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Their Magickal Uses and Formulas

by Pat Kirven Sawyer

The Definitive Reference Book
OVER 1000 FORMULAS
Modern and Historical Uses of Herbs, Oils & Incenses


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 2005.
Published by Seventh House Publishing, The Woodlands, Texas


FOREWORD
This book is the result of conversations with friends and several book store owners during
which it was concluded that no one source of such complete information about oils and herbs existed,
much less one source for the many formulas devised over thousands of years of herbal practice.
Of course, it followed that “someone” should compile such a book, and there, the conversation ended.

Originally, in 1979, I compiled the many herbs, their uses, and formulas I had come across
through my years of study and how they are used so that they would be available to you in one
book without having to run from one library to another, from one store to another, from one book to
another, from one practitioner to another. This project grew like the proverbial wildfire as each new
formula was added and much more information about herbs and oils seemed necessary to complete
this compendium on designing your own recipes.

I soon realized that one book could not possibly contain all the information I wanted to
include, as it would be too heavy to carry! Besides, each new student of herbs and oils brings with
him his own experiences, and so the rituals and recipes evolve and are constantly changing and being
added. It is a never-ending growth. Therefore, I have had to be content in presenting to you only
the basics; a smattering of customs to get you started on the road to the practical use of herbs, oils,
candles, and incense. Here then, is the first edition of ANCIENT WISDOM.
Should you design or find new recipes you would like to share, please send them to the author,
Pat Kirven Sawyer, in care of the publisher, along with your permission for us to include them
in future editions. I regret that the volume of mail received prevents personal answers, but you will
be notified and given credit if your formula is used in the next printing.

I present this information to you for its historical interest and curiosity, and I make no claims
for the outcome of its use, regardless of any statements made in the following text.
All of the ritual information is given for background only. None of it is really necessary for the
appreciation and use of the formulas you will find in this book. However, some people find rituals
comforting, and if you are one of those, you should use them. There are many other books that will
give you much more detail about rituals.

CAUTION! CAUTION! CAUTION!

These oils can be very irritating to the skin, and should be highly diluted before applying to
bare skin: Black Pepper, Cinnamon, Clove, Frankincense, Rose Geranium, and some others.

Some herbs are either poisonous, restricted or illegal in the United States, and are not recommended.
I do not recommend using them, although they may be listed in some recipes. Try a substitute.
If you cannot find any other substitute, Tobacco can always be used. With some, the smoke
irritates the lungs, and you should not breathe the smoke or fumes. Others are foul-smelling, but
necessary, and should be used sparingly or out of doors. These herbs are: Aconite or Wolfsbane, Asafetida, Black Nightshade, Castor beans, Cayenne, Euphorbium, Garlic, Hashish, Hemlock, Hemp,
Hemp seed, Henbane, Mandrake, Mistletoe, Nightshade, Opium, Rue, Sulphur (sometimes spelled Sulfer).

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
When you get to the actual use of the formulas in this book, you may become confused
because there are so many of them and the form they take is different from one formula to another.
First, be aware that I have given the formulas just as I found them, with little or no change, except
for spelling, although in some cases I did add comments. Most of the recipes are appropriate for either
herbs (incense) or for oils; in fact, when I speak of the purported effects of an herb, you can take
this to mean any form of the herb — either the dry form, or the essential oil, or the tincture. Some of
the formulas have a number in parentheses after each ingredient. To the careful observer, this means
“parts of the whole” or parts of whatever unit of measurement you are using. Some recipes call for
ounces or drops, some for parts, and some give no proportions whatsoever, in which case you should
remember the cardinal rule of proportions which is--there are no rules. 
See comments on proportions in the last chapter.
When deciding on which formula to use, you must first be very specific about what you are
trying to accomplish. 
Then:
1. Go to Chapter 11 and check the list of formulas commonly used for your specific purpose.
2. If nothing there pleases you, go to the chapter discussing the herbs that are commonly used
for your general purpose and examine it until you find several herbs you want to use.
3. Go to the Index, find the listings for those herbs, and determine which formulas might be
appropriate, keeping in mind your specific purpose. You will also find general purposes listed in the
Index which might be of help to you in determining which formulas could possibly be used. The index
is also helpful to determine which oils and herbs you should keep on hand; 
just notice how many formulas each one is in.
4. If all else fails, you have the information here in this book necessary to devise your own recipes.
Should you devise your own recipes, I would appreciate hearing about them for possible
inclusion in the next edition of this book. While I cannot answer your letters personally, I will give
credit in future editions, if you include your permission to use the formula.

NOTE: You will notice that many of the formulas are the same or similar. That is because they have
come to be known by more than one name. All these have been listed so that you could find them.
NOTE ON MARGINS: We have intentionally left you space for notes, sketches, symbols or anything
else you may want to write in your book and make it your own grimoire.

Enjoy!


Table of Contents
Copyright ...................................................... ii
Foreword ............................................... iii
Disclaimer ............................................... iv
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK ............................................. v
Special Acknowledgement .................................................... vii
CHAPTER 1 ........................................................ 1
THE BASICS: INTRODUCTION ........................................1
CANDLES.........................................2
CHAPTER 2 .................................................11
OILS, INCENSE, AND OTHER GOODIES ........................11
OILS.............................................11
INCENSE....................................14
POWDERS ...........................................17
FLOORWASHES .................................20
BATHS ....................................................20
DOLLS AND POPPETS .....................................21
CHARM, “OUANGA” OR ROOT BAGS ......................23
TALISMANS .........................24
CHAPTER 3 .............................................27
YOUR MAGICKAL ENVIRONMENT .................................27
YOUR TEMPLE ..........................................27
YOUR ALTAR ....................................28
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS ...............28
CHAPTER 4 ..................................35
HERBS: ASSOCIATED WITH LOVE ...................35
CHAPTER 5 .......................................51
HERBS: POWER, COMMANDING, COMPELLING, AND PROTECTION ...............51
CHAPTER 6 .......................................63
HERBS: LUCK AND SUCCESS .....................63
CHAPTER 7 .............................71
HERBS: HEXING AND CROSSING ....................71
CHAPTER 8 .....................................79
HERBS: PSYCHIC DEVELOPMENT ................79
CHAPTER 9 ...............................83
HERBS: UNCROSSING AND UNHEXING ...........83
RITUAL FUNCTION OF UNCROSSING HERB....................85
CHAPTER 10 ...............................89
YOUR PERSONAL GUIDE TO HERBS AND OILS ............89
CHART OF YOUR PERSONAL GUIDE TO HERBS AND OILS..........90
CHAPTER 11 ...............................................99
FORMULAS: MOST POPULAR BY THEIR USES ..................99
CHAPTER 12....................................109
FORMULAS: SPECIAL RECIPE HINTS ..................109
INCENSE .......................................109
COMBUSTIBLE INCENSE ....................110
OILS .......................................111
POWDERS ...............................................111
CHAPTER 13 ...............................113
FORMULAS: BATH SALTS ...........................113
CHAPTER 14 ...........................................117
FORMULAS: TINCTURES .............................117
CHAPTER 15 ........................................119
FORMULAS: SACHETS AND HERBAL CHARMS ..................119
SACHETS FOR THE BATH .........................119
HERBAL CHARMS .................................123
CHAPTER 16 ......................................131
FORMULAS: LAGNIAPPE .........................131
PERFUMES AND COLOGNES .....................132
CHAPTER 17 ....................................139
FORMULAS BY MAGICKAL USE .......................139
APPENDIX A ..........................255
SUBSTITUTIONS ........................255
APPENDIX B ......................................257
TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ..............257
APPENDIX C .................................259
MAGICKAL USES OF OILS..................259
BIBLIOGRAPHY .....................273
ABOUT THE AUTHOR .....................275
INDEX ....................277


