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A Guide to the Classical Education You Never Had 

SUSAN WISE BAUER

1. Books and reading. 2. Best books. 3. Reading. 4. Literature—History and criticism. 5. Self-culture. 6. Education, Humanistic.


The Well-Educated Mind- A Guide to the Classical Education You Never Had
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 2003 by Susan Wise Bauer

A SEVEN-MINUTE HISTORY OF POETS 
AND THEIR LANGUAGE

The Age of Epics
The earliest Western poetry is that
of the Greeks, and the earliest Greek
poetry is epic poetry—sprawling oral
tales of heroes and battles, finally
written down by Homer around
8oo B.C. In the Iliad, the warrior
Achilles falls out with his commander,
Agamemnon, and manages
to turn Zeus against his own army;
in the Odyssey, Odysseus tries to
get home after the Trojan War has
ended. Incident-filled, plot-driven,
centered around the failings and
strengths of men and women: These
epics seem much more like novels
than poems. Why, then, are they
considered the first great poems,
rather than the first great tales? And
where is the "personal presence" of
the poet in these stories of bloodshed
and sea adventure?
Poetry, for the Greeks, was a
term that covered a much broader
territory than it does today.
"Poetry," wrote Aristotle, "is more
philosophical and more worthwhile
than history, for poetry
speaks in general terms, while history
concerns itself with detail." In
other words, poetry was language
that sought to demonstrate univer-
Rage—Goddess, sing the rage of Peleus's
son Achilles,
murderous, doomed, that cost the Achaeans
countless losses,
hurling down to the House of Death so
many sturdy souls,
great fighters' souls, but made their bodies
carrion, feasts for the dogs and birds,...
Begin, Muse, when the two first broke and
clashed, Agamemnon lord of men and brilliant Achilles.
—Homer, The Iliad, translated by Robert
Fagles (NewYork: Penguin, 1990), book
I, Unes 1-7.
....

THE ANNOTATED POETRY
In the list that follows, poets are organized in chronological order of their
birth date. When you read a novel, you read a work; when you read a series
of poems, you read a life. So in many cases I have recommended a collected
"greatest works" rather than a particular volume published during the poet's
lifetime. Because poems are meant not to be read once, but returned to again
and again, the list of recommended editions is aimed at helping you build a
poetry library. There are many other editions of most of these poets available;
I have listed some "Be sure to read" poems so that if you wish to use another
edition, you can still experience the poet's most characteristic works.
You can go as far as you please into investigating a poet who seizes your
fancy; for the collected poems, I have suggested a brief list of poems that
you should be certain to read. If you find this hard going, you don't necessarily
need to read on: A poem, like a spice, is not going to suit every taste.
The recommended poems are not necessarily the poet's "best" (an impossible
judgment by any means), but they are that poet's most commonly
referred to, criticized, and quoted poems. Reading them will allow you to
understand the place the poet occupies in the larger world of poetry.
As with fiction, some of these poem collections are available in much
cheaper editions, if you're willing to put up with small print and narrow
margins. For ancient works, I suggest that you use the recommended translations,
rather than the out-of-date or anonymous versions often used in
cheaper paperbacks.
....


Table of Contents
Acknowledgments 9

PART I
BEGINNING:
PREPARING FOR CLASSICAL EDUCATION
Chapter 1
Training Your Own Mind:
The Classical Education You Never Had 13
Chapter 2
Wrestling with Books:
The Act of Reading 24
Chapter 3
Keeping the Journal:
A Written Record of New Ideas 34
Chapter 4
Starting to Read:
Final Preparations 41

PART II
READING:
JUMPING INTO THE GREAT CONVERSATION
Chapter 5
The Story of People:
Reading through History with the Novel 57
Chapter 6
The Story of Me:
Autobiography and Memoir 114
Chapter 7
The Story of the Past:
The Tales of Historians (and Politicians) 163
Chapter 8
The World Stage:
Reading through History with Drama 240
Chapter 9
History Refracted:
The Poets and Their Poems 307
Permissions 405
Index 407


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A Guide to Reclaiming the Wisdom of the Ancients

Diana Cooper with Shaaron Hutton

FINDHORN Press


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 Diana Cooper & Shaaron Hutton 2005

The Aim of the Book
In Golden Atlantis, for 1,500 years, the spiritual energy on our planet
was the highest it has ever been. It was a time of heaven on Earth
when everyone had incredible spiritual power. Now we have the
opportunity to bring the energy of pure Atlantis back.Diana Cooper
and Shaaron Hutton were asked by their guide, Kumeka, to explain
the extraordinary gifts, qualities and powers that existed in the
Golden Age. They were also asked to include special exercises in this
book that will allow you to develop these skills for yourselves.
....

