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by Emmett Dulaney

8 BOOKS IN ONE

at a Glance

Book 1: Getting Started with Linux
Introducing Linux
Installing Linux
Troubleshooting and Configuring Linux
Trying Out Linux
Book 2: Linux Desktops
GNOME and Its Derivatives
The KDE Plasma Desktop
Commanding the Shell
Navigating the Linux File System
Introducing Linux Applications
Using Text Editors
Book 3: Networking
Connecting to the Internet
Setting Up a Local Area Network
Going Wireless
Managing the Network
Book 4: The Internet
Browsing the Web
Using FTP
Hosting Internet Services
Managing Mail Servers
Managing DNS
Book 5: Administration
Introducing Basic System Administration
Managing Users and Groups
Managing File Systems
Working with Samba and NFS
Book 6: Security
Introducing Linux Security 
Securing Linux
Vulnerability Testing and Computer Security Audits
Book 7: Scripting
Introductory Shell Scripting
Working with Advanced Shell Scripting
Programming in Linux
Book 8: Linux Certification
Studying for the Linux Essentials Certification Exam
Studying for the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI Certification Exams
Other Linux Certifications

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Book Details
 Price
 3.50 USD
 Pages
 563 p
 File Size
 17,843 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 978-1-119-49046-3 (pbk)
 978-1-119-49052-4 (ebk)
 978-1-119-49045-6 (ebk)
 Copyright   
 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc 

About This Book
Linux All-in-One For Dummies gives you eight quick-reference guides in a single
book. Taken together, these eight minibooks provide detailed information on
installing, configuring, and using Linux, as well as pointers for passing the vendorneutral
certification exams available from the Linux Professional Institute (LPI) to
authenticate your skills.

What you’ll like most about this book is that you don’t have to sequentially read
the whole thing chapter by chapter — or even read through each section in a
chapter. You can pretty much turn to the topic you want and quickly get the
answer to your pressing questions about Linux, whether they’re about using the
LibreOffice.org word processor, setting up the Apache web server, or a wide range of topics.

Here are some of the things you can do with this book:
»»Install and configure Linux using the information given in this book.
»»Connect the Linux PC to the Internet through a DSL or cable modem.
»»Add a wireless Ethernet to your existing network.
»»Get tips, techniques, and shortcuts for specific uses of Linux, such as
• Setting up and using Internet services
• Setting up a Windows server using Samba
• Using Linux commands
• Using shell programming
• Using the LibreOffice.org office suite and other applications that come with Linux
»»Understand the basics of system and network security.
»»Perform system administration tasks.
I use a simple notational style in this book. All listings, filenames, function names,
variable names, and keywords are typeset in a monospace font for ease of reading.
I italicize the first occurrences of new terms and concepts and then provide a definition
right there. I show typed commands in boldface. The output of commands
and any listing of files are shown in a monospace font.

Topics that correspond to the certification objectives are important after you’ve
become comfortable enough with the operating system to consider taking the certification
exams. As we discuss the material, Tips draw your attention to the key
concepts and topics tested in the LX0-103 and LX0-104 exams (both of which you
must pass to become certified by the Linux Professional Institute). Note, though,
that not all Tips indicate material that’s on the exams; I also share other types of
information in Tips.

If you are a novice to Linux, overlook the certification objective information as
you read. Only after you become comfortable with the operating system, and are
considering authenticating your skills by taking the LPI exams, should you revisit
the book and look for this information.

Each minibook zeros in on a specific task area — such as using the Internet or
running Internet servers — and then provides hands-on instructions on how to
perform a series of related tasks. You can jump right to a section and read about a
specific task. You don’t have to read anything but the few paragraphs or the list of
steps that relate to your question. Use the Table of Contents or the Index to locate
the pages relevant to your question.

You can safely ignore text next to the Technical Stuff icons, as well as text in sidebars.
However, if you’re the kind of person who likes to know some of the hidden
details of how Linux works, then, by all means, dig into the Technical Stuff icons
and the sidebars.


Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION. 1
About This Book. 2
Foolish Assumptions. 3
Icons Used in This Book. 4
Beyond the Book. 4
Where to Go from Here. 5
BOOK 1: GETTING STARTED WITH LINUX. 7
CHAPTER 1: Introducing Linux. 9
What Is Linux? . 9
Linux distributions. 10
Making sense of version numbers. 13
Linux Standard Base (LSB). 14
Contents of a Linux Distribution. 15
GNU software. 15
GUIs and applications. 16
Networks. 19
Internet servers. 19
Software development. 20
Online documentation. 22
Managing Your PC with Linux. 23
Distribution media  .23
Peripheral devices. 24
File systems and sharing . 25
Network . 25
Getting Started. 26
Step 1: Install . 26
Step 2: Configure. 26
Step 3: Explore. 27
Step 4: Find out more. 27
CHAPTER 2: Installing Linux. 29
Following the Installation Steps. 29
Checking Your PC’s Hardware. 31
Setting Aside Space for Linux . 33
Trying a Live CD. 34
Installing Linux on a Flash Drive. 35
Creating the bootable flash drive. 35
Troubleshooting the workstation. 36
Working daily with the new drive. 37
CHAPTER 3: Troubleshooting and Configuring Linux. 39
Using Text Mode Installation. 40
Troubleshooting X. 40
Resolving Other Installation Problems. 42
Using Knoppix boot commands . 42
Handling the fatal signal 11 error. 45
Getting around the PC reboot problem. 45
Using Linux kernel boot options. 48
Setting Up Printers . 48
Managing DVDs, CD-ROMs, and Flash Drives. 51
Installing Other Software. 51
Installing software in Debian and Ubuntu. 52
Installing software in Fedora. 54
Installing software in SUSE. 55
CHAPTER 4: Trying Out Linux. 57
Starting Linux. 57
Playing with the Shell . 60
Starting the bash shell . 61
Understanding shell commands. 62
Trying a few Linux commands. 62
Shutting Down. 64
BOOK 2: LINUX DESKTOPS . 67
CHAPTER 1: GNOME and Its Derivatives. 69
Getting to Know the GNOME Desktop. 70
Understanding the GNOME Panels .72
The top panel. 72
The desktop. 72
The bottom panel . 73
Looking at Unity. 73
Looking at Cinnamon. 73
Looking at MATE . 74
CHAPTER 2: The KDE Plasma Desktop. 75
Getting to Know the Plasma Desktop. 75
Desktop contextual menus . 77
Icon contextual menus. 77
Understanding the Plasma Panel. 78
The Main Menu button. 79
Panel icons. 80
Configuring the Plasma Bottom Panel. 81
Configuring the Plasma Desktop. 81
CHAPTER 3: Commanding the Shell . 83
Opening Terminal Windows and Virtual Consoles. 83
Using the bash Shell. 84
Understanding the syntax of shell commands. 85
Combining shell commands . 86
Controlling command input and output . 87
Typing less with automatic command completion. 89
Going wild with asterisks and question marks. 90
Repeating previously typed commands. 91
Discovering and Using Linux Commands . 92
Becoming root (superuser) . 97
Managing processes. 97
Working with date and time. 99
Processing files . 100
Writing Shell Scripts . 102
CHAPTER 4: Navigating the Linux File System. 105
Understanding the Linux File System. 105
Navigating the File System with Linux Commands. 110
Commands for directory navigation. 110
Commands for directory listings and permissions. 112
Commands for changing permissions and ownerships . 114
Commands for working with files. 116
Commands for working with directories. 117
Commands for finding files. 118
Commands for mounting and unmounting . 119
Commands for checking disk-space use. 120
CHAPTER 5: Introducing Linux Applications. 123
Taking Stock of Linux Applications. 124
Introducing Office Applications and Tools. 124
LibreOffice.org office suite. 125
Calendars. 128
Calculators. 128
Checking out Multimedia Applications. 129
Using a digital camera. 130
Playing audio CDs. 131
Playing sound files. 131
Burning a DVD or CD. 132
Using Graphics and Imaging Apps . 133
The GIMP . 133
GNOME Ghostview. 134
CHAPTER 6: Using Text Editors. 137
Using GUI Text Editors . 137
Text Editing with ed and vi. 140
Using ed . 141
Using vi. 145
BOOK 3: NETWORKING  .151
CHAPTER 1: Connecting to the Internet. 153
Understanding the Internet. 154
Deciding How to Connect to the Internet . 155
Connecting with DSL. 156
How DSL works . 156
DSL alphabet soup: ADSL, IDSL, SDSL . 157
Typical DSL setup. 158
Connecting with a Cable Modem . 162
How a cable modem works. 162
Typical cable modem setup. 164
CHAPTER 2: Setting Up a Local Area Network. 167
Understanding TCP/IP. 167
IP addresses. 169
Internet services and port numbers. 170
Setting Up an Ethernet LAN. 172
How Ethernet works. 173
Ethernet cables . 174
Configuring TCP/IP Networking. 176
Connecting Your LAN to the Internet. 178
CHAPTER 3: Going Wireless . 181
Understanding Wireless Ethernet Networks. 181
Understanding infrastructure and ad hoc modes. 183
Understanding Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). 183
Setting Up Wireless Hardware. 184
Configuring the Wireless Access Point. 185
Configuring Wireless Networking. 186
CHAPTER 4: Managing the Network. 191
Discovering the TCP/IP Configuration Files. 191
/etc/hosts. 192
/etc/networks. 193
/etc/host.conf. 193
/etc/resolv.conf . 193
/etc/hosts.allow. 194
/etc/hosts.deny . 195
/etc/nsswitch.conf. 195
Checking Out TCP/IP Networks. 196
Checking the network interfaces. 196
Checking the IP routing table. 196
Checking connectivity to a host. 197
Checking network status . 198
Sniffing network packets . 199
Using GUI tools . 200
Configuring Networks at Boot Time. 201
BOOK 4: THE INTERNET. 203
CHAPTER 1: Browsing the Web. 205
Surfing the Web. 205
Like a giant spider’s web. 206
Links and URLs. 206
Web servers and web browsers . 209
Web Browsing in Linux. 209
Checking out web browsers for Linux . 210
Introducing Firefox’s user interface . 210
Changing your home page. 213
Surfing the Internet with Firefox. 214
CHAPTER 2: Using FTP. 217
Using Graphical FTP Clients. 218
Using gFTP . 218
Introducing FileZilla. 220
Using a web browser as an FTP client . 221
Using the Command-Line FTP Client . 223
CHAPTER 3: Hosting Internet Services. 229
Understanding Internet Services . 229
TCP/IP and sockets . 230
Internet services and port numbers. 233
Using the Internet Super Server. 235
Using inetd. 236
Using xinetd. 237
Running Stand-Alone Servers . 239
Starting and stopping servers manually . 240
Starting servers automatically at boot time . 240
CHAPTER 4: Managing Mail Servers . 245
Installing the Mail Server. 245
Using sendmail . 245
A mail-delivery test. 246
The mail-delivery mechanism. 247
The sendmail configuration file. 247
Syntax of the sendmail.cf file. 253
