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We are but beginning to understand the past : one hundred
years ago the world knew nothing of Pompeii or Herculaneum
; nothing of the lingual tie that binds together the Indo-European
nations; nothing of the significance of the vast volume of inscriptions
upon the tombs and temples of Egypt ; nothing of
the meaning of the arrow-headed inscriptions of Babylon ; nothing
of the marvellous civilizations revealed in the remains of
Yucatan, Mexico, and Peru. We are on the threshold. Scientific
investigation is advancing with giant strides. Who shall
say that one hundred years from now the great museums of
the world may not be adorned with gems, statues, arms, and
implements from Atlantis, while the libraries of the world shall
contain translations of its inscriptions, throwing new light upon
all the past history of the human race, and all the great problems
which now perplex the thinkers of our day ?

Introduction
This book is an attempt to demonstrate several distinct and
novel propositions. These are :
1. That there once existed in the Atlantic Ocean, opposite
tlie mouth of the Mediterranean Sea, a large island, which was
the remnant of an Atlantic continent, and known to the ancient world as Atlantis.
2. That the description of this island given by Plato is not,
as has been long supposed, fable, but veritable history.
3. That Atlantis was the region where man first rose from
a state of barbarism to civilization.
4. That it became, in the course of ages, a populous and
mighty nation, from whose overflowings the shores of the
Gulf of Mexico, the Mississippi River, the Amazon, the Pacific
coast of South America, the Mediterranean, the west coast of
Europe and Africa, the Baltic, the Black Sea,- and the Caspian
were populated by civilized nations.
5. That it was the true Antediluvian world ; the Garden of
Eden; the Gardens of the Hesperides ; the Elysian Fields;
the Gardens of Alcinous; the Mesomphalos ; the Olyrapos; the
Asgard of the traditions of the ancient nations; representing
a universal memory of a great land, where early mankind dwelt
for ages in peace and happiness.
6. That the gods and goddesses of the ancient Greeks, the
Phoenicians, the Hindoos, and the Scandinavians were simply
the kings, queens, and heroes of Atlantis ; and the acts attributed
to them in mythology are a confused recollection of real historical events.
That the mythology of Egypt and Peru represented the
original religion of Atlantis, which was sun-worship.
8. That the oldest colony formed by the Atlanteans was
probably in Egypt, whose civilization was a reproduction of
that of the Atlantic island.
9. That the implements of the "Bronze Age" of Europe
Avere derived from Atlantis. The Atlanteans were also the
first manufacturers of iron.
10. That the Phoenician alphabet, parent of all the European
alphabets, was derived from an Atlantis alphabet, which
was also conveyed from Atlantis to the Mayas of Central America.
11. That Atlantis was the original seat of the Aryan or
Indo-European family of nations, as well as of the Semitic
peoples, and possibly also of the Turanian races.
12. That Atlantis perished in a terrible convulsion of nature,
in which the whole island sunk into the ocean, with nearly all its inhabitants.
13. That a few persons escaped in ships and on rafts, and
carried to the nations east and west the tidings of the appalling
catastrophe, which has survived to our own time in
the Flood and Deluge legends of the different nations of the old and new worlds.
If these propositions can be proved, they will solve many
problems which now perplex mankind ; they will confirm in
many respects the statements in the opening chapters of Genesis
; they will widen the area of human history ; they will explain
the remarkable resemblances which exist between the
ancient civilizations found upon the opposite shores of the Atlantic
Ocean, in the old and new worlds ; and they will aid us
to rehabilitate the fathers of our civilization, our blood, and
our fundamental ideas—the men who lived, loved, and labored
ages before the Aryans descended upon India, or the Phoenician
had settled in Syria, or the Goth had reached the shores
of the Baltic.

Table of Contents
PART I.
 THE HISTORY OF ATLANTIS
I. The Purpose of the Book 1
U. Plato's History of Atlantis 5
III. The Probabilities of Plato's Story 22
IV. Was such a Catastrophe Possible? 31
V. The Testimony of the Sea 46
VI. The Testimony of the Flora and Fauna 54

PART II.
THE DELUGE.
I. The Destruction of Atlantis described in the Deluge
Legends 65
II. The Deluge of the Bible 68
III. The Deluge of the Chaldeans 75
IV. The Deluge Legends of other Nations 85
V. The Deluge Legends of America 98
VL Some Consideration op the Deluge Legends 119

PART III.
THE CIVILIZATION OF THE OLD WORLD AND NEW COMPARED.
I. Civilization an Inheritance 129
II. The Identity of the Civilizations of the Old World and
THE New 136
III. American Evidences of Intercourse with Europe or Atlantis 165
IV. Corroborating Circumstances ....
V. The Question of Complexion ....
VI. Genesis contains a History of Atlantis
VII. The Origin of our Alphabet ....
VIII. The Bronze Age in Europe
IX. Artificial Deformation op the Skull .
THE MYTHOLOGIES OF

