies, these infernal,
vampiric demons were said to have been
created in a hell- like dimension or were described
as being agents of evil who worked directly
against the best interests of humanity.
There are not so great a number of vampiric
species that are demonic or demon- like in their
nature or behavior, but the few that do exist
and which were catalogued in my previous
books did pique my interest. As is often the
case, a little bit of research turned into a great
deal of research, and a book of DEMONOLOGY
began to write itself.
Demonology, the study of demons, has been
in and out of vogue with mankind over the
centuries. Its acceptability as a subject has varied
depending on how threatening the changing,
ruling religious powers deemed it. For example,
King Solomon, the much famed last
king of the united Kingdom of Israel, was a
man of great influence, wealth, and wisdom;
he is credited with having ordered and
overseen the construction of the first temple in
Jerusalem. This is covered in the pseudepigraphical
work The Testament of Solomon,
which describes quite clearly how the king was
empowered by God to summon and bind numerous
demons to work on the temple’s construction.
Obviously not only was it acceptable
for a king to bind and utilize demons as a labor
force, he had them working side by side with
his human construction crews (Chapter Eighteen).
Solomon was not the only king who was
concerned about and confronted by demons.
Before King James the First acceded to the
throne of England in 1603, he had written and
published a book entitled Daemonologie. In it
he speaks on the subject of witchcraft and the
witches’ relationship with the DEVIL. He discloses
how these people, most often women,
conspire to summon up the Devil and barter
their souls for a pittance of power and ability.
He mentions how they often become a demonic
FAMILIAR, a companion gifted to someone
by the Prince of Darkness, and how taking
up the profession of witch-finding and hunting
is both noble and necessary. As can be imagined,
many witches were slain under his rule,
even though the religion he embraced as his
own clearly stated in the Epistle to the Romans
(8:38–9) that neither sorcery nor witchcraft
has the power to harm a Christian. This claim
is based on the belief that when Christ died
and was resurrected he simultaneously defeated
all the forces of evil for all time. Nevertheless,
in Daemonologie, James went on to very carefully
and meticulously describe the fine line
between a scientific scholar who studied the
course of the stars, namely an astronomer, and
an infernally aligned individual, an astrologer,
who—empowered by demons (knowingly or
not)—pretended through his ignorance to interpret
their course across the night sky and
explain how those movements relate to man
and help predict a person’s future. Throughout
his life King James was obsessed with witches
and their demonic familiars, believing they
were constantly plotting to kill him.
As you can see with the study of demonology,
timing is everything. It is fascinating
that these two kings, separated by two
thousand years of history, both list the names,
abilities, and, in some cases, the physical attributes
of the demons of which they spoke.
They made, in essence, a very brief de monolo -
gia, a dissertation on demons. And they were
not alone: many others before and since have
done the same. Of special note are the French
judge and DEMONOGRAPHER Pierre de Rosteguy
de Lancre, who conducted the witch
hunts of 1609 under the order of King Henry
the Eighth; Pierre Leloyers, who authored
Discourse and Histories about Specters, Visions,
and Apparitions, of Spirits, Angels, Demons, and
Souls that appeared visibly to Men; and Johann
Wierus, a Dutch demonologist and physician,
who in his moral publications was among the
first to speak out against the persecution of
witches. He is also the author of the influential
works De Praestigiis Daemonum et Incantationibus
ac Venificiis and Pseudomonarchia Daemonum.
It is not just in Christianity and Judaism
that we find lists of demons and infernal servitors,
but also Ashurism, Buddhism, Hinduism,
Islam, Kemetic, Vodou, and Zoroastrianism.
Demons appear in the mythologies and lore of
virtually every ancient society, such as the ancient
Africans, Assyrians, Chinese, Greek,
Japanese, Mayans, Persians, Romans, and
Scythians, to name just a few.
Throughout my research I have pulled together
as many of the named demons as I could
find from all of the various cultures and religions.