Other sendmail files . 254
The .forward file. 256
The sendmail alias file. 257
CHAPTER 5: Managing DNS. 259
Understanding the Domain Name System (DNS). 259
What is DNS? . 260
Discovering hierarchical domain names. 261
Exploring BIND. 262
Configuring DNS . 266
Configuring the resolver. 266
Configuring a caching name server . 267
Configuring a primary name server. 278
BOOK 5: ADMINISTRATION. 281
CHAPTER 1: Introducing Basic System Administration. 283
Taking Stock of System Administration Tasks. 284
Becoming root. 285
Using the su - command. 285
Recovering from a forgotten root password. 286
Understanding How Linux Boots . 287
Understanding the init process. 288
Examining the /etc/inittab file. 289
Trying a new run level with the init command. 291
Understanding the Linux startup scripts. 291
Manually starting and stopping servers. 292
Automatically starting servers at system startup. 293
Taking Stock of Linux System Configuration Files . 294
Monitoring System Performance . 296
Using the top utility. 297
Using the uptime command . 298
Using the vmstat utility. 299
Checking disk performance and disk usage . 300
Viewing System Information with the /proc File System. 302
Understanding Linux Devices. 305
Device files. 305
Persistent device naming with udev. 307
Managing Loadable Driver Modules. 308
Loading and unloading modules. 308
Understanding the /etc/modprobe.d files. 309
Scheduling Jobs in Linux. 310
Scheduling one-time jobs. 310
Scheduling recurring jobs  .312
Introducing Some GUI System Administration Tools. 316
CHAPTER 2: Managing Users and Groups. 319
Adding User Accounts. 320
Managing user accounts by using a GUI user manager . 320
Managing user accounts by using commands. 322
Understanding the /etc/passwd File. 323
Managing Groups. 324
Setting Other User and Group Administration Values. 325
Exploring the User Environment. 326
Changing User and Group Ownership of Files. 328
CHAPTER 3: Managing File Systems. 331
Exploring the Linux File System. 331
Understanding the file-system hierarchy. 333
Mounting a device on the file system. 336
Examining the /etc/fstab file . 337
Sharing Files with NFS. 339
Exporting a file system with NFS. 340
Mounting an NFS file system. 341
Backing Up and Restoring Files. 341
Selecting a backup strategy and media. 342
Commercial backup utilities for Linux. 343
Using the tape archiver: tar. 343
Accessing a DOS or Windows File System. 348
Mounting a DOS or Windows disk partition . 348
Mounting those ancient DOS floppy disks. 349
Mounting an NTFS partition. 351
CHAPTER 4: Working with Samba and NFS. 353
Sharing Files with NFS. 353
Exporting a file system with NFS. 354
Mounting an NFS file system. 357
Setting Up a Windows Server Using Samba . 357
Installing Samba . 359
Configuring Samba. 359
Trying out Samba  .360
BOOK 6: SECURITY. 363
CHAPTER 1: Introducing Linux Security. 365
Why Worry about Security?. 366
Establishing a Security Framework. 366
Determining business requirements for security. 368
Performing risk analysis. 368
Establishing a security policy. 370
Implementing security solutions (mitigation). 371
Managing security. 372
Securing Linux. 372
Understanding the host-security issues. 373
Understanding network-security issues. 374
Delving Into Computer Security Terminology and Tools. 375
Keeping Up with Security News and Updates. 379
CHAPTER 2: Securing Linux . 381
Securing Passwords . 382
Shadow passwords. 382
Pluggable authentication modules (PAMs). 383
Protecting Files and Directories . 384
Viewing ownerships and permissions . 385
Changing file ownerships. 385
Changing file permissions . 385
Setting default permission. 386
Checking for set user ID permission. 388
Encrypting and Signing Files with GnuPG . 389
Understanding public key encryption . 389
Understanding digital signatures. 390
Using GPG. 391
Monitoring System Security. 396
Securing Internet Services. 397
Turning off stand-alone services. 397
Configuring the Internet super server. 398
Configuring TCP wrapper security . 398
Using Secure Shell for Remote Logins. 399
Setting Up Simple Firewalls. 402
Using NAT. 405
Enabling packet filtering on your Linux system . 406
Security Files to Be Aware Of. 411
CHAPTER 3: Vulnerability Testing and Computer
Security Audits. 413
Understanding Security Audits. 414
Nontechnical aspects of security audits. 414
Technical aspects of security audits. 415
Implementing a Security Test Methodology. 416
Some common computer vulnerabilities. 417
Host-security review. 418
Network-security review. 422
Vulnerability Testing Types . 424
Exploring Security Testing Tools. 425
BOOK 7: SCRIPTING. 429
CHAPTER 1: Introductory Shell Scripting. 431
Trying Out Simple Shell Scripts. 432
Exploring the Basics of Shell Scripting. 433
Storing stuff. 434
Calling shell functions. 435
Controlling the flow. 435
Exploring bash’s built-in commands. 439
CHAPTER 2: Working with Advanced Shell Scripting . 443
Trying Out sed. 443
Working with awk and sed. 446
Step 1: Pull out the ISBN. 447
Step 2: Calculate the 13th digit. 448
Step 3: Add the 13th digit to the other 12. 449
Step 4: Finish the process. 450
Final Notes on Shell Scripting . 450
CHAPTER 3: Programming in Linux. 451
An Overview of Programming. 452
Exploring the Software-Development Tools in Linux. 453
GNU C and C++ compilers. 454
The GNU make utility . 458
The GNU debugger. 466
Understanding the Implications of GNU Licenses. 473
The GNU General Public License. 473
The GNU Library General Public License. 474
BOOK 8: LINUX CERTIFICATION. 477
CHAPTER 1: Studying for the Linux Essentials
Certification Exam. 479
Overview of Linux Essentials. 479
The Linux Community and a Career in Open Source. 480
Finding Your Way on a Linux System. 482
The Power of the Command Line. 483
The Linux Operating System. 485
Security and File Permissions . 486
CHAPTER 2: Studying for the CompTIA Linux+ Powered
by LPI Certification Exams. 489
Overview of the CompTIA Linux+ Exams. 489
System Architecture. 490
Linux Installation and Package Management. 492
GNU and Unix Commands. 494
Devices, Linux File Systems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. 495
Shells, Scripting, and Data Management. 497
User Interfaces and Desktops. 498
Administrative Tasks. 500
Essential System Services. 501
Networking Fundamentals. 502
Security. 504
CHAPTER 3: Other Linux Certifications. 507
Vendor-Neutral Certifications. 507
Vendor-Specific Certifications. 508
INDEX. 509