About the Authors
Diana’s Story
Shaaron and I spent the evening of December 31, 1994 together,
intending to meditate and write our New Year’s resolutions. When
we meditated together, the most extraordinary occurrence took
place. A huge energy entered the room and both of us were given
the same message. We were told that this presence was Kumeka,
Lord of Light. He came from a different universe and explained
that Earth had now earned the right to have his guidance. He was
the Master of the Eighth Ray, which was due to enter this planet
bringing clarity and deep transmutation. He said that he had
watched us both for many years and had brought us together to
work with him. I had been living in the West Indies when he first
noticed my energy and for the next fifteen years he acted to ensure we met.

The energy of Kumeka was so overpowering that I still remember
it as one of the most exciting and life-changing events of my entire
life. At first, Shaaron and I had to be together to connect with him.
Since then Shaaron has become incredibly psychic and clairvoyant.
She can see Kumeka and has a direct communication with him,
receiving very specific information and answers to questions. I
work differently; he downloads chunks of spiritual knowledge to
me, often when I am sitting at the computer or out walking.He also
makes sure I read or come across any other information I need.
Occasionally he writes information across my third eye.
Now, for the first time, he has asked us to write this book on
Atlantis together so that people can help to bring back the energy of
pure Atlantis. This has been a fascinating and awe-inspiring project
and our thanks, love and gratitude go to Kumeka and the angels.

AN ANGEL VISITATION
With the guidance of my angels and spiritual masters I have written
thirteen books and produced many CDs, crystal CD packs,
angel cards and oracles. I spend much of my time traveling round
the world with the intention of inspiring people with higher spiritual
understandings. But it was not always so. Just over twenty
years ago I was in the depths of despair over my impending
divorce. I had no psychic, religious or spiritual background and
more important, I had no self-worth or confidence. I could see no
future ahead. One day I cried out in anguish for help and an angel
appeared. It was a golden being of light about six feet tall. This
wonderful being took me on a journey and showed me my future.
When I returned, I understood cosmic concepts that I had never
previously considered. Slowly my life mission started.
At that time my greatest desire was to be a healer and to help
people. I trained to be a hypnotherapist, counselor and healer, and
soon learned that this is a fast track to personal and spiritual
growth; every client I saw was a mirror of something within me. If
three clients presented with the same problem, I would look very
hard at myself and gradually I became wiser.
For years I worked with my guides and was occasionally aware of
angels around.With guidance I wrote my first four spiritual books
and then, suddenly and dramatically, my life changed again.While
I was lying in the bath, an angelic voice told me that they wanted
me to introduce people to angels. I argued that I did not know
anything about angels and did not want to do that. I really thought
the world would think I was crazy. Eventually, I agreed and three
angels appeared in front of me and gave me much information,
which later became my first angel book, A Little Light on Angels.
From that time I have worked closely with the angels and then
with the archangels, masters and eventually Kumeka,my guide and master.

However, the angels are sometimes hard taskmasters. Because
they have never experienced a physical body they do not understand
physical limitations. I was working really hard to finish my
first spiritual novel, The Silent Stones, before I left for a six-month
trip to Australia. The angels woke me up in the middle of the night
and surrounded my bed. I felt as if I was levitating and was filled
with a sense of awe and love. The angels told me I was to write a
book called Angel Inspiration and they wanted me to start immediately.
Then they cocooned me back to sleep. In the morning I knew
I had no alternative but to set aside The Silent Stones and start on
Angel Inspiration. I could feel the angels enfolding me as I sat at the
computer writing for fourteen hours a day, until it was finished.
Then I just had time to complete the novel before I set off on my travels.

In Australia, I talked to many Aborigine elders and learned
about their sacred wisdom and connections with Lemuria. I wove
their ancient wisdom, with esoteric secrets of Atlantis and
Lemuria, into a second novel, The Codes of Power. Then, most
exciting of all, I was introduced to the angels of Atlantis, who are
returning with a message for us now. This became the start of the
third novel, The Web of Light, which was set in Africa and was
fascinating to conceive and write.
Now our guide, Kumeka, Master of the Eighth Ray, has expanded
on the information revealed in the novels, as it is becoming
more urgent to reclaim the energy of Atlantis. You will find more
information than this book will allow about the twelve rays, the
Illumined Ones and the new spiritual hierarchy, as well as the colors
and purposes of the higher chakras, in my book A New Light
on Ascension (see Further Reading).
For twenty years I have been on my own journey of personal
development and spiritual growth, traveling to all the places
described in my books and many others. At the same time, I have
been privileged to share my experiences and understandings in
talks and workshops around the world. And now I offer you this
book that Shaaron and I have written together. It has been a fascinating
project and writing it has changed my life. I believe it can
change your life too – and the world.

