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Second Edition

Mathew Attokaran

Subjects: LCSH: Flavoring essences. | Coloring matter in food. | Natural foods. |
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Book Details
 430 p
 File Size 
 16,594 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 9781119114772 (pdf)
 9781119114789 (epub)
 2017 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

About the Author
Mathew Attokaran (formerly A.G. Mathew) was born in Kerala State in India.
He studied for his MSc in Oils, Fats, and Aromatics and was awarded his PhD in Food
Chemistry. For over 28 years he carried out research on Food Science and Technology
in the Central Food Technology Research Institute, Mysore, and National Institute for
Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR), Trivandrum, before moving
into industry. During his career he has guided PhD students and published over
200 scientific papers.
Many of Dr Attokaran’s research findings have been developed into viable technologies,
which have been effectively utilized in industry. His team developed the highly
successful two‐stage process for preparing the spice oleoresin.
Twice he has been the leader of the Indian Delegation for the International
Standards Organization (ISO) Committee meetings on Spices and Condiments held
in Hungary (1983) and in France (1986) and was also the President of the Essential
Oils Association of India for two terms. He has widely traveled in the United States,
Europe, and Asia, visiting centers of research and industry as well as participating in
numerous international
conferences. Dr Attokaran has served on Short‐term Missions
for three United Nations agencies: the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations, Rome; the United Nations Industrial Development Organization,
Vienna; and the International Trade Centre, of the United Nations and World Trade
Organization, Geneva.
He is happily married and lives with his wife in Cochin, where he recently retired
as the Technical Director of Plant Lipids Limited. He has two daughters and five
grandchildren. Dr Attokaran can be reached at

Ever since man began adding crushed roots, fruits, and leaves to food with a view to
improving its organoleptic appeal, the search for more and more diverse flavors has continued.
In addition, consumers want their food to be pleasing to the eye. It was soon
evident that some plant materials gave a good color to the food. One of the distinctive
features of humans that differentiates us from other animals is our innovative approach
to improving the quality of our food. This enabled the production of such plant materials
into ground, crushed, distilled, and extracted forms so as to obtain the flavor and color in
convenient and effective forms, in order to be used as excellent natural additives.
With the development of modern chemistry, synthetic chemical molecules capable
of producing delicious flavors and attractive colors started to emerge. But as man
became more and more conscious of his own physiology and the interference of external
molecules, leading to allergies, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, a decisive step back to
natural substances was taken. After all, the human body is a biological engine and
compatibility with bio‐derived materials is only natural.
A survey (Food Technology, IFT, 2010, April) of the top ten food trends reported that
blending foods and drinks with naturally rich nutrients is the second most popular trend,
and avoidance of chemical additives and artificial colors is the fifth most important
trend that Americans now seek.
It was Ernest Guenther who pioneered the production of a six‐volume treatise,
The Essential Oils, which covers the largest group of natural aroma and flavor materials
used in food. Even after 60 years, the volumes are widely consulted by food scientists
and technologists. Brian M. Lawrence continued the great tradition of reviews in the
form of “Progress in Essential Oils,” which appears in the journal Perfumer and
Flavorist. While the aroma‐contributing natural flavors of essential oils are well
treated, the same cannot be said with regards to nonvolatile natural flavors.
There are many books on spices, but only a few deal with the chemical constituents
that are referred to in this book. For spices and other materials, the compilation by Albert
Y. Leung and Steven Foster, Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, is indeed a
very valuable one. There are some good books and reviews on food colors. Nevertheless,
the author believes that there is room for a book that includes all the available natural
food flavors and colorants with adequate coverage of plant products, tips on extraction
procedures, the chemistry of active principles, guidance on analytical methods, and links
to regulatory bodies. This book is designed to assist people associated with food science,
technology, and industry to realize the newfound dream of consumers for a return to
natural substances that can be added to food to improve its appeal.
Almost all the products dealt with in this book may indeed be familiar to ordinary
people. However, their scientific significance, methods of production, and recognition
in food laws are matters that laypeople will not be fully conversant with and will be a
great help to students, researchers, and those in the industry.
The book is divided into three parts. Part I deals with matters connected with analysis,
general properties, and techniques. Part II describes the various natural flavors and
colorants that are available. Part III covers the future prospects that can be pursued by
research workers and manufacturers.
Mathew Attokaran