PART IV.
THE OLD WORLD ATLANTIS.
A RECOLLECTION OF
I. Traditions of Atlantis 276
II. The Kings of Atlantis become the Gods of the Greeks . 283
III. The Gods of the Phcenicians also Kings of Atlantis . . 308
IV. The God Odin, Woden, or Wotan 313
V. The Pyramid, the Cross, and the Garden of Eden . . .317
VI. Gold and Silver the Sacred Metals of Atlantis .... 34.3

PART V.
THE COLONIES OF ATLANTIS.
I. The Central American and Mexican Colonies 348
II. The Egyptian Colony 358
III. The Colonies of the Mississippi Valley 370
IV. The Iberian Colonies of Atlantis 387
V. The Peruvian Colony 390
VI. The African Colonies 404
VII. The Irish Colonies from Atlantis 408
VIII. The Oldest Son of Noah 423
IX. The Antiquity of some of our Great Inventions .... 440
X. The Aryan Colonies from Atlantis 456
XI. Atlantis Reconstructed 472


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By LADY ANNE BLUNT

EDITED, WITH A PREFACE AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE ARABS AND THEIR HORSES 

BY W. S. B.

NEW YORK
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS
FRANKLIN SQUARE
1879

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Bedouin Tribes of Euphrates ( English Translated )
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ILLUSTRATIONS.
PLAIN OF MELAKH, AND RIVER EUPHRATES
MAP OF THE EUPHRATES VALLEY 17
CITADEL OF ALEPPO " 47
SARACENIC MILL ON THE EUPHRATES  77
MlEDDIN AND LEANING MOSQUE " 107
A WOLF COURSE NEAR RUMADY "134
GAET SHAMMAR MOVING THEIR CAMP " 188
RUINS OF PALACE OF EL HADDR  " 206
TELLAL STARTS ON A GHAZU "  226
PALMYRA " 278
A COUNCIL OF WAR 3 l8
OUR OWN TENT, WITH A VIEW OF MOUNT HERMON - 340
SHERIFA" " 425


PREFACE BY THE EDITOR.

AT the present moment, when all eyes are turned toward
the East, and when Asia, long forgotten by the rest of the
world, seems about to reassert itself and take its old place
in history, the following sketch of what is actually going
on in one of its most famous districts should not be without
interest to the English public.
The Euphrates valley is familiar to every one by name,
as a future high-road to India ; and we have it on the highest
authority that its possession by a friendly power is vital
to British interests. Schemes, too, are known to be on foot
for running a railroad down it to the Persian Gulf, and advertisements
have appeared, with maps on which such a
line is already traced. Yet how few, even of those who
write these things, have any acquaintance with the regions
talked of or knowledge of the tribes which inhabit them !
The .fact is, the Euphrates is more of a mystery to the
general public than any river of equal importance in the
Old World. It has never been popularly described, and,
since the days of Xenophon, has hardly been described at
all. With the exception of Colonel Chesney, who was commissioned
by William the Fourth, in 1835, to survey the
river, and who has given us two bulky volumes of statistics,
and an excellent chart as the results of his expedition, no
traveller, as far as I am aware, has made a study of the dis
trict or narrated his adventures there in print. Till twenty
years ago, the Euphrates was a dangerous neighborhood for
Asiatics as well as Europeans. The Anazeh were lords and
masters of the river; and travellers were right in giving it
a wide berth. But now the caravan-road is a tolerably safe
one, at least in the winter months; and there is no reason
why some enterprising Cook should not lead his "
personally
conducted parties" from Aleppo to Bagdad as easily as
from Dan to Beersheba. Still, I think I am not mistaken
when I say that the author of these volumes is the first
bona fide tourist who has taken the Euphrates road, and I
make no apology for publishing her experience of it.
With regard to the author's further adventures, and the
account given by her of the Bedouin tribes of Mesopotamia
and the western deserts, I shall also, I think, be excused.
The desert, indeed, has often been described, and most of
the tribes here introduced have been visited before, but the
circumstances of the present journey are new ; and these
volumes will be the first attempt at giving a comprehensive
view of Desert life and Desert politics. No previous traveller
has, as far as I am aware, visited the Independent
Shammar, in Mesopotamia, or the Anazeh, in the Hamad.""
The desert has been usually to Europeans a sort of Tom
Tiddler's ground, where, instead of seeking the tribes, it has
been an object to slip by unseen. Circumstances have, in
the present instance, changed the position ; and the desert
has been for a time the home of the traveller, as it is of the
tribes themselves.
For my own share in this work (the chapters at the end
of the second volume), I fear I have hardly so good a plea to urge.