Shaaron’s story
I was born ‘knowing’. Even as a small child I was the person that my
friends came to for guidance and support. My creative energy was
utilized by making up stories and writing plays, which I directed
and starred in. Like so many people, when I left school and went
into the adult world this energy dissolved into the rigors of survival.
In my adult years, I developed migraines until they made life
unbearable. My doctor sent me to Diana, who was at that time a
hypnotherapist. We soon realized that the headaches were a manifestation
of the blocking of my third eye, and as we worked together
using hypnosis, my clairvoyant abilities became stronger, clearer
and more sharply honed, while the original symptoms disappeared.
We also realized much later that this was how our spirit guide,
Kumeka, brought us together so that we could connect directly with him.

Kumeka has come from another universe and is here now to help
Earth and all of us on our journey to ascension. His energy is
anchoring more and more powerfully into the planet as his ray, the
Eighth Ray of Transmutation, enters Earth. My experience with
Kumeka is grounded and fun. I consider him a beloved friend and
have a very special relationship with him, which I value and enjoy.
Although Kumeka has never incarnated on Earth, and so has never
had a human body, my projection of him is a very tall, broad,
bearded and strong man who exudes a very beautiful, gentle and
often playful energy. At first Diana and I had to be together to connect
with him, but very quickly I could sense what he was imparting
and I could see him clearly. Now he is as visible as a physical
human being. When I am making a decision I can literally feel a
hand on my shoulder, holding me back or encouraging me forward
as appropriate.When we were working on this book, if I was unable
to grasp a concept he would write or draw the information on a
blackboard in my third eye.

Originally he communicated only with Diana and me, but now
he can work through millions of people at a time. In order for peo-
ple to get to know about him and connect with his energy, he asked
me to commission someone to write music that would express all
of his qualities, from his strength and incisiveness to his power and
glory. Diana and I asked Andrew Brel to compose what is now the
Music for Kumeka CD. Later Kumeka said that it was important for
a new wave of light to go out across the planet. In order for this to
happen, he requested that we put together a set of crystal meditation
CD packs. Under his direction we produced a set of six, using
crystals, color, music and a guided meditation to enable people to
make higher connections with angels and archangels.

From palmistry and other psychic sources I have always understood
that I would not find my true spiritual path until I reached
my fifties, and so this has proved to be. The first thing Kumeka initiated
was my doing soul readings to help other people understand
their pathway in this lifetime. Now he has guided Diana and me to
work together on this important book. I hope you gain as much
value from reading it as we have from writing it.
....


Table of Contents
The Aim of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1 The Establishment of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 The Early Days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3 Birth, Marriage and Death in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4 Animals in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5 Homes and Leisure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6 Farming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7 Life After the Second Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
8 Evolution of Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
9 Spirituality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
10 The Energy Dome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
11 The Temples of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
12 The Priesthood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
13 The High Priests and Priestesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
14 Atlantean Energies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
15 Genetic Healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
16 The Chakras of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
17 The Psychic Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
18 The Power of the Mind in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
19 Using and Changing Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
20 Opening the Third Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
21 Astrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
22 Numerology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
23 Healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
24 Working with Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
25 Crystals in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
26 The Year 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
27 Crystal Remedies and Essences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
28 Master Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
29 The Fall of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
30 The Twelve Tribes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
31 Preparing for the Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
List of Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263


Screenbook
Discover Atlantis.Diana Cooper
....
This US edition prepared by Shari Mueller
Cover and interior design by Damian Keenan
Printed and bound in the USA

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Africa—Religion—Encyclopedias

editors MOLEFI KETE ASANTE & AMA MAZAMA

Editorial Board
Chinua Achebe
Bard College
Kwame Gyekye
University of Ghana
Maulana Karenga
California State University, Long Beach
Marta Moreno Vega
Caribbean Cultural Center
Isidore Okpewho
Binghamton University,
State University of New York

Kofi Asare Opoku
Lafayette College


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 Copyright©   
 2009 by SAGE Publications, Inc