Table of Contents
About the Author viii
Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
Part I General 1
Chapter 1. Analytical Considerations 3
Chapter 2. Flavors 12
Chapter 3. Spices 14
Chapter 4. Essential Oils 17
Chapter 5. Food Colors 20
Chapter 6. Preparation of Plant Material for Extraction 23
Chapter 7. Methods of Extraction of Essential Oils 26
Chapter 8. Solvent Extraction 31
Chapter 9. Supercritical Fluid Extraction 35
Chapter 10. Homogenization of Extracts 37
Chapter 11. Suspension in Solids 42
Chapter 12. Deterioration during Storage and Processing 45
Part II Individual Flavors and Colorants 49
Chapter 13. Ajwain (Bishop’s Weed) 51
Chapter 14. Allspice (Pimenta) 53
Chapter 15. Aniseed 58
Chapter 16. Anka Red Fungus 61
Chapter 17. Annatto 63
Chapter 18. Asafoetida 68
Chapter 19. Basil 71
Chapter 20. Bay Leaf (Laurel) 74
Chapter 21. Beet Root 77
Chapter 22. Bergamot Mint 80
Chapter 23. Black Cumin 82
Chapter 24. Black Pepper 85
Chapter 25. Capsicum 92
Chapter 26. Caramel 100
Chapter 27. Caraway 103
Chapter 28. Cardamom 106
Chapter 29. Carob Pod 112
Chapter 30. Carrot 115
Chapter 31. Cassia 119
Chapter 32. Celery Seed 123
Chapter 33. Chicory 128
Chapter 34. Cinnamon 130
Chapter 35. Cinnamon Leaf 133
Chapter 36. Clove 136
Chapter 37. Clove Leaf 141
Chapter 38. Coca Leaf 143
Chapter 39. Cochineal 145
Chapter 40. Cocoa 149
Chapter 41. Coffee 152
Chapter 42. Colored Vegetables 156
Chapter 43. Coriander 160
Chapter 44. Coriander Leaf 163
Chapter 45. Cumin 165
Chapter 46. Curry Leaf 168
Chapter 47. Date 172
Chapter 48. Davana 175
Chapter 49. Dill 180
Chapter 50. Fennel 184
Chapter 51. Fenugreek 188
Chapter 52. Galangal: Greater 192
Chapter 53. Galangal: Kaempferia 196
Chapter 54. Galangal: Lesser 198
Chapter 55. Garcinia Fruit 200
Chapter 56. Garlic 204
Chapter 57. Ginger 209
Chapter 58. Grape 215
Chapter 59. Grapefruit 219
Chapter 60. Green Leaves 223
Chapter 61. Hops 229
Chapter 62. Hyssop 233
Chapter 63. Japanese Mint 235
Chapter 64. Juniper Berry 240
Chapter 65. Kokam 244
Chapter 66. Kola Nut 247
Chapter 67. Large Cardamom 249
Chapter 68. Lemon 251
Chapter 69. Lemongrass 255
Chapter 70. Licorice 259
Chapter 71. Lime 262
Chapter 72. Long Pepper 266
Chapter 73. Lovage 268
Chapter 74. Mace 271
Chapter 75. Mandarin 274
Chapter 76. Marigold 277
Chapter 77. Marjoram 282
Chapter 78. Mustard 285
Chapter 79. Nutmeg 289
Chapter 80. Onion 294
Chapter 81. Orange 298
Chapter 82. Oregano 303
Chapter 83. Paprika 305
Chapter 84. Parsley 312
Chapter 85. Peppermint 315
Chapter 86. Red Sandalwood 318
Chapter 87. Rosemary 321
Chapter 88. Saffron 325
Chapter 89. Sage 329
Chapter 90. Savory (Sweet Summer) 332
Chapter 91. Spearmint 334
Chapter 92. Star Anise 337
Chapter 93. Stevia 340
Chapter 94. Sweet Flag (Calamus) 343
Chapter 95. Tamarind 346
Chapter 96. Tarragon 349
Chapter 97. Tea 351
Chapter 98. Thyme 354
Chapter 99. Tomato 357
Chapter 100. Turmeric 360
Chapter 101. Vanilla 368
Part III Future Needs 375
Chapter 102. Opportunities with Natural Flavors 377
Chapter 103. Opportunities with Natural Colorants 383
Index of Systematic Biological Names 388
Subject Index 390


Acknowledgments for the Second Edition
I wish to thank profusely (Dr) Sreeraj Gopi, Sherin Mathew, Binu Paul, (Dr) L.P. Srikrishna,
Robin George, and Mercy Thomas for valuable scientific inputs. I also thank Neelu Thomas
for the digital structure of steviol and Moby Paul for the word processing.
Mathew Attokaran
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