Research was conducted not only among
books written about the history of ancient peoples
and their cultures, but among religious
texts as well. I compiled all of the information
found for each demon, be it an individual
entity or a particular species, then carefully
condensed it to its bare and relevant facts, and
wrote it up as a succinct description or
synopsis. The goal was to present to the reader
a concise account for each of these prominent
demons. Entries were purposely kept short and
precise, as there were almost three thousand
diabolical personalities to commit to paper.
There are a great number of books on the
market that tell of individuals who claim to
have been possessed by demons, as well as of
people who admit to being able to drive infernal
beings out of these afflicted souls. Personal
beliefs in de monic possession, be it a spiritual
or psychological condition, were not relevant
to the writing of this reference book. The only
concern was in naming those entities who are
already considered relevant, especially those
who played a part in the belief systems of the
major religions. I did, however, consciously
choose not to use any of the books that focused
on the subject matter of demonic possession,
especially those works written after what might
be considered the New Age movement of the
1980s and after. This decision was based on the
opinion that these cases and individuals have
not yet proved to be either historically or
mythologically relevant. Most of these may become
the stuff of urban legends. Only time will
There are a handful of books that proved
very useful. Gustav Davidson’s A Dictionary of
Angels Including the Fallen Angels is a first- rate
resource for anyone’s personal library. As the
title indicates, it lists the angels who were
driven out of Heaven during the Fall as well
as those from Enochian lore, the Watcher Angels
(see WATCHERS), who exorcized what can
only be described as free will (a blessing man
alone is alleged to have) and chose to leave of
their own accord when they opted to take a
human woman as a wife. This book also contains
an impressive bibliography and a useful
appendix with samples of angelic scripts, demonic
seals and pacts (see DIABOLICAL SIGNATURE),
the various names of LILITH, the unholy
sephiroth, and a list of fallen angels (see
Francesso Maria Guazzo’s Compendium
Maleficarum and Daemonologie by King James
the First of England do not name the most
demons but are essential in understanding how
demons and witches are aligned and work
against mankind. Two other books that list and
describe demons are Fred Gettings’s Dictionary
of Demons and Mack and Mack’s A Field Guide
to Demons.
References were chosen very selectively.
Books like The Satanic Bible by Anton Szandor
LaVey and the King James Bible had to be
used sparingly because they are religious texts
with content not only heavily flavored by opinion
but also unver ifiable by other sources. A
favorite book on demons was written by Wade
Baskin, but it is often overlooked because of
its sensationalized title: Satanism: A Guide to
the Awesome Power of Satan. I prefer this book
because it contains short, brief descriptions and
definitions with no hyperbole, opinion,
fictional characters (such as the demons from
the John Milton poem Paradise Lost), or erroneous
entries. It is brilliant in that it is straightforward,
simple, and concise in its nature.
As with my previous book, The Encyclopedia
of Vampire Mythology, I document the sources
from which information was taken, including
page numbers (when given) so that it may be
referenced by others. Also as before, I tried to
use the oldest editions I could find by the most
authoritative and reputable sources possible.
Small caps are used to indicate to the reader
words that may be cross- referenced as entries
in the encyclopedia.
In the back of this book is a complete bibliography
of all the works cited as well as a
large and thorough index.
Some of the most knowledgeable people in
the field of demonology have never been recognized
for their contributions. It is fitting to
acknowledge these scholars for their work in
this field of study here: Heinrich Cornelius
Agrippa von Nettesheim, Steven Ashe, Wade
Baskin, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Augustin
Calmet, Joseph Campbell, Richard Cavendish,
Robert Henry Charles, Jacques- Albin- Simon
Collin de Plancy, Rosemary Ellen Guiley,
Heinrich Kramer, Manfred Lurker, Anthony
Master, Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers,
and Jacob Sprenger.
Deep appreciation also goes to those who
assisted with this undertaking: my beta- reader,
Gina Farago; my husband, T. Glenn Bane; and
especially my linguistic contributors, Yair A.
Goldberg and June K. Williams. Without this
dedicated cadre of individuals, this book would
not have been possible.