About the Editors
Molefi Kete Asante is professor in the Department
of African American Studies at Temple University.
Dr. Asante has published 67 books; among the
most recent are Afrocentric Manifesto (2008);
The History of Africa: The Quest for Eternal
Harmony (2007); Cheikh Anta Diop: An
Intellectual Portrait (2006); Spear Masters: An
Introduction to African Religion (2006), coauthored
with Emeka Nwadiora; Handbook of
Black Studies (2005), coedited with Maulana
Karenga; Encyclopedia of Black Studies (2005),
coedited with Ama Mazama; Race, Rhetoric, and
Identity: The Architecton of Soul (2005); Erasing
Racism: The Survival of the American Nation
(2003); Ancient Egyptian Philosophers (2000);
Scattered to the Wind (2002); Custom and
Culture of Egypt (2002); and 100 Greatest
African Americans (2003).
He has recently been recognized as one of the
most widely cited scholars. In the 1990s, he was
recognized as one of the most influential leaders in
American education. Dr. Asante completed his
MA at Pepperdine and received his PhD from the
University of California, Los Angeles, at the age of
26, and was appointed a full professor at the age
of 30 at the State University of New York at
Buffalo. At Temple University, he created the first
PhD program in African American Studies in
1987. He has directed more than 140 PhD dissertations.
He has written more than 300 articles for
journals and magazines and is the founder of the
theory of Afrocentricity.
Dr. Asante was born in Valdosta, Georgia, in the
United States, of Sudanese and Nigerian heritage,
1 of 16 children. He is a poet, dramatist, and painter.
Hiswork on African language,multiculturalism, and
human culture and philosophy has been cited by
journals such as the Africalogical Perspectives,
Quarterly Journal of Speech, Journal of Black
Studies, Journal of Communication, American
Scholar,Daedalus,Western Journal of Black Studies,
and Africaological Perspectives. The Utne Reader
called him one of the “100 Leading Thinkers” in
America. Dr. Asante has appeared on more than 50
TV programs. In 2002, he received the distinguished
Douglas Ehninger Award for Rhetorical Scholarship
from the National Communication Association. He
regularly consults with the African Union. In 2004,
he was asked to give one of the keynote addresses at
the Conference of Intellectuals of Africa and the
Diaspora in Dakar, Senegal. He was inducted into
the Literary Hall of Fame for Writers of African
Descent at the Gwendolyn Brooks Center at Chicago
State University in 2004, and he is the recipient of
more than 100 national and international awards,
including three honorary degrees.
Dr. Asante is the founding editor of the Journal
of Black Studies (1969) and was the president of
the civil rights organization, the Student Non-
Violent Coordinating Committee chapter at
UCLA, in the 1960s. In 1995, he was made a
traditional king, Nana Okru Asante Peasah,
Kyidomhene of Tafo, Akyem, Ghana.

Ama Mazama is associate professor of African
American Studies at Temple University. She was
born and grew up in Guadeloupe, Eastern
Caribbean. She received her PhD in Linguistics
from the University of La Sorbonne, Paris, at the
age of 26, with Highest Distinction. Before joining
Temple, Dr. Mazama taught at the University of
Texas, Austin, and Penn State, College Park, and
was a visiting professor at Georgetown University
and Howard University.
She has published eight books in French or English,
including The Afrocentric Paradigm (2003),
L’Impératif Afrocentrique (2003), The Encyclopedia
of Black Studies (2005) (coedited with Molefi Kete
Asante), and Africa in the 21st Century: Toward a
New Future (2007), as well as more than 60 articles
in French and English in national and international
journals. Dr. Mazama’s early work was on the
African roots of Caribbean creole languages.
Dr. Mazama is the associate editor of the
Journal of Black Studies, the top scholarly journal
in Black Studies. In 2007, the National Council of
Black Studies presented her with the Ana Julia
Cooper and CLR James Award for her contributions
to the advancement of the discipline of Black Studies.
Dr. Mazama has lectured nationally, throughout
the United States and internationally, in Paris,
Vienna, London, Birmingham, South America,
Benin,West Africa, Canada, and, of course, in the
Caribbean, her place of origin. She is a highly
sought after lecturer and workshop leader in the
field of African and African American infusion in
school curricula. An expert in linguistics and cultural
theory, Dr. Mazama has been cited by
numerous school districts for her work in Pan African culture.
In 2002, she was initiated in Haiti to
become a Mambo, that is, a Vodu priestess.
Thus, Ama Mazama’s knowledge of African
religion is not only academic but also, and
most important, stems from a lived experience.
The mother of three, Dr. Mazama is
committed to recording and transmitting
knowledge of the African cultural traditions
to present and future generations.
....