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NOTICE
This book has been compiled using sources such as folklore, various reference books, ancient
texts, out of print books, anecdotes, personal beliefs and experience. All of the products and
techniques named in this book are curios only and represent products and techniques which are used
in conjunction with certain folk and/or religious beliefs. All names are legendary, and are used for
identification purposes only. The author, publisher, and book seller make no claims whatever that
magickal, supernatural, or mystical powers are inherent in any of the products discussed herein. The
user should not infer that any of these products will accomplish what folklore and historical uses
have claimed for them. All information is being presented as a compilation for the curious of various
folk techniques and products.

JOHN T. O. KIRK

Kirk Marine Optics

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore,
Sa˜o Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City

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Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems 3rd Edition


Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems
Third edition
Beginning systematically with the fundamentals, the fully updated third edition of
this popular graduate textbook provides an understanding of all the essential
elements of marine optics. It explains the key role of light as a major factor in
determining the operation and biological composition of aquatic ecosystems, and
its scope ranges from the physics of light transmission within water, through the
biochemistry and physiology of aquatic photosynthesis, to the ecological
relationships that depend on the underwater light climate. This book also provides
a valuable introduction to the remote sensing of the ocean from space, which is
now recognized to be of great environmental significance due to its direct
relevance to global warming.

An important resource for graduate courses on marine optics, aquatic
photosynthesis, or ocean remote sensing; and for aquatic scientists, both
oceanographers and limnologists.

john t.o. kirk began his research into ocean optics in the early 1970s in the
Division of Plant Industry of the Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research
Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, Australia, where he was a chief research
scientist, and continued it from 1997 in Kirk Marine Optics. He was awarded the
Australian Society for Limnology Medal (1981), and besides the two successful
previous editions of this book, has also co-authored The Plastids: Their Chemistry,
Structure, Growth and Inheritance (Elsevier, 1978), which became the standard text in its field.

Beyond his own scientific research interests, he has always been interested in the
broader implications of science for human existence, and has published a book on
this and other issues, Science and Certainty (CSIRO Publishing, 2007).


Preface to the third edition
Four things are required for plant growth: energy in the form of solar
radiation; inorganic carbon in the form of carbon dioxide or bicarbonate
ions; mineral nutrients; and water. Those plants which, in the course of
evolution, have remained in, or have returned to, the aquatic environment
have one major advantage over their terrestrial counterparts: namely,
that water – lack of which so often limits productivity in the terrestrial
biosphere – is for them present in abundance; but for this a price must be
paid. The medium – air – in which terrestrial plants carry out photosynthesis
offers, within the sort of depth that plant canopies occupy, no
significant obstacle to the penetration of light. The medium – water – in
which aquatic plants occur, in contrast, both absorbs and scatters light.
For the phytoplankton and the macrophytes in lakes and rivers, coastal
and oceanic waters, both the intensity and spectral quality of the light
vary markedly with depth. In all but the shallowest waters, light availability
is a limiting factor for primary production by the aquatic ecosystem.

The aquatic plants must compete for solar radiation not only with
each other (as terrestrial plants must also do), but also with all the other
light-absorbing components of the aquatic medium. This has led, in the
course of evolution, to the acquisition by each of the major groups of
algae of characteristic arrays of light-harvesting pigments that are of great
biochemical interest, and also of major significance for an understanding
both of the adaptation of the algae to their ecological niche and of the
phylogeny and taxonomy of the different algal groups. Nevertheless, in
spite of the evolution of specialized light-harvesting systems, the aquatic
medium removes so much of the incident light that aquatic ecosystems
are, broadly speaking, less productive than terrestrial ones.

Thus, the nature of the light climate is a major difference between
the terrestrial and the aquatic regions of the biosphere. Within the
underwater environment, light availability is of major importance in
determining how much plant growth there is, which kinds of plant predominate
and, indeed, which kinds of plants have evolved. It is not the
whole story – biotic factors, availability of inorganic carbon and mineral
nutrients, and temperature, all make their contribution – but it is a large
part of that story. This book is a study of light in the underwater environment
from the point of view of photosynthesis. It sets out to bring
together the physics of light transmission through the medium and capture
by the plants, the biochemistry of photosynthetic light-harvesting
systems, the physiology of the photosynthetic response of aquatic plants
to different kinds of light field, and the ecological relationships that
depend on the light climate. The book does not attempt to provide as
complete an account of the physical aspects of underwater light as the
major works by Jerlov (1976), Preisendorfer (1976) and Mobley (1994); it
is aimed at the limnologist and marine biologist rather than the physicist,
although physical oceanographers should find it of interest. Its intention
is to communicate a broad understanding of the significance of light as a
major factor determining the operation and biological composition of
aquatic ecosystems. It is hoped that it will be of value to practising
aquatic scientists, to university teachers who give courses in limnology
or marine science, and to postgraduate and honours students in these and
related disciplines.

Certain features of the organization of the book merit comment.
Although in some cases authors and dates are referred to explicitly, to
minimize interruptions to the text, references to published work are in
most cases indicated by the corresponding numbers in the complete
alphabetical reference list at the end of the book. Accompanying each
entry in the reference list is (are) the page number(s) where that paper or
book is referred to in the text. Although coverage of the field is, I believe,
representative, it is not intended to be encyclopaedic. The papers referred
to have been selected, not only on the grounds of their scientific importance,
but in large part on the basis of their usefulness as illustrative
examples for particular points that need to be made. Inevitably, therefore,
many equally important and relevant papers have had to be omitted from
consideration, especially in the very broad field of aquatic ecology. I have
therefore, where necessary, referred the reader to more specialized works
in which more comprehensive treatments of particular topics can be
found. Because its contribution to total aquatic primary production is
usually small I have not attempted to deal with bacterial photosynthesis,
complex and fascinating though it is.