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Foolish Assumptions
I assume that you’re familiar with a PC — you know how to turn it on and off and
you’ve dabbled with Windows. (Considering that most new PCs come preloaded
with Windows, this assumption is safe, right?) And I assume that you know how
to use some Windows applications, such as Microsoft Office.

When installing Linux on your PC, you may want to retain your Windows installations.
I assume that you don’t mind shrinking the Windows partition to make
room for Linux. For this procedure, you can invest in a good disk-partitioning tool
or use one of the partitioning tools included with most Linux distributions.

I also assume that you’re willing to accept the risk that when you try to install
Linux, some things may not quite work. Problems can happen if you have some
uncommon types of hardware. If you’re afraid of ruining your system, try finding
a slightly older, spare Pentium PC that you can sacrifice and then install Linux on that PC.
Linux All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies has eight minibooks, each of which
focuses on a small set of related topics. If you’re looking for information on a
specific topic, check the minibook names on the thumbtabs or consult the Table of Contents.

ISECOM

A valuable extension to the Hacking Exposed franchise; the authors do a great job of
incorporating the vast pool of knowledge of security testing from the team who built the Open
Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM) into an easy-to-digest, concise read
on how Linux systems can be hacked.
Steven Splaine
Author, The Web Testing Handbook and Testing Web Security
Industry-Recognized Software Testing Expert
With Pete being a pioneer of open-source security methodologies, directing ISECOM, and
formulating the OPSA certification, few people are more qualified to write this book than him.
Matthew Conover
Principal Software Engineer
Core Research Group, Symantec Research Labs
You’ll feel as if you are sitting in a room with the authors as they walk you through the steps
the bad guys take to attack your network and the steps you need to take to protect it. Or, as the
authors put it: “Separating the asset from the threat.” Great job, guys!
Michael T. Simpson, CISSP
Senior Staff Analyst
PACAF Information Assurance
An excellent resource for security information, obviously written by those with real-world
experience. The thoroughness of the information is impressive —very useful to have it presented in one place.
Jack Louis
Security Researcher

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Book Details
 Price
 3.00 USD
 Pages
 645 p
 File Size
 10,733 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 0-07-226257-5
 Copyright   
 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies 

About the Authors
This book was written according to the ISECOM (Institute for Security and Open
Methodologies) project methodology. ISECOM is an open, nonprofit security research
and certification organization established in January 2001 with the mission to make sense
of security. They release security standards and methodologies under the Open
Methodology License for free public and commercial use.
This book was written by multiple authors, reviewers, and editors—too many to all
be listed here—who collaborated to create the best Linux hacking book they could. Since
no one person can master everything you may want to do in Linux, a community wrote
the book on how to secure it.
The following people contributed greatly and should be recognized.