Introduction
comprehensive work to assemble ideas, concepts,
discourses, and extensive essays on African religion.
Over the years, there have been numerous
encyclopedias on religion from other parts of the
world, but African religion has often been relegated
to “primitive religions,” “African mythologies,”
or “tribal religions” sections of such works
on religion. It is as if African religion is an afterthought
in the eyes of the authors and editors of
such volumes. Of course, these designations are
clearly based on outmoded and problematic
Western notions of Africa, and we have created
this encyclopedia as a monument to the memory
of those Africans who left us enough information
from which to rediscover for the world the original
beauty and majesty of African culture.

There were two objectives in advancing this
work to the public. First, we wanted to provide
the primary material necessary for further
research, analysis, and exposition of the concrete
beliefs of African people. Second, we sought to
elevate the discourse around African religion, suggesting
by the presentation of nearly 500 entries
that there was still much we did not know about
African culture. Africa is the second largest continent
in the world. Yet its intellectual and cultural
contributions remain among the least understood
if we take the written records about the continent
and its people as sources of knowledge about the
continent. There are still those whose knowledge
of Africa is grounded in the perceptions and attitudes
of missionaries, merchants, and marines
who have occupied the continent through foreign
religions, trade, or guns. The enormity of African
contribution to ideas of religion, spirituality, and
ethics has gone unappreciated by religious scholars,
although at the beginning of human history,
Africa makes its case for the origin of religion in
an official, formal manner. It is our hope that the
reflection on African religion occasioned by these
entries will enhance our understanding of the
African world and provide a new adventure for
comparative studies.

Unquestionably, a work as innovative and comprehensive
as this encyclopedia makes its mark in
the area of intellectual inquiry by staking out new
areas of knowledge. It provides the reader with
new metaphors, tropes, figures of speech, modes
of reasoning, etymologies, analogies, and cosmogonies
to satiate the intellect. Only in such an
encyclopedia as this can one truly grasp the enormity
of Africa’s contribution to religious ideas.
Thus, this work presents richly textured ideas of
spirituality, ritual, and initiation while advancing
new theological categories, cosmological narratives,
and ways to conceptualize ethical behavior.

Given that we viewed African religion as one
religion and the African continent as a whole, we
were inclined to introduce classical African religious
ideas, from the beginning of Kemet to the
arrival of Christianity and later Islam in Africa, as
significant forerunners of much of continental
African thought. The same appeal to ethics, based
on righteous character; the same search for eternal
life, found in living a life where good outweighs
evil; and the same openness to ancestral spirits,
kas, as remaining among the community of the living,
creates an appreciation of the recurring cycle
of humanity. Correspondences of language and
concept as with Amen, Amani, and Imani, which
are transgenerational and transcontinental, remain
vibrant parts of the African legacy of religion.
When the Akan use the words Kwame, Asare, and
Nkwa, they recall the more ancient Amen, Ausar,
and Ankh. Several books, starting with the older
works of Eva Meyerowitz, have examined these
correspondences. Of course, in more recent times,
Afrocentric authors such as Mubabinge Bilolo,
Chinweizu Chinweizu, and Theophile Obenga
have identified other correspondences in the religious
and philosophical traditions of Africa.

The fact that Western or Islamic categories,
which come much later than African religion, have
often been employed in the discourse on African
religion means that we have not yet established
enough concrete data for asserting the African religion.
Because of this reality, much of African religious
thought has been distorted and confused as
authors have tried to force newly discovered or
uncovered or different concepts into old and familiar
classes. Therefore, as editors, we have avoided
ironclad classificatory schemes and sought entries
that revealed as closely as possible the actualities of
African societies. What we wanted the entries to
reveal was the thinking of African people about
religion from the earliest of times.
....