The behaviour of sunlight in water, and the role that light plays in
controlling the productivity, and influencing the biological composition,
of aquatic ecosystems have been important areas of scientific study for
more than a century, and it was to meet the perceived need for a text
bringing together the physical and biological aspects of the subject, that
the first, and then second, editions of Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic
Ecosystems were written. The book was well received, and is in use not
only by research workers but also in university courses. In the 27 years
since the first edition, interest in the topic has become even greater than it
was before. This may be partly attributed to concern about global
warming, and the realization that to understand the important role the
ocean plays in the global carbon cycle, we need to improve both our
understanding and our quantitative assessment of marine primary production.

An additional, but related, reason is the great interest that has been
aroused in the feasibility of remote sensing of oceanic primary productivity
from space. The potentialities were just becoming apparent with the
early Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) pictures when the first edition
was written. The continuing stream of further remote sensing information
in the ensuing years, as space agencies around the world have put new and
improved ocean scanners into orbit, enormously enlarging our understanding
of oceanic phytoplankton distribution, have made this a particularly
active and exciting field within oceanography. But the light flux that
is received from the ocean by the satellite-borne radiometers, and which
carries with it information about the composition of the water, originates in
fact as a part of the upwelling light flux within the ocean, which has
escaped through the surface into the atmosphere. To interpret the data
we therefore need to understand the underwater light field, and how its
characteristics are controlled by what is present within the aquatic medium.
In consequence of this sustained, even intensified, interest in underwater
light, there is a continued need for a suitable text, not only for
researchers, but also for use in university teaching. It is for this reason, the
first and second editions being out of print, that I have prepared a
completely revised version. Since marine bio-optics has been such an
active field, a vast amount of literature had to be digested, but as in the
earlier editions, I have tended to select specific papers mainly on the basis
of their usefulness as illustrative examples, and many other equally valuable
papers have had to be omitted from consideration.

In the 16 years since the second edition of this book appeared, interest
in this subject has, if anything, increased. While there has been an
acceleration, rather than a slackening in the rate of publication of new
research it must be said that this has been much more evident in certain
areas than in others. Remote sensing of ocean colour, and its use to arrive
at inferences about the composition and optical properties of, and primary
production going on within, ocean waters has been the standout
example of a very active field. A variety of new instruments for measuring
the optical properties of the water, and the underwater light field, have
been developed, and a number of these are described. So far as photosynthesis
itself is concerned, the most notable change has been the development
of instrumentation, together with the necessary accompanying
theoretical understanding, for in situ measurement of photosynthetic rate,
using chlorophyll a fluorescence. A great deal more is also now known
about carbon concentrating mechanisms in aquatic plants, and these
topics are discussed. The presumptive role of iron as a limiting factor
for primary production in large areas of the ocean has received a great
deal of attention in recent years, and current understanding is summarized.
Nevertheless, quite apart from these specific areas, there has been
across-the-board progress in all parts of the subject, no chapter remains
unchanged, and the reference list has increased in length by about 50%.
I would like to thank Dr Susan Blackburn, Professor D. Branton, Dr
M. Bristow, Mr S. Craig, Dr W. A. Hovis,Mr Ian Jameson, Dr S. Jeffrey,
Dr D. Kiefer, Professor V. Klemas, Professor L. Legendre, Dr Y. Lipkin,
Professor W. Nultsch, Mr D. Price, Professor R. C. Smith, Dr M. Vesk;
Biospherical Instruments Inc., who have provided original copies of
figures for reproduction in this work; and Mr F. X. Dunin and Dr
P. A. Tyler for unpublished data. I would like to thank Mr K. Lyon of
Orbital Sciences Corporation for providing illustrations of the SeaWiFS
scanner and spacecraft, and the SeaWiFS Project NASA/Goddard Space
Flight Center, for remote sensing images of the ocean.
John Kirk
Canberra
April 2010


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Contents
Preface to the third edition page ix
PART I THE UNDERWATER LIGHT FIELD 1
1 Concepts of hydrologic optics 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 The nature of light 3
1.3 The properties defining the radiation field 6
1.4 The inherent optical properties 14
1.5 Apparent and quasi-inherent optical
properties 21
1.6 Optical depth 24
1.7 Radiative transfer theory 24
2 Incident solar radiation 28
2.1 Solar radiation outside the atmosphere 28
2.2 Transmission of solar radiation through
the Earth’s atmosphere 30
2.3 Diurnal variation of solar irradiance 38
2.4 Variation of solar irradiance and insolation
with latitude and time of year 42
2.5 Transmission across the air–water interface 44
3 Absorption of light within the aquatic medium 50
3.1 The absorption process 50
3.2 The measurement of light absorption 53
3.3 The major light-absorbing components
of the aquatic system 61
3.4 Optical classification of natural waters 92
3.5 Contribution of the different components
of the aquatic medium to absorption of PAR 95
4 Scattering of light within the aquatic medium 98
4.1 The scattering process 98
4.2 Measurement of scattering 104
4.3 The scattering properties of natural waters 116
4.4 The scattering properties of phytoplankton 128
5 Characterizing the underwater light field 133
5.1 Irradiance 133
5.2 Scalar irradiance 143
5.3 Spectral distribution of irradiance 144
5.4 Radiance distribution 147
5.5 Modelling the underwater light field 149
6 The nature of the underwater light field 153
6.1 Downward irradiance – monochromatic 153
6.2 Spectral distribution of downward irradiance 159
6.3 Downward irradiance – PAR 159
6.4 Upward irradiance and radiance 168
6.5 Scalar irradiance 178
6.6 Angular distribution of the underwater light field 181
6.7 Dependence of properties of the field
on optical properties of the medium 188
6.8 Partial vertical attenuation coefficients 197
7 Remote sensing of the aquatic environment 199
7.1 The upward flux and its measurement 200
7.2 The emergent flux 215
7.3 Correction for atmospheric scattering
and solar elevation 218
7.4 Relation between remotely sensed reflectance
and the scattering/absorption ratio 225
7.5 Relation between remotely sensed reflectances
and water composition 228
PART II PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT 263
8 The photosynthetic apparatus of aquatic plants 265
8.1 Chloroplasts 265
8.2 Membranes and particles 268
8.3 Photosynthetic pigment composition 275
8.4 Reaction centres and energy transfer 298
8.5 The overall photosynthetic process 300
9 Light capture by aquatic plants 308
9.1 Absorption spectra of photosynthetic systems 308
9.2 The package effect 311
9.3 Effects of variation in cell/colony size and shape 314
9.4 Rate of light absorption by aquatic plants 319
9.5 Effect of aquatic plants on the underwater light field 325
10 Photosynthesis as a function of the incident light 330
10.1 Measurement of photosynthetic rate in aquatic
ecosystems 330
10.2 Photosynthesis and light intensity 339
10.3 Efficiency of utilization of incident light energy 360
10.4 Photosynthesis and wavelength of incident light 380
11 Photosynthesis in the aquatic environment 388
11.1 Circulation and depth 388
11.2 Optical characteristics of the water 397
11.3 Other limiting factors 400
11.4 Temporal variation in photosynthesis 430
11.5 Photosynthetic yield per unit area 440
12 Ecological strategies 453
12.1 Aquatic plant distribution in relation to light quality 453
12.2 Ontogenetic adaptation – intensity 469
12.3 Ontogenetic adaptation – spectral quality 479
12.4 Ontogenetic adaptation – depth 488
12.5 Significance of ontogenetic adaptation of the
photosynthetic system 503
12.6 Rapid adaptation of the photosynthetic system 514
12.7 The microphytobenthos 528
12.8 Highly productive aquatic ecosystems 532
References and author index 539
Index to symbols 626
Index to organisms 628
Index to water bodies 632
Subject index 638