" For twenty years resident at Bagdad," or " for
nine years engaged in missionary work in Syria," inscribed
upon the title-page, would, I know, enhance the value of
what I have written; but this cannot be. Neither the author
of the journal nor I can lay claim to a more serious
position toward the public than that of tourists, who have
had the good fortune to see a little more than is generally
seen, and to learn a few things more than are generally
* Sir Henry Layard may, perhaps, have something to say to this, but his
diaries are not yet published ; while Dr. Porter, Canon Tristram, and Mr.
Graham know only the tribes of the Syrian frontier. Mr. Palgrave passed
through the desert as a townsman, and gives a townsman's account of it. The
only living picture published of Bedouin life and politics is the " Recit de
Fatalla," quoted by Lamartine, and by some accounted fabulous.
known. We left England with as little intention of instructing
our fellow-countrymen as travellers need have ;
 and it was not until we saw that fortune had put us in the
way of acquiring really valuable knowledge that we set ourselves
seriously to work. At the same time, I would remark
that the value of labor done is not always in proportion
to the time bestowed on it, nor even to the skill or
courage of the performer. Chance often plays a considerable
part in the most serious undertakings ; and chance has favored us here.

To begin with, our journey was made at an interesting
moment, when the Bulgarian war was at its hqight, and
when the strain on the resources of the Porte had so far
relaxed the bonds of discipline in these outlying provinces,
that the inhabitants were at their ease with us in speech
and action. Then we had the singular good fortune to reap
a whole harvest of information, which others had been preparing
for years, in the very field we had chosen.
Again, in our visit to the Bedouin tribes, circumstances
obliged us to go without escort, interpreters, or, for the
most part, guides, a position which, as it turned out, more
than anything else predisposed those we came to see in our
favor. There was no real danger in this, or real difficulty,
but it was unusual ; and the Bedouins fqlly appreciated the
confidence shown in them. They became our friends. The
Desert, last winter, like the rest of the world, was in confusion
; and we were fortunate enough to be witnesses of a
crisis in politics there, and of some episodes of a war. In
these we could not help being interested ; and the sympathy
we felt in their troubles reacted on our new friends,
and invited confidences which would hardly else have been
made to strangers. We thus acquired, in a few weeks, more
real knowledge of the Desert and its inhabitants than
often been amassed in as many years spent in the frontier towns of Syria.
This must be my excuse if, in the concluding chapter
of this work, I have ventured to speak somewhat ex cathe
dra, and if I have allowed what was originally only to have

been a journal to assume a more pretentious garb. These
chapters I am alone responsible for. They are an attempt
to epitomize the information collected in the Desert ; and
though I am far from vouching for the entire accuracy of
my sketch of life and manners, and still less of the stories I
have repeated, I can at least affirm that I have taken little
from books, and much from direct sources.
I have added what I think will interest many a sketch
of Arab horse-breeding, with a genealogical table of the
descent of the thoroughbred Arabian horse.
The choice of a proper system of spelling has been a
great difficulty in the editing of this work. Neither the
author nor I have any knowledge of Avritten Arabic, or,
colloquially, of any Arabic but that of the Desert. It has,
however, been repugnant to our taste to adopt a system
entirely phonetic. "AH" cannot be spelled "Arlee," nor
" Huseyn" "
Hoosain," without one's eyes aching. On the
other hand, few English readers would care to see the
French "Ouady" or the German "Dschebel" for "Wady"
and "Jebel." We have taken refuge, then, from greater
evils in a modification of the old "lingua franca" spelling
used by Galland, in his translation of the "Arabian Nights."
The vowels are written as in Italian, except in the case of
the long i, or before a double consonant, where they follow
the English rule, the consonants also being as in English.
We do not, however, pretend to accuracy, and wherever a
conventional spelling exists, have allowed it to override our
rules. The whole work, I must explain, has been written
in haste more haste than would be excusable, if new travels
did not lure us back prematurely to the East.
In conclusion, and while protesting complete submission
to the learned on all matters connected with Oriental lore,
I take my stand against the merely untravelled critic in the
words of the excellent Arabic proverb, which says, "The off
forefoot of my donkey stands upon the centre of the earth.
If you don't believe me, go and measure for yourself."
W. S. B.


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Contents

CHAPTER I.
Projects of Travel. A Visit to the Royal Geographical Society's Rooms. We
start for Aleppo. The Voyage to Scanderoon. A Bagman's Tale of the Euphrates.
Aleppo Buttons. We land in Asia page i-j
CHAPTER II.
The Port of Scanderoon. Relics of the Levant Company. We agree with a
Muleteer for Conveyance to Aleppo. Beylan Ponies. We cross the " Syrian
Gates." Murder of a Muleteer. Turkish Soldiers. Sport