Table of Contents
List of Entries vii
Reader’s Guide xi
About the Editors xv
Contributors xvii
Introduction xxi
Entries
A 1 N 439
B 85 O 469
C 149 P 517
D 191 Q 555
E 229 R 557
F 257 S 583
G 279 T 645
Contents
H 303
I 325
J 353
K 359
L 375
M 397
U 679
V 685
W 703
X 729
Y 731
Z 741
Appendix: African Names of God 747
Bibliography: African Religious Sources 751
Index 797


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Encyclopedia of African Religion
....
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Legend, History and the Ancient Cityre

MICHAEL SEYMOUR


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Book Details
 Price
 3.00
 Pages
 380 p
 File Size 
 4,277 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 eISBN
 978 1 84885 701 8  
 978 0 85773 607 9
 Copyright©   
 2014 Michael Seymour 

About the Author
Michael Seymour is Research Associate in the Department of Ancient Near
Eastern Art at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Prior to joining the
Metropolitan Museum he worked for the Department of the Middle East at the
British Museum, where he was co-curator of the special exhibition Babylon:
Myth and Reality. He is a consultant to the World Monuments Fund on the site
of Babylon, and an editor of the journal Iraq. He is co-author (with I. L. Finkel)
of Babylon: Myth and Reality (2008).


‘The city of Babylon and the idea of Babylon have co-existed as intertwined
threads of intellectual and historical engagement for centuries. In the recent past
Babylon was an emblem for Saddam Hussein’s control over Iraq’s past (ancient
Babylon), present (reconstructed Babylon), and future (eternal Babylon). Since
at least the sixth century BC, and up to modern times, Babylon has been
entangled in discourses that transgress the boundaries between history, myth,
fantasy and bias, while over the past century scientific archaeology has
contributed to the mix. Michael Seymour teases apart the golden threads of
Babylon’s discourses, tracing each one in meticulous detail before reweaving
them into a new and brilliant tapestry, presenting us in this adroit and learned
book with a Babylon fit for the scrutiny of our age.’

– Roger Matthews, Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology, University of
Reading ‘In this ambitious and all encompassing account of how the ancient city
of Babylon has been studied, interpreted and received throughout history,
Michael Seymour offers an exemplary study in the reception of the ancient
world. Multiple manifestations of the notion of Babylon are explored, revealing
the extent to which ancient civilisations have been appropriated according to
different cultural contexts and priorities. The book presents an intoxicating mix
of mythology, interpretation and fact from a wide variety of sources: both textual
and visual. Through each of the chapters we see the exciting and complex
journey that antiquities undertake once retrieved from the earth in which they
were buried. One of the most important findings of the work is the extent to
which ancient Mesopotamian culture is shown to have “lived on” in a range of
conflicting and successive contexts. In this thoughtful and probing analysis,
Seymour unravels the very idea of Babylon, revealing it to be a complex bundle
of meanings and significances. He does a great service to archaeology, ancient
history and cultural studies in telling this story of entanglement.’
– Stephanie Moser, Professor of Archaeology, 
University of Southampton

‘This is a brilliant first book by a rising star in Ancient Near Eastern studies. It
comes at a critical moment when the ancient city of Babylon is under the
spotlight as never before. After the coalition invasion of 2003 Babylon was
turned into a military camp to universal international condemnation. Now the
World Monuments Fund is helping with the conservation of the site and
application has been made for Babylon to become a World Heritage Site. There
have also been three major exhibitions about Babylon in the last few years, in
Paris, Berlin and London, all with sumptuous catalogues, and the famous Cyrus
Cylinder, found at Babylon in 1879, is currently the subject of a touring
exhibition. Yet until now there existed no book that traced the exploration and
excavation of Babylon against the wider backdrop of developments in European
intellectual thinking and understanding. Michael Seymour does this with great
skill and clarity, and has produced a book that not only examines the importance
and significance of Babylon in the western and eastern traditions, but also
provides a readable account of the history and excavation of the city. This will be
an indispensable book both for scholars in a number of different fields and for
laymen interested in the Ancient Near East.’
– John Curtis, OBE, 
Keeper of Special Middle Eastern Projects, The British Museum


Table of Contents
List of illustrations
Acknowledgements
Maps
1. A city and its ghosts
2. Ancient Babylon
3. Tyrants and wonders: The biblical and classical sources
4. The Earthly City: Medieval and Renaissance approaches
5. Discoveries and fantasies: Enlightenment and modern approaches
6. The German experience: Excavation and reception
7. The Library of Babel: Babylon and its representation after the excavations
8. Culture and knowledge
Postscript: The Babylon exhibitions
Notes
Bibliography
Plate Section
LIST


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This publication is supported by the AHRC.

Each year the AHRC provides funding from the Government to support research
and postgraduate study in the arts and humanities. Only applications of the
highest quality are funded and the range of research supported by this investment
of public funds not only provides social and cultural benefits but also contributes
to the economic success of the UK. For further information on the AHRC, please

Published in 2014 by I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd 6 Salem Road, London W2 4BU
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Exclusively by Palgrave Macmillan
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