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by Steven A. Frowine with the Editors of the National Gardening Association

The Fun and Easy Way to Start Playing in the Dirt


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Gardening Basics for Dummies


About the Authors


Steven A. Frowine was a plant nut even as a child. Since then, his love and
sometimes obsession for outdoor and indoor plants has continued to grow.
He worked in various horticultural jobs before and during high school and
college. Steve has a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in horticulture from
Ohio State University and Cornell, respectively.

His first job after graduate school was to set up a professional gardeners’ program
at Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden (now the National Tropical Botanical
Garden) on Kauai, Hawaii. He later held other professional horticultural positions
at Cleveland Botanical Garden and Pittsburgh Civic Garden Center. At
Missouri Botanical Garden, he served as chairman of indoor horticulture.

Steve served as an executive at top horticultural businesses including
W. Atlee Burpee Company, White Flower Farm, and International Gardening
Products. Steve is sought out as a lecturer and has delivered hundreds of
talks throughout the country. His presentations are noted for his excellent
photography, his knowledge of the subject, and his sense of humor. He has
appeared on various national TV shows and writes extensively, authoring
many articles for horticultural trade and consumer magazines.

He has served on the boards of various professional organizations, including
the National Gardening Association, Garden Writers of America, and the
American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. Steve served on
the Visiting Committee of Longwood Gardens for six years.
Steve enjoys all plants and has a particular fondness for orchids. He wrote
Orchids For Dummies (Wiley Publishing) and Fragrant Orchids (Timber Press).
He is also the author of Miniature Orchids, published by Timber Press in spring 2007.

Steve is now president of his own horticultural consulting firm, where he
works with various companies in the green industry on writing, photography,
marketing, and public relations issues.

The National Gardening Association (NGA), founded in 1972, is a national
not-for-profit leader in plant-based education, esteemed for its award-winning
Web sites and newsletters, grants and curriculum for youth gardens, and
research for the lawn-and-garden industry. NGA’s mission is to advance the
personal, community, and educational benefits of gardening by supporting
gardeners, communities, and teachers with information and resources. For
more information, please visit www.garden.org.


Author’s Acknowledgments
Simply put, this book would not be possible without the help and advice of
Teri Dunn. I am deeply indebted to her.
Natalie Harris, my project editor, was a joy to work with. She cheerfully kept
me on track and shepherded the myriad parts of this book to completion, so
without her, this work would not have made it to print.

I’ve been pleased and privileged over the years to witness the good works
of the National Gardening Association (NGA). Thanks to this organization, I
received the opportunity to produce this book. I hope it does justice to their
mission of bringing the joys of gardening to all.

Charlie Nardozzi, a horticulturist with the National Gardening Association,
was generous with his time in reviewing and making helpful suggestions for
each of the chapters. It was super having a person with his gardening experience
looking over my shoulder.

Putting together a detailed outline for a book takes much time and thought.
For this book, Michael MacCaskey tackled this important job. 
Hats off to him for his thoroughness.

As with any book project, the spouse or companion of the writer suffers from
neglect. My wife, Sascha, never wavered in her patience and understanding. She
has always been supportive and loving, and I’m lucky to have her as my wife!
And last, I must not forget Zoe and Ginger, our two dogs who always kept me
company and face every day with enthusiasm.


Introduction

Aren’t you lucky! You’re entering or are already part of the most popular
and rewarding lifelong hobby that exists — worldwide. Gardening is a
common language that knows no national, socioeconomic, or age boundaries.
It’s a common thread that binds all of us together. Whether you’re discussing
your outrageous zucchini harvest of the previous year or sharing your secret
tips for prizewinning roses, you’ve probably found that gardeners have an
instant bond, no matter what their level of experience.

Because gardening is a huge topic that encompasses a wide field of cultivation
interests and disciplines, it’s impossible for any one book to cover everything
there is to know about gardening. However, when you’re armed with the
gardening basics, like those presented in this book, you’re ready for just
about anything that the art of gardening can throw at you.

Sure, gardening requires some exertion. But it’s healthy exercise. It makes
you feel a great sense of accomplishment when the flowerbeds are weeded,
the bulbs are planted, and the seeds are sown. It’s primal. And reaping the
rewards of your labor — by cutting flowers for your dinner party or fresh
herbs for your salad — is a special joy that makes the noisy, electronic stimulation
that surrounds us (cars, phones, MP3 players, and the like) seem trivial.
Gardening fosters a deep satisfaction that nurtures your body and soul.
That’s why this book, Gardening Basics For Dummies, exists. In addition to
giving you basic pointers on how to make your gardening as successful and
rewarding as possible, it’s a celebration of the art and sheer joy of gardening.

About This Book
In this book, I’ve tried to distill my over-40-years of gardening experience as
well as the knowledge of some of my other gardening friends, because we all
learn from each other.
I hope this book is fun reading: Sometimes gardeners can get way too serious
about this pursuit. I’ve always felt that gardening is supposed to relieve anxiety,
not add to it. After all, this is gardening, not brain surgery! Making a mistake
(and you will) is not a big deal. Gardens can recover quickly from our
bumbling efforts to care for them. My main mission in this book is to bring
you gardening success and the inimitable pleasure that comes from it. It’s no
fun if all your efforts end up in the compost pile.

Following the classic For Dummies format, this book gives you the most basic
gardening information you need, organized and presented in an easy-tofollow,
modular manner. Although you can read from cover-to-cover, you
don’t have to. This book can function as a reference work, so you can jump
in, find what you need, and get back to your stand of birch trees or the koi
pond or the garden center or wherever else you’d like to be.