About the Project Leader
Pete Herzog
As Managing Director, Pete is the co-founder of ISECOM and creator of the
OSSTMM. At work, Pete focuses on scientific, methodical testing for controlling
the quality of security and safety. He is currently managing projects in development
that include security for homeowners, hacking lessons for teenagers, sourcecode
static analysis, critical-thinking training for children, wireless certification
exam and training for testing the operational electromagnetic spectrum, a
legislator’s guide to security solutions, a Dr. Seuss–type children’s book in metered prose
and rhyme, a security analysis textbook, a guide on human security, solutions for
university security and safety, a guide on using security for national reform, a guide for
factually calculating trust for marriage counselors and family therapists, and of course,
the Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM).
In addition to managing ISECOM projects, Pete teaches in the Masters for Security
program at La Salle University in Barcelona and supports the worldwide security
certification network of partners and trainers. He received a bachelor’s degree from
Syracuse University. He currently only takes time off to travel in Europe and North
America with his family.

About the Project Managers
Marta Barceló is Director of Operations, co-founder of ISECOM, and is
responsible for ISECOM business operations. In early 2003, she designed the
process for the Hacker Highschool project, developing and designing teaching
methods for the website and individual and multilingual lessons. Later that
same year, she developed the financial and IT operations behind the ISESTORM
conferences. In 2006, Marta was invited to join the EU-sponsored Open Trusted
Computing consortium to manage ISECOM’s participation within the project, including
financial and operating procedures. In 2007, she began the currently running advertising
campaign for ISECOM, providing all creative and technical skills as well as direction.
Marta maintains the media presence of all ISECOM projects and provides technical
server administration for the websites. She attended Mannheim University of Applied
Sciences in Germany and graduated with a masters in computer science.
In addition to running ISECOM, Marta has a strong passion for the arts, especially
photography and graphic design, and her first degree is in music from the Conservatori
del Liceu in Barcelona.
Rick Tucker has provided ISECOM with technical writing, editing, and general
support on a number of projects, including SIPES and Hacker Highschool. He
currently resides in Portland, Oregon, and works for a small law firm as the goto
person for all manner of mundane and perplexing issues.