Demons are amazing beings, simple in design and intent—to foster and promote evil in such
a way as to undo the goodness of man kind and to cause the ruination if not outright destruction
of all that is held to be pure and good. We should all have such clarity of purpose.
It does not matter where in the world you are, on what point in mankind’s timeline you
stand, what religion you believe in or practice (if any), your social or economic standing, or
whether you are male or female—demons are promoters of immorality, sin, and vice. Historically,
people understand and accept this about DEMONIALITY with little or no explanation required.

I have noticed that most stories of how the world was created involve some sort of benign,
all powerful being having to overcome an entity of evil and malicious intent that is nearly
as powerful. For the abstract idea of good to truly be appreciated, seen, and understood it
must have something off which to reflect. It needs something to give it per spec tive and to
personify all that we do not want or desire. If there is no struggle, there can be no tri -
umphant victory to be thankful for or revel in. Evil, be it an abstract idea or a maligned
cosmic entity, often employs minions to do its bidding. Demons are those minions, and the
most intriguing part of their nature is that we need not believe in their existence to feel the
effect they have on our lives. The famed British occultist Dion Fortune (1890–1946) is quoted
as having said on the matter that demons are “the personification of ‘negative evil’...the firm
substance that we must have to push against in order to walk and the DEVIL is the principle
of resistance of inertia that enables Good to get a purchase.”
Interestingly, demons were not always considered to be beings of pure and unchangeable
evil. Once they were the fey of the woods, the free- willed DJINN of the deserts known on occasion
to convert to Islam, and the ancestral or nature spirits that were respected if not worshipped
to near god- head status. Fierce in their fighting ability and highly territorial, these beings
could be summoned, and by conditionalagreement or by magical bond were made to
be guardians of sacred areas. Demons made excellent sentries, as they had excessively passionate
dispositions, near limitless energy, a preference to work from concealment, and
shape- shifting capability. You would be hard pressed to find an ancient culture that did not
have some place through which travel was not only considered taboo but also protected by a
semi- divine being with an overprotective temperament.
In ancient Greece, the word DAEMON referred
to a spirit entity that may have been a force for either good or evil. During the spread
of Christianity when the young church openly and aggressively condemned all things pagan,
the intent of the word changed. No longer a neutral force that could be swayed one way or
the other, demons, as they were now called, were considered to be beings of pure evil who
were under the influence and control of the DEVIL himself. Even now when the word
“demon” is used in our speech we instantly know something of the speaker’s intent. To say
“the devil made me do it” as an excuse for having been caught in some act of perceived
wickedness almost seems to give the speaker the benefit of being somehow not wholly responsible.

He is but mortal flesh and is by nature frail, he was tricked or pressured into it,
he is not a bad person, simply weak- willed, and who among us has not at some point given
in to more base desires? Shouldn’t mercy be shown? Is that not how one would play the
devil’s advocate?
From mankind’s earliest origins we have rec ognized the existence on some level of the supernatural world, and with our instinctual desire to understand we have placed beings who
dwell in other realms as falling into either one of two categories: good or evil, divine or infernal,
angels or demons. Truth be told, we need demons and the evil they represent. Without
them there can be no moral to our stories, let alone a plot. If there is not an external or internal
struggle to overcome, how can there be any progression?

There have always been demons in our folklore and mythologies, even when we called
them by other names. The Testament of Solomon is one such example; it was purported to have
been a firsthand account of the events of the king’s court. Some scholars have claimed it was
written as early as the first century C.E., while others date it to as late as the fifth century.
Even at its earliest dating it was still published a thousand years after Solomon’s rule, but this
pseudepigraphal book may be the source from which the idea of a hierarchy germinated. According
to the story, a vampiric demon by the name of Ornias harasses a young man, stealing
both his blood and his wages. The boy’s father beseeches the king for help in fighting the
demon; he in turn seeks assistance from God. The archangel Michael is sent to earth and
gives Solomon a signet ring and instructions on how to use it to bind and control demons.