After reading this book, you may not be an expert, but you should be well on
your way to taking on most gardening tasks with new confidence. Gardening
is part science and part art, and how you mix them up is a very personal
thing. After getting a handle on the basics presented here, you can move on
to develop your own style and techniques that work best for you.

Conventions Used in This Book
As you advance in gardening, you find that in certain branches of horticulture
(like perennials, some trees and shrubs, and orchids), you’re confronted
with dreaded scientific names (usually Latin, sometimes Greek). People use
such names in these plant categories for very legitimate reasons, and you can
choose to follow the path to those reasons later. For now, I spare you that
step by mostly using common names for the plants throughout this book.
When I do provide the scientific name, I give common plant names first, followed
by the botanical name.
As is typical of all For Dummies books, I also shy away from as much jargon
as possible, and I explain any terms used right away (often in parentheses following
the term). New, defined terms may also appear in italics. Horticulture
and gardening can be as technical as any other science, but this is not a textbook
for Horticulture 101!

The Internet is part of life now and can provide oodles of great gardening
information, so I include various Web references. Web addresses appear in
monofont. When this book was printed, some Web addresses may have
needed to break across two lines of text. If that happened, rest assured that I
haven’t put in any extra characters (such as hyphens) to indicate the break.
When using one of these Web addresses, just type in exactly what you see in
this book, pretending as though the line break weren’t there.

What You’re Not to Read
If you’re short on time and just want to get down to the nitty-gritty, you can
skip the stuff in the gray boxes. I include this sidebar information for those of
you who want to know the whys of everything or who just want to dig deeper.

Foolish Assumptions
Because you’re reading this book, I assume that, like me, you really love gardening.
Here are some other things I assume regarding your possible background
and interest in gardening:
You’ve seen other folks’ gardens that have inspired you, so now you
want to bring your own gardening skill to the next level.
You’re concerned about a healthy diet and want to grow some of your
own herbs, fruits, and vegetables.
Your lawn is looking on the tattered side, so you want to spruce it up a bit.
You’ve moved into a new place, and the landscaping is nonexistent or
dreadful, so you want to change it.
You love outdoor living and you want to improve the space around you.
You like the idea of gardening but don’t know where to start.

How This Book Is Organized
The basic goal of every chapter is to give you the information you need to go
out and create a garden, or at least plant something, no matter what your
level of experience. You may already know a lot about roses, for example, but
perhaps you want information on how to start an annual flowerbed; the chapters
in this book can help out in that regard. Even if your primary interest is
in growing roses or daylilies, or in setting up a basic vegetable garden, you
can find useful information in every chapter that you can probably apply to
your planting project.
This book includes six parts, which are further divided into chapters. Check
out the following sections for an overview of what you can find in each part.
Part I: Preparing Yourself (And Your Garden) for Planting
Sometimes just getting started can be the hardest part. In this section, your
wheels begin turning. Chapter 1 introduces you to the main garden players —
annuals, perennials, trees, shrubs, vines, and groundcovers — and explains
their roles. Chapter 2 helps you put together your grand plan and gives you
some ideas of types of gardens to consider and questions to ask yourself. I
explain what hardiness zones are and why should you care about them in
Chapter 3. Chapter 4 puts your spade in the ground with the basics of garden
preparation and your plants’ basic needs. And the right garden tools make a
big difference, so Chapter 5 takes all the mystery out of tool selection and use.
Part II: Flowers and Foliage: Growing for Color
Foliage is nice, but most people are in gardening for color. Chapter 6 deals
with the almost ever-blooming, frequently dazzling colors of annuals —
which ones to choose and how to use them best. Recently, perennials have
been the hottest category of plant, probably because of their immense variety
and year-after-year performance. These repeat-performers are detailed in
Chapter 7. Nothing can perk up your spirits after a long winter better than
spring-flowering bulbs or give late color like the summer-flowering types;
that’s what Chapter 8 is all about. Chapter 9 introduces you to America’s
favorite flower: the rose. There, I give you tips on which roses are easiest to
grow and tell you which are most fragrant.
Part III: Stretching Your Garden Beyond
Its Boundaries: The Permanent Landscape
The lawn frames everything in the garden and is the family playground
during the summer. Chapter 10 can help you grow a lawn you can be proud
of. Trees and shrubs are considered the “bones” of the garden because they
define its shape and are present for many years. I introduce you to the foundational
plants that best suit your needs in Chapter 11. And don’t forget vines
and groundcovers — they can serve as the icing on your garden cake; I profile them in Chapter 12.
Part IV: Producing Your Own Produce
What can possibly match the flavor of your own warm vine-ripened tomatoes?
Or fresh ripe strawberries and raspberries? That’s what Part IV is
about: home-grown produce. It’s healthy and delicious. Veggies start off this
part in Chapter 13, followed by Chapter 14 on the pleasures of how to grow
and enjoy herbs. Chapter 15 shows you how you can have all the fruits and berries you want.
Part V: Designing Special and Fun Gardens
This part covers what gardening is really all about — fun! Chapter 16 covers
the extremely popular form of gardening that even those space-challenged
gardeners can enjoy: container gardening. Water gardens have become the
rage because of not only the exotic plants they display but also the wildlife
(including fish and frogs) that they provide a home for. Skip to Chapter 17 for details on water gardening.
Part VI: The Part of Tens
Of course, this wouldn’t be a real For Dummies book without a Part of Tens.
This part is where you go when you want information fast. Chapter 18 gives
you answers to the ten most commonly asked garden questions. If you’re
handy and like gardening projects, see Chapter 19. Getting the kids involved
in gardening early in life is a great idea, so check out the fun projects for
them to do in Chapter 20.