About the Authors
Andrea Barisani is an internationally known security researcher. His
professional career began eight years ago, but it all really started with a
Commodore-64 when he was ten-years-old. Now Andrea is having fun with
large-scale IDS/firewall-deployment administration, forensic analysis,
vulnerability assessment, penetration testing, security training, and his
open-source projects. He eventually found that system and security administration are
the only effective way to express his need for paranoia.
Andrea is the founder and project coordinator of the oCERT effort, the Open Source
CERT. He is involved in the Gentoo project as a member of the Security and Infrastructure
Teams and is part of Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual, becoming an
ISECOM Core Team member. Outside the community, he is the co-founder and chief
security engineer of Inverse Path, Ltd. He has been a speaker and trainer at the PacSec,
CanSecWest, BlackHat, and DefCon conferences among many others.
Thomas Bader works at Dreamlab Technologies, Ltd., as a trainer and solution
architect. Since the early summer of 2007, he has been in charge of ISECOM
courses throughout Switzerland. As an ISECOM team member, he participates
in the development of the OPSE certification courses, 
the ISECOM test network, and the OSSTMM.
From the time he first came into contact with open-source software in 1997,
he has specialized in network and security technologies. Over the following years, he
has worked in this field and gained a great deal of experience with different firms as a
consultant and also as a technician. Since 2001, Thomas has worked as a developer and
trainer of LPI training courses. Since 2006, he has worked for Dreamlab Technologies,
Ltd., the official ISECOM representative for the German- and French-speaking countries of Europe.
Simon Biles is the director and lead consultant at Thinking Security, a UK-based
InfoSec Consultancy. He is the author of The Snort Cookbook from O’Reilly, as well
as other material for ISECOM, Microsoft, and SysAdmin magazine. He is in
currently pursuing his masters in forensic computing at the Defence Academy in
Shrivenham. He holds a CISSP, OPSA, is an ISO17799 Lead Auditor, and is also a
Chartered Member of the British Computer Society. He is married with children
(several) and reptiles (several). His wife is not only the most beautiful woman ever, but
also incredibly patient when he says things like “I’ve just agreed to ... <insert time-drain
here>.” In his spare time, when that happens, he likes messing about with Land Rovers
and is the proud owner of a semi-reliable, second-generation Range Rover.
Colby Clark is Guidance Software’s Network Security Manager and has the dayto-
day responsibility for overseeing the development, implementation, and
management of their information security program. He has many years of
security-related experience and has a proven track record with Fortune 500
companies, law firms, financial institutions, educational institutions,
telecommunications companies, and other public and private companies in
regulatory compliance consulting and auditing (Sarbanes Oxley and FTC Consent
Order), security consulting, business continuity, disaster recovery, incident response,
and computer forensic investigations. Colby received an advanced degree in business
administration from the University of Southern California, maintains the EnCE, CISSP,
OPSA, and CISA certifications, and has taught advanced computer forensic and incident
response techniques at the Computer and Enterprise Investigations Conference (CEIC).
He is also a developer of the Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM)
and has been with ISECOM since 2003.
Raoul “Nobody” Chiesa has 22 years of experience in information security
and 11 years of professional knowledge. He is the founder and president of
@ Mediaservice.net Srl, an Italian-based, vendor-neutral security consulting
company. Raoul is on the board of directors for the OWASP Italian Chapter,
Telecom Security Task Force (TSTF.net), and the ISO International User Group.
Since 2007, he has been a consultant on cybercrime issues for the UN at the United
Nations Interregional Crime & Justice Research Institute (UNICRI).
He authored Hacker Profile, a book which will be published in the U.S. by Taylor &
Francis in late 2008. Raoul’s company was the first worldwide ISECOM partner, launching
the OPST and OPSA classes back in 2003. At ISECOM, he works as Director of
Communications, enhancing ISECOM evangelism all around the world.
Pablo Endres is a security engineer/consultant and technical solution architect
with a strong background built upon his experience at a broad spectrum of
companies: wireless phone providers, VoIP solution providers, contact centers,
universities, and consultancies. He started working with computers (an XT) in
the late 1980s and holds a degree in computer engineering from the Universidad Simón
Bolívar at Caracas, Venezuela. Pablo has been working, researching, and playing around
with Linux, Unix, and networked systems for more than a decade.
Pablo would like to thank Pete for the opportunity to work on this book and with
ISECOM, and last but not least, his wife and parents for all the support and time sharing.
Richard has been working in the computer industry since 1989 when he started as
a programmer and has since moved through various roles. He has a good view of
both business and IT and is one of the few people who can interact in both spaces.
He recently started his own small IT security consultancy, Blue Secure. He
currently holds various certifications (CISSP, Prince2 Practitioner, OPST/OPSA
trainer, MCSE, and so on) in a constant attempt to stay up-to-date.
Andrea “Pila” Ghirardini has over seven years expertise in computer forensics
analysis. The labs he leads (@PSS Labs, http://www.atpss.net) have assisted Italian
and Swiss Police Special Units in more than 300 different investigations related
to drug dealing, fraud, tax fraud, terrorism, weapons trafficking, murder,
kidnapping, phishing, and many others.
His labs are the oldest ones in Italy, continuously supported by the company team’s
strong background in building CF machines and storage systems in order to handle and
examine digital evidence, using both open-source-based and commercial tools. In 2007,
Andrea wrote the first book ever published in Italy on computer forensics investigations
and methodologies (Apogeo Editore). In this book, he also analyzed Italian laws related
to these kinds of crimes. Andrea holds the third CISSP certification in Italy.
Julian “HammerJammer” Ho is co-founder of ThinkSECURE Pte, Ltd., (http://securitystartshere.org), an Asia-based practical IT security certification/training
authority and professional IT security services organization and an ISECOMcertified OPST trainer.
Julian was responsible for design, implementation, and maintenance of
security operations for StarHub’s Wireless Hotzones in Changi International
Airport Terminals 1 and 2 and Suntec Convention Centre. He is one half of the design
team for BlackOPS:HackAttack 2004, a security tournament held in Singapore; AIRRAID
(Asia’s first-ever pure wireless hacking tournament) in 2005; and AIRRAID2 (Thailand’s
first-ever public hacking tournament) in 2008. He also contributed toward research and
publication of the WCCD vulnerability in 2006.
Julian created and maintains the OSWA-Assistant wireless auditing toolkit, which
was awarded best in the Wireless Testing category and recommended/excellent in the
LiveCDs category by Security-Database.com in their “Best IT Security and Auditing
Software 2007” article.
Marco Ivaldi (raptor@mediaservice.net) is a computer security researcher and
consultant, a software developer, and a Unix system administrator. His particular
interests are networking, telephony, and cryptology. He is an ISECOM Core
Team member, actively involved in the OSSTMM development process. He
holds the OPST certification and is currently employed as Red Team Coordinator
at @ Mediaservice.net, a leading information-security company based in Italy. His daily
tasks include advanced penetration testing, ISMS deployment and auditing, vulnerability
research, and exploit development. He is founder and editorial board member of
Linux&C, the first Italian magazine about Linux and open source. His homepage and
Marco wishes to thank VoIP gurus Emmanuel Gadaix of TSTF and thegrugq for their
invaluable and constant support throughout the writing of this book. His work on this
book is dedicated to z*.
Dru Lavigne is a network and systems administrator, IT instructor, curriculum
developer, and author. She has over a decade of experience administering and
teaching Netware, Microsoft, Cisco, Checkpoint, SCO, Solaris, Linux, and BSD
systems. She is author of BSD Hacks and The Best of FreeBSD Basics. She is currently
the editor-in-chief of the Open Source Business Resource, a free monthly
publication covering open source. She is founder and current chair of the BSD Certification
Group, Inc., a nonprofit organization with a mission to create the standard for certifying
BSD system administrators. At ISECOM, she maintains the Open Protocol Database. Her
Stéphane is a research scientist who has explored the various facets of trust in
computer science for the past several years. He is currently working at The City
University, London, on service-oriented architectures and trust. His past jobs
include the European project, Open Trusted Computing (http://www.opentc.net) at
Royal Holloway, University of London, and the Trusted Software Agents and
Services (T-SAS) project at the University of Southampton, UK. He enjoys
applying his requirement-analysis and formal-specification computing skills to modern
systems and important properties, such as trust. In 2002, he received a Ph.D. in computing
science from the Grenoble Institute of Technology, France, where he also graduated as a
computing engineer in 1998 from the ENSIMAG Grandes École of Computing and
Applied Mathematics, Grenoble, France.
Christopher Low is co-founder of ThinkSECURE Pte Ltd. (http://securitystartshere.org),
an Asia-based IT-security training, certification, and professional IT security
services organization. Christopher has more than ten years of IT security
experience and has extensive security consultancy and penetration-testing
experience. Christopher is also an accomplished trainer, an ISECOM-certified
OPST trainer and has developed various practical-based security certification courses
drawn from his experiences in the IT security field. He also co-designed the BlackOPS:
HackAttack 2004 security tournament held in Singapore, AIRRAID (Asia’s first-ever
pure wireless hacking tournament) in 2005, 
and AIRRAID2 (Thailand’s first-ever public hacking tournament).
Christopher is also very actively involved in security research; he likes to code and
created the Probemapper and MoocherHunter tools, both of which can be found in the
OSWA-Assistant wireless auditing toolkit.
Ty Miller is Chief Technical Officer at Pure Hacking in Sydney, Australia. Ty has
performed penetration tests against countless systems for large banking,
government, telecommunications, and insurance organizations worldwide, and
has designed and managed large security architectures for a number of
Australian organizations within the Education and Airline industries.
Ty presented at Blackhat USA 2008 in Las Vegas on his development of DNS
Tunneling Shellcode and was also involved in the development of the CHAOS Linux
distribution, which aims to be the most compact, secure openMosix cluster platform.
He is a certified ISECOM OPST and OPSA instructor and contributes to the Open Source
Security Testing Methodology Manual. Ty has also run web-application security courses
and penetration-testing tutorials for various organizations and conferences.
Ty holds a bachelors of technology in information and communication systems from
Macquarie University, Australia. His interests include web-application penetration
testing and shellcode development.
Armand Puccetti is a research engineer and project manager at CEA-LIST (a
department of the French Nuclear Energy Agency, http://www-list.cea.fr) where
he is working in the Software Safety Laboratory. He is involved in several
European research projects belonging to the MEDEA+, EUCLID, ESSI, and
FP6 programs. His research interests include formal methods for software and
hardware description languages, semantics of programming languages, theorem
provers, compilers, and event-based simulation techniques. Before moving to CEA
in 2000, he was employed as a project manager at C-S (Communications & Systems,
http://www.c-s.fr/), a privately owned software house. At C-S he contributed to numerous
software development and applied research projects, ranging from CASE tools and
compiler development to military simulation tools and methods (http://escadre.cad.etca.fr/ESCADRE) and consultancy.
He graduated from INPL (http://www.inpl-nancy.fr) where he earned a Ph.D. in 1987
in the Semantics and Axiomatic Proof for the Ada Programming Language.