In chapter eighteen of The Testament of Solomon
demons are summoned, one after another, after
which they are forced to give their true names,
reveal what they govern, and offer instructions
on how to banish them. Nearly all of these
demons are sent to work on the construction of the temple.
Introduced as a personality in the Book of
Job, which dates back to 700 B.C.E., SATAN was
portrayed as an instigator and accuser of man.
In the second century apocryphal book The
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the name
Satan was already well known. Nevertheless,
by the time Twelve Patriarchs was written, this
same character had developed into the adversary
of God, the arch- nemesis of humanity,
and an entirely evil being.
However, it was not until Saint Paul laid out
the hierarchy of the heavenly host in the fourth
century A.D. that other scholars were empowered
to lay out a similar hierarchy for one of
the natural enemies of the angels—demons.
During the fifth century demons were believed
to fall into five different categories. The
first four were based on the elements of the
natural world: air, earth, fire, and water; the
last category was “the underground.” In the
eleventh century Michael Psellus, a Byzantine
historian, monk, philosopher, politician and
writer, added a sixth category to the classification
of demons. Psellus characterized these
demons as mere shades, likening them to
ghosts. Saint Augustine, also a fourth century
philosopher, believed that all ghosts were
demons. Yet it was during the Middle Ages
and the early Renaissance period that the classification
and division of demons came into its
own. This is no doubt related to revival in the
interest of the magical and numerological arts
as well as the witch craze sweeping across Europe
at the time. To be a witch was a sin worthy
of a gruesome death by burning or hanging,
but to study demons so as to better understand
the opposition of heaven was perfectly acceptable,
providing of course you had no political
ambitions or powerful enemies.
It was during this time that demons were
named and departmentalized. They were not
only assigned to have dominion over a very
particular type of sin, but also assigned a planet
and astrological sign to rule over, as well as a
month, day of the week, and an hour of the
day or night when they were particularly powerful
and best summoned. Some were also assigned
a rank, such as king, count, or master
steward of the devil’s winery. They were described
in detail, down to the sound of their
voices, the type of clothes they wore, or mounts
they appeared on. Demons were often described
as being hideously ugly or having breath
so foul it could literally kill a man. This is because
of Christianity’s tendency to regard the
body, the solid form, as corrupt and dirty; ugliness
was equated with evil. Additionally, the
personalities of these demons were also described
on many occasions so that the summoner
would know what to expect; hints and
summoning tips were even given as to how best
to trick the demons into doing your will with-
out giving in to their evil. Many of the more
powerfully ranked demons were also empowered
with hordes of servitors to do their bidding,
as they themselves were subject to their
liege’s command. Some ranked and named
demons had only a few lesser spirits to act on
their behest while others had servants in the
hundreds of thousands. Always a few of the
most important servitors were named but seldom
if ever was any real or extensive information
given about them.
When the Italian poet Dante Alighieri
wrote his epic poem The Divine Comedy, it was
meant to be an allegory for the journey of the
soul on the path to God. He used the Roman
poet Virgil as guide through what was the contemporary
medieval view of Hell. On the
course of this journey, Dante named and described
many demons, some of which were
pulled from accepted mythology and established
hierarchies while others he created,
loosely naming and basing them on powerful
ruling families. So prevailing was this literary
work that for centuries to come some of those
fictional demons appeared in grimoires and serious
Francis Barrett, an Englishman by birth and
an occultist by profession, penned The Magus.
Published at the height of the Age of Reason
in 1801, it was considered to be one of the primary
sources required to properly study ceremonial
magic. Even today the book is in use
by those who seriously practice magic. In it,
Barrett gives nine different divisions of demons:
The False Gods, who wish to be worshipped
like a god; Spirits of Lies, who use divination
and predictions to trick and deceive; Vessels of
Iniquity, the inventors of all things evil, such
as cards and dice; Revengers of Evil, who are
ruled over by ASMODEUS; Deluders, the demons
under the command of Prince SATAN who
mimic and imitate miracles as well as work in
conjunction with witches; Aerial Powers, who
live in the air and cause lightning, thunder,
and pestilence as it suits their prince, MERIRIM;
FURIES, who are led by ABADDON and cause
discord, devastation, and war; Accusers, demonic
spirits led by Prince ASTAROTH; and the
tempters, who reside in every man and are
under the command of Prince MAMMON.