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Contents at a Glance
Introduction
Part I: Preparing Yourself (And Your Garden) for Planting
Chapter 1: Getting Ready for Gardening
Chapter 2: Planning Your Own Eden
Chapter 3: Getting into the Zone — Your Garden’s Zone
Chapter 4: Live Long and Prosper: Giving Plants What They Need
Chapter 5: Gathering Your Gardening Gear
Part II: Flowers and Foliage: Growing for Color
Chapter 6: Growing Annuals: Adding Yearly Variety to Your Garden
Chapter 7: Growing Perennials: Plants That Make a Comeback
Chapter 8: Brightening Up the Garden with Bulbs
Chapter 9: Coming Up Roses
Part III: Stretching Your Garden Beyond Its
Boundaries: The Permanent Landscape
Chapter 10: Growing a Perfect Lawn
Chapter 11: Reaching New Heights with Trees and Shrubs
Chapter 12: Climbers and Crawlers: Growing Vines and Groundcovers
Part IV: Producing Your Own Produce
Chapter 13: Food, Glorious Food! Growing Your Own Veggies
Chapter 14: Adding Spice to Your Garden: Growing Herbs
Chapter 15: Sweet and Crunchy: Growing Fruits, Berries, and Nuts
Part V: Designing Special and Fun Gardens
Chapter 16: Mini Gardens and Microcosms: Gardening in Containers
Chapter 17: Taking the Plunge: Gardening with Ponds and Fish
Part VI: The Part of Tens
Chapter 18: Ten Common Questions from (and Ten Common Answers for)
Gardening Beginners
Chapter 19: Ten Quick, Fun, or Handy Garden Projects
Chapter 20: Ten Garden Projects for Children
Appendix: Basic Gardening Resources
Index