About the Contributing Authors
Görkem Çetin has been a renowned Linux and open-source professional for more than
15 years. As a Ph.D. candidate, his current doctorate studies focus on human/computer
interaction issues of free/open-source software. Görkem has authored four books on
Linux and networking and written numerous articles for technical and trade magazines.
He works for the National Cryptography and Technology Institute of Turkey (TUBITAK/
UEKAE) as a project manager.
Volkan Erol is a researcher at the Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and
Cryptology (TUBITAK-NRIEC). After receiving his bachelor of science degree in
computer engineering from Galatasaray University Engineering and Technology Faculty,
Volkan continued his studies in the Computer Science, Master of Science program, at
Istanbul Technical University. He worked as software engineer at the Turkcell Shubuo-
Turtle project and has participated in TUBITAK-NRIEC since November 2005. He works
as a full-time researcher in the Open Trusted Computing project. His research areas are
Trusted Computing, applied cryptography, software development, and design and
image processing.
Chris Griffin has nine years of experience in information security. Chris obtained the
OPST, OPSA, CISSP, and CNDA certifications and is an active contributor to ISECOM’s
OSSTMM. Chris has most recently become ISECOM’s Trainer for the USA. He wants to
thank Pete for this opportunity and his wife and kids for their patience.
Fredesvinda Insa Mérida is the Strategic Development Manager of Cybex. Dr. Insa
graduated in law from the University of Barcelona (1994–1998). She also holds a Ph.D. in
information sciences and communications, from the University Complutense of Madrid.
Dr. Insa has represented Cybex in several computer-forensics and electronic-evidence
meetings. She has a great deal of experience in fighting against computer-related crimes.
Within Cybex, she provides legal assistance to the computer forensics experts.