In this modern, enlightened age it is hard
to believe we have not yet relinquished our belief
in the supernatural. Television shows that
claim to be in the pursuit of scientific fact-finding
by capturing demonic forces and ghosts on
film, by use of formalistic staged drama and
over- hyped anticipation, have, in my opinion,
done a great deal to convince rationally minded
folks otherwise. Television alone is not to
blame; a constant supply of books describes individual
possessions and the hardships families
must endure and overcome.
This book, at the other end of the spectrum,
is an encyclopedic listing of various demons. I
describe the demon without hype or hyperbole,
what it looks like, who in the infernal hierarchy
it is subjected to serve under, and how, if it is
known, the demon operates. Readers may be
surprised to discover that the vast number of
demons herein described do not have the ability
to possess a human. In modern times, possession
and the rite of exorcism first truly came
to light on a grand scale with the publication
and commercial success of William Peter
Blatty’s The Exorcist (1971). Not so sur pris -
ingly, when the Catholic Church denounced
the book and the claim that the story was based
on actual, recent events, the popularity of The
Exorcist only increased. In spite of the Church’s
dislike of the book, the message of Exorcist was
spread: that demons are driven by evil instinct
and only by the use of conscious reason, compassion,
and love can they be defeated. Blatty
went on to write the screenplay for the film,
for which he won an Academy Award, the
message spreading out and reaching an even
wider audience.
Blatty’s book is hardly a stand- alone example.
Thousands of similar books have since
been published. Some of them are more outof-
this- world in their claims than others, professing
that the demon showed itself to be real
in a number of fantastic ways, such as by
demonstrating acts of levitation, causing both
people and objects to float around the room or
religious symbols and holy icons to burst into
flame, and speaking through the mouths of
their prey in long dead languages or sharing
secrets only the victim could have known. As
remarkable as all this may sound, it is even
more remarkable that no one has ever managed
to record such an event with either convincing
still photography or video. These events never
occur when a skeptic, non- believer, or openminded
third party is present. Nor are these
types of people ever victimized by demons; it
seems they would be rather easy prey when
compared to the devoutly fortified religious individual
who would be knowledgeable in how
best to confront them. Yet the latter are exactly
the sort of people that the infernal habitually
afflict. Obviously this is an aspect of the nature
of demons that I do not understand; neither
have any of my colleagues addressed it, convincingly
or otherwise, in their own works.
I am undecided as to my beliefs on cases of
demonic possession. It may be possible but it
may be equally improbable. The Old Testament
Apocrypha refers to exorcisms only once,
in the Book of Tobit, chapters six and seven.
However, the real problem was not that Sarah
was being possessed by a demon but rather that
one was systematically killing off every man
she ever married in an attempt to keep her
available for itself. In the New Testament,
Christ gave his apostles the gift of exorcism:
“And when he had called unto him his twelve
disciples, he gave them power against unclean
spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner
of sickness and all manner of disease” (Matthew
10:1). (It should be noted that demonic possession
and disease were often linked.)
In the shadow of Alighieri, Barrett, Blatty,
Fortune, and Milton as well as Baskin, Collin
de Plancy, Gettings, Guazzo, King James the
First of England, Leloyers, Mathers, Rosteguy
de Lancre, and Wierus, I have collected and
briefly described as many of the different
demons I could find from a wide array of cultures
and religions. If readers hope to learn
here how to summon demons or how to perform
an exorcism, they will be disappointed,
but academics, researchers, and scholars alike
will be pleased with what they find—a massive
collection of demons, clearly defined and cataloged.

Encyclopedia of Demons in World Religions and Cultures
Manufactured in the United States of America

McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers
Box 611, Jefferson, North Carolina 28640
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