Table of Contents
Introduction..........
About This Book..........
Conventions Used in This Book .....
What You’re Not to Read......
Foolish Assumptions ......
How This Book Is Organized..........
Part I: Preparing Yourself (And Your Garden) for Planting .....
Part II: Flowers and Foliage: Growing for Color.....
Part III: Stretching Your Garden Beyond Its Boundaries:
The Permanent Landscape....
Part IV: Producing Your Own Produce......
Part V: Designing Special and Fun Gardens ..........
Part VI: The Part of Tens .........................
Icons Used in This Book................
Where to Go from Here........
Part I: Preparing Yourself (And Your Garden) for Planting .....7
Chapter 1: Getting Ready for Gardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Playing the Name Game.................................................................................10
“Hello, my name is . . .”: Getting used to plant nomenclature ........10
Anatomy 101: Naming plant parts......................................................11
Bringing in Beauty with Flowers (and Foliage) ..........................................12
Amazing annuals...................................................................................13
Perennial plants....................................................................................17
Bulbs and roses ....................................................................................19
Gardening for Your Dining Pleasure.............................................................20
Working with Woody (or Viney) Plants .......................................................20
Shrubs....................................................................................................21
Trees ......................................................................................................22
Vines.......................................................................................................23
The World Is Flat: Caring for Your Lawn .....................................................24
Chapter 2: Planning Your Own Eden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Taking Stock: Evaluating What You Already Have .....................................25
Identifying problems and restrictions ...............................................27
Taking advantage of your yard’s assets.............................................30
Getting Ideas for Your Garden Space...........................................................31
Gardening with the kids in mind ........................................................32
Establishing a good garden for pets ..................................................32
Creating space for entertainment ......................................................34
Designing a sanctuary: The quiet garden retreat.............................35
Cooking up an edible garden: Gardening for your kitchen .............36
Zeroing In on Your Ideal Garden Style .........................................................37
Gardening around a theme..................................................................38
An inspired idea: Perusing books, magazines, and local gardens...41
Making Sure Costs Don’t Outgrow Your Budget.........................................42
Bringing Your Garden Ideas to Reality ........................................................43
Sketching out the yard you have now ...............................................44
Making your drawing match your dream garden.............................44
Defining key areas so you know where to start................................45
Getting Professional Help for Your Garden Plans ......................................47
Landscape architects, landscape designers,
and garden designers .......................................................................48
Landscape or general contractors .....................................................49
Master gardeners..................................................................................49
Chapter 3: Getting into the Zone — Your Garden’s Zone . . . . . . . . . . .51
Different Hardiness Zone Maps for Different Folks....................................51
Taking a look at the world’s plant hardiness zone maps ................52
Warming up to the heat-zone map .....................................................53
Savoring the Sunset zones ..................................................................54
Reading plant hardiness zone maps ..................................................54
Fathoming Frost Zones and Growing Seasons............................................56
Zoning Out: Breaking the Zone and Growing Season Rules......................57
Managing your microclimates ............................................................58
Cheating the system: Creating microclimates ..................................60
Stretching your growing season.........................................................61
Chapter 4: Live Long and Prosper: Giving Plants What They Need . . .. . . . . . . .63
Let There Be Light!.........................................................................................64
Facing the Fertilizer Facts .............................................................................65
What to feed: The great natural versus chemical debate ...............67
When to feed your garden...................................................................68
Compost: More than Just a Fertilizer ..........................................................69
Demystifying Soil pH......................................................................................71
Finding out your soil’s pH ...................................................................72
Adjusting your soil’s pH ......................................................................72
Much Ado about Mulch.................................................................................73
Knowing your mulches ........................................................................73
How to apply mulch — and how much .............................................75
Water, Water Everywhere: Tackling Watering Issues .................................76
Providing plants with the right amount of moisture .......................76
Determining which watering system to use......................................77
Cutting back on watering ....................................................................79
Dealing with drainage problems.........................................................80
Air! Air! Plants Need Air!................................................................................81
Chapter 5: Gathering Your Gardening Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Digging Those, Er, Digging Tools ..................................................................83
Getting down with shovels and spades.............................................84
Trowels: More than just little shovels ...............................................86
Garden forks: Not for dining!...............................................................87
Dabbling in dibbles (or dibbers) for poking holes...........................88
Clues to Quality Cultivating Tools ...............................................................89
Ho, ho, hoes ..........................................................................................89
Weeding out poor weeders to get to the best...................................90
Making the Right Cut with Cutting Tools ....................................................92
Getting a handle on hand pruners .....................................................92
Hedging your bets on hedge shears ..................................................93
Branching out with loppers ................................................................94
Moving up to pruning saws.................................................................95
Putting Power Tools to Use...........................................................................96
Safety first: Controlling your power tools
(so they don’t control you) .............................................................96
Chewing through chores with chainsaws .........................................97
Working with weed trimmers and weed whackers ..........................97
Tilling soil with rototillers...................................................................98
Wading through Wondrous Watering Tools ................................................99
Hoses......................................................................................................99
Nozzles.................................................................................................101
Hose-end sprinklers ...........................................................................102
Water timers........................................................................................103
Part II: Flowers and Foliage: Growing for Color............105
Chapter 6: Growing Annuals: Adding Yearly Variety to Your Garden . . . . . . . . . . .107
Finding Flowers that Fit Your Garden........................................................107
Some like it hot: Warm weather annuals .........................................108
Some annuals like it cool...................................................................109
Mixing and Matching Annuals ....................................................................109
Good habits: Taking advantage of shape,
height, and structure......................................................................110
Combining colors ...............................................................................113
Buying Annuals.............................................................................................114
Starting with seed packets ................................................................114
Starting with nursery, well, starts ....................................................114
An Annual Event: The Whens, Wheres, and Hows of Planting ...............115
Filling in the garden after the last frost ...........................................116
Deciding where to plant annuals......................................................117
Getting annuals in the ground ..........................................................117
Feeding the Flower Power: Taking Care of Annuals.................................118
Watering...............................................................................................118
Fertilizing.............................................................................................118
Mulching..............................................................................................119
Grooming.............................................................................................119
Dealing with annual pests .................................................................119
Chapter 7: Growing Perennials: Plants That Make a Comeback . . .121
Looking at Perennials, the Repeat Performers.........................................122
Hardy perennials ................................................................................122
Tender perennials...............................................................................122
Planning Long-Term Strategy for Your Perennial Garden .......................123
Choreography: Timing perennial blooming ....................................124
The living palette: Keeping colors in mind .....................................125
Designing perennial beds and borders............................................125
Finding and Buying Perennials ...................................................................128
To the market: Getting perennials in containers............................128
Buying perennials through mail-order.............................................129
Acquiring free divisions from other gardeners ..............................130
Planting Perennials ......................................................................................131
Figuring out where to plant perennials ...........................................131
Deciding when to plant perennials ..................................................134
Preparing for the actual planting .....................................................137
Show the Love: Taking Care of Your Perennials.......................................138
Supporting with stakes or rings .......................................................138
Practicing good grooming habits .....................................................139
Dividing perennials ............................................................................141
Preparing perennials for winter........................................................142
Dealing with perennial pests and diseases .....................................142
Chapter 8: Brightening Up the Garden with Bulbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Shedding Light on Bulbs .............................................................................145
Defining terms: Bulbs aren’t always, well, bulbs............................146
The time of the season: Looking at early and late bloomers........149
Getting acquainted with the most popular bulbs ..........................150
Social Mixers: Choosing to Combine Your Bulbs.....................................151
Combining various types of tulips ...................................................151
Mixing up your daffodils....................................................................152
Combining different kinds of bulbs..................................................153
The Search: Where to Get Your Bulbs .......................................................155
Buying bulbs from home stores and nurseries ..............................156
Purchasing bulbs through mail-order..............................................157
Getting Down and Dirty: Planting Bulbs....................................................158
When to plant bulbs...........................................................................158
Where to plant bulbs .........................................................................160
How to plant bulbs.............................................................................161
Taking Care of Bulbs ....................................................................................163
Watering your bulbs...........................................................................164
Fertilizing bulbs ..................................................................................164
Mulching..............................................................................................165
Fighting bulb pests.............................................................................165
Chapter 9: Coming Up Roses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
What Makes a Rose Be a Rose Be a Rose..................................................167
Checking out blooming habits..........................................................168
Looking at hardiness..........................................................................169
Identifying the various rose types....................................................169
Deciding Where to Put Your Roses ............................................................173
Planning your beds and borders ......................................................173
Using roses as groundcovers............................................................175
Screening with roses..........................................................................176
Using roses as vines...........................................................................177
Buying the Best Roses .................................................................................178
Getting a potted rose .........................................................................178
Purchasing a bareroot rose...............................................................179
Planting Your Roses .....................................................................................182
Putting containerized roses in the ground......................................182
Planting bareroot roses .....................................................................183
Taking Care of Your Roses ..........................................................................185
Watering...............................................................................................185
Fertilizing.............................................................................................185
Keeping roses in shape......................................................................186
Maximizing winter hardiness............................................................188
War of the roses: Tackling rose pests ..............................................189
Part III: Stretching Your Garden Beyond Its
Boundaries: The Permanent Landscape .......................191
Chapter 10: Growing a Perfect Lawn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
In the Beginning: Getting Ready to Make a Lawn from Scratch .............193
Preparing your yard for a lawn.........................................................194
Designing the lawn .............................................................................195
Seeding and Sodding: Adding the Grass....................................................196
Determining the kind of grass you want or need ...........................196
Cool-season and warm-season grasses ...........................................197
Growing lawns from seed ..................................................................201
Your own turf: Growing lawns from sod..........................................204