About the Editors and Reviewers
Chuck Truett is a writer, editor, SAS programmer, and data analyst. In addition to his
work with ISECOM, he has written fiction and nonfiction for audiences ranging from
children to role-playing gamers.
Adrien de Beaupré is practice lead at Bell Canada. He holds the following certifications:
GPEN, GCIH, GSEC, CISSP, OPSA, and OPST. Adrien is very active with isc.sans.org. He
is an ISECOM OSSTMM-certified instructor. His areas of expertise include vulnerability
assessments, penetration testing, incident response, and digital forensics.
Michael Hawkins, CISSP, has over ten years experience in the computer industry, the
majority of time spent at Fortune 500 companies. He is currently the Manager of
Networks and Security at the loudspeaker company Klipsch. He has been a full-time
security professional for over five years.
Matías Bevilacqua Trabado graduated in computer engineering from the University of
Barcelona and currently works for Cybex as IT Manager. From a security background,
Matías specializes in computer forensics and the admissibility of electronic evidence. He
designed and ran the first private forensic laboratory in Spain and is currently leading
research and development at Cybex.
Patrick Boucher is a senior security consultant for Gardien Virtuel. Patrick has many
years of experience with ethical hacking, security policy, and strategic planning like
disaster recovery and continuity planning. His clients include many Fortune 500
companies, financial institutions, telecommunications companies, and SME enterprises
throughout Canada. Patrick has obtained CISSP and CISA certifications


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INTRODUCTION
GNU-Linux is the ultimate hacker’s playground. It’s a toy for the imagination, not
unlike a box of blocks or a bag of clay. Whether someone is an artist or a scientist,
the possibilities are endless. Anything that you want to try to do and build and
make with a computer is subject only to your creativity. This is why so many people are
interested in Linux.
Many call it Linux instead of GNU-Linux, its full name—much the same way you’d
call a friend by a nickname. Perhaps this is due to the intimacy that you can achieve with
this operating system through its source code. Or from the experience of being part of a
special community. Whatever it is though, everyone can benefit from communicating
with a machine that is honestly attributable to the transparency and openness of Linux.
Although not the dominant operating system on the Internet, Linux is quite prevalent,
considering that the overwhelming majority of servers running web services, email
services, and name services all depend on other open-source code that works with Linux.
And this is where the trouble begins. Can something so open be properly secured?
The difficulty begins when you need secure it. How do you secure something like
this, with its collectively designed hosting components that are built, rebuilt, and
reconfigured by whim and can differ from machine to machine? You will seldom find
two identical systems. 
How then can you approach the possibility of providing security for all of them?
This edition of Hacking Exposed Linux is based on the work of ISECOM, an open
security research organization with the mission to “Make sense of security.” ISECOM
has thousands of members worldwide and provides extensive methodologies and
frameworks in regards to security, safety, and privacy. ISECOM uses open collaboration
and extensive peer review to obtain the highest possible quality research—which is also
how this edition was developed. Many security enthusiasts and professionals collaborated
to create a book that is factual, practical, and really captures the spirit of Linux. Only in
this way can you expect to find the means of securing Linux in all of its many forms.

HOW THIS BOOK IS ORGANIZED
This book is meant to be practical; you won’t just learn how to run an exploit or two that
will be patched by the time you finish reading about it. The knowledge and the tools to
do all the hacking is in the book; however, instead of specific exploits, we cover types of
threats. This way even if an exploit is patched, the knowledge as to how the exploit could
work, how a security control can be circumvented, and how an interaction such as trust
can be abused will still help you analyze potential problems. By not securing against
specific threats or exploits, you are much more capable of testing for and applying
security that will cover potential, though yet unknown, threats.
Structurally, this book follows the five channels identified in the Open Source Security
Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM) for security interactions: physical, telecommunications,
data networking, human, and wireless. The first three chapters explain
how security and controls work according to the latest ISECOM research and set the
stage for understanding how to analyze security. Then the book follows the logical
separation of the most common uses of Linux to create a compendium of security
knowledge—no matter what you want to do with your Linux system.
It is possible to read the book straight through and absorb all the information like a
sponge if you can. Or you can hop from chapter to chapter depending on what areas you
are concerned about securing on your specific Linux system. Maybe you want to try
testing wireless access points, VoIP, or telecommunications? Just jump to the appropriate
chapter. Or even if you simply want to make sure your desktop applications don’t get
the best of your Linux system through phishing, SPAM, and rootkits, we cover user
attacks as part of the human security channel. Then, again, you could always just browse
through the book at your leisure.

What’s New in This Edition?
Unlike many other books that release edition updates, this particular one has been completely
rewritten to assure a best fit to the ISECOM mission of making sense of security. All the
material is completely new, based upon the most recent and thorough security research.
The hacking and countermeasures are based on the OSSTMM, the security testing
standard, and we made sure that we covered all known attacks on Linux as well as how
to prepare the system to repel the unknown attacks.
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