Watering a Thirsty Lawn .............................................................................207
Getting the water balance right........................................................207
Boosting watering efficiency.............................................................208
Feeding and Fertilizing ................................................................................209
What’s your type? Deciding on the kind of fertilizer .....................209
Knowing your serving sizes: How much fertilizer is enough........211
Checking out the feeding schedule ..................................................211
Mowing the Lawn, Cutting the Grass, and Otherwise Giving
the Yard a Shave .......................................................................................212
Warring with Weeds .....................................................................................214
Preventing lawn weeds ......................................................................215
Treating already-weedy lawns ..........................................................215
Chapter 11: Reaching New Heights with Trees and Shrubs . . . . . . .217
Knowing Your Trees.....................................................................................218
Exploring evergreen trees .................................................................218
Falling for deciduous trees................................................................220
Choosing the Right Tree for Where You Live ...........................................222
Getting Treed! Planting Trees .....................................................................223
Not just for Arbor Day: Deciding when to plant your tree............223
Finding a suitable location ................................................................224
Planting your tree...............................................................................226
Taking Care of Your Tree.............................................................................229
Giving trees a tall drink of water ......................................................229
Fertilizing trees...................................................................................231
Life and limb: Pruning judiciously....................................................231
Raising the stakes: Offering some support .....................................235
Knowing Your Shrubs ..................................................................................236
Nonflowering shrubs..........................................................................236
Flowering shrubs................................................................................237
Planning Practical Uses for Bushes ...........................................................237
Planting Shrubs ............................................................................................238
Deciding when to plant your shrubs ...............................................239
Situating your shrubs ........................................................................239
Perfecting your shrub-planting skills...............................................240
Caring for Your Shrubs ................................................................................241
Watering...............................................................................................242
Fertilizing your shrubs ......................................................................242
Pruning for shape and rejuvenation ................................................243
Chapter 12: Climbers and Crawlers: Growing Vines and Groundcovers . . . .. . . . .245
Looking at How Vines Hold On...................................................................245
Twining ................................................................................................247
Tendrils................................................................................................247
Adhesive discs....................................................................................247
Holdfasts..............................................................................................248
Sprawling.............................................................................................248
Choosing the Right Vines for Your Garden ...............................................248
Considering your basic options .......................................................249
Love me tender? Deciding whether you need cold-hardy vines...250
Sizing up your vines ...........................................................................251
Examining site considerations for vines .........................................252
Planting and Supporting Vines ...................................................................253
Giving vines a little backup: Trellises, fences, and arbors............254
Using trees and shrubs as living supports......................................255
Maintaining Perennial Vines through Pruning..........................................256
Looking at Groundcovers, a Living Carpet ...............................................257
Examining groundcover varieties ....................................................257
Reaching out: How the groundcover spreads ................................259
Spacing out: Considering the room the groundcover takes up....260
Exploring site considerations for groundcovers............................261
Planting and Maintaining Groundcovers...................................................262
Watering...............................................................................................263
Fertilizing.............................................................................................263
Mulching..............................................................................................263
Keeping groundcovers in shape: Pruning and pegging .................264
Getting weeds out (and keeping them out) ....................................264
Part IV: Producing Your Own Produce .........................265
Chapter 13: Food, Glorious Food! Growing Your Own Veggies . . . . .267
Varieties of Veggies ......................................................................................268
Growing vegetables by seasons .......................................................268
Defining hybrids .................................................................................271
Appreciating heirlooms .....................................................................272
Designing for Dining and Getting Your Vegetable Garden Ready...........274
Sketching out your plan.....................................................................274
Working with the sun: Where to plant vegetables .........................276
Using planting patterns and systems ..............................................277
Prepping your soil ..............................................................................278
Finding Your Vegetables ..............................................................................280
Planting Your Vegetables.............................................................................282
Deciding when to plant your veggies...............................................282
Sowing and planting your veggies....................................................283
Composting for Vegetable Gardens ...........................................................288
Fertilizing Your Vegetable Garden..............................................................290
Using Frames and Supports for Veggies....................................................292
Dealing with Vegetable Pests......................................................................295
Rodents, rabbits, and other miscreants..........................................296
Deer......................................................................................................296
Birds.....................................................................................................297
Bugs......................................................................................................297
Chapter 14: Adding Spice to Your Garden: Growing Herbs . . . . . . . .301
Planting Herbs: A Lesson in Adaptation....................................................302
Getting the timing right .....................................................................302
Helping herbs find their place in the world ....................................303
Putting herbs in their place: How to plant ......................................306
Raising herbs from seed ....................................................................307
Taking Care of Your Herbs ..........................................................................308
Providing an herb’s basic needs.......................................................308
Dealing with herb pests.....................................................................309
Chapter 15: Sweet and Crunchy: Growing Fruits, Berries, and Nuts . . . . . . . . . .313
Fruit Basics: Knowing and Choosing the Right Fruits
for Your Garden ........................................................................................314
Examining the types of fruits ............................................................314
Getting the lowdown on chill factors...............................................315
Studying your size accommodations...............................................317
Going solo or in pairs: Looking at pollination ................................321
Finding and Buying Your Fruit Bearers .....................................................321
Planting Your Fruit .......................................................................................322
Making the prepared soil deep and wide enough ..........................323
Choosing the best time to plant fruits.............................................323
Deciding where to plant your fruits .................................................324
Getting your fruit in the ground .......................................................325
Taking Care of Fruits....................................................................................329
Watering...............................................................................................329
Fertilizing.............................................................................................329
Cutting back on mulch.......................................................................330
Supporting and training your fruit ...................................................330
Pruning ................................................................................................332
Dealing with fruit pests......................................................................336
Part V: Designing Special and Fun Gardens.................339
Chapter 16: Mini Gardens and Microcosms: Gardening in Containers . . . . . . . . .341
Exploring Different Kinds of Containers ...................................................341
Examining standard container materials ........................................342
Thinking outside the pot: Alternative choices and
offbeat containers...........................................................................344
The Inside Track: Getting the Container Soil Right .................................346
Purchasing a soil mix .........................................................................346
Whipping up your own soil mix........................................................347
Picking the Best Plants for Your Containers.............................................349
Up close and personal displays........................................................350
Tucked in attention-grabbers ...........................................................351
Containers of mixed company..........................................................351
Arranging Containers for a Container Garden..........................................352
Taking Care of Your Container Plants........................................................353
Gauging your container garden’s water needs ...............................354
Fertilizing your container plants ......................................................355
Chapter 17: Taking the Plunge: Gardening with Ponds and Fish . . .357
Planning Your Water Garden.......................................................................357
Looking at location.............................................................................358
On the level: Deciding between aboveground and
in-ground gardens...........................................................................359
Choosing the best lining....................................................................362
Picking Out Your Water Garden Parts and Supplies ................................363
Pumps ..................................................................................................366
Bubblers and fountains .....................................................................366
Filters ...................................................................................................367
Installing and Filling Your Pond..................................................................368
Choosing Plants for Water Gardens...........................................................368
Waterlilies............................................................................................369
Lotus ....................................................................................................370
So-called marginal plants ..................................................................371
Floaters and submerged plants ........................................................371
Adding Fish to Your Water Garden ............................................................372
Maintaining Your Water Garden .................................................................374
Taking care of the plants ...................................................................375
Winterizing your plants and fish ......................................................375
A sea of green: Controlling algae in troubled waters.....................376
Part VI: The Part of Tens ............................................379
Chapter 18: Ten Common Questions from 
(and Ten Common Answers for) Gardening Beginners . .  . . .381
What’s the Difference between an Annual and a Perennial? ..................381
What’s Organic Matter?...............................................................................382
Why Does Everything I Plant in My Flower Bed Die? ..............................382
How Do I Prepare the Ground for a Brand-New Bed?..............................382
Do I Have to Spray Chemicals on My Rosebushes?.................................383
Do Any Vegetables Grow in the Shade?.....................................................383
It’s Hot and Dry Here and I Don’t Want Cacti.
What Are My Options?.............................................................................383
What Can I Plant on a Steep Bank to Prevent Erosion?...........................384
How Do I Remove the Weeds from the Lawn without
Pulling Them One by One?......................................................................384
Is There Anything Deer Don’t Eat?.............................................................385
Chapter 19: Ten Quick, Fun, or Handy Garden Projects . . . . . . . . . . .387
Set Up a Hammock .......................................................................................387
Put Up a Rubber Tire Swing........................................................................387
Install Stepping Stones ................................................................................388
Set Up a Trellis..............................................................................................388
Plant a Teepee ..............................................................................................388
Create Whimsical Garden Art from Castoffs.............................................389
Decorate the Front Steps with Potted Plants ...........................................389
Make Some Plant Labels..............................................................................389
Make a Simple Compost Bin for Your Own Organic Matter....................390
Combat Garden Pests with Homemade Pepper Spray ............................390
Chapter 20: Ten Garden Projects for Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
Create a Dinosaur Garden...........................................................................391
Grow a Sunflower Fort.................................................................................391
Make Sunprints.............................................................................................392
Plant Mini-Pumpkins....................................................................................392
Write with Seeds...........................................................................................392
Trap a Zucchini ............................................................................................392
Make a Home-Grown Salad .........................................................................393
Grow Paperwhites........................................................................................393
Set Up a Birdbath .........................................................................................393
Attract Butterflies to the Garden ...............................................................394
Appendix: Basic Gardening Resources.........................395
Index........................................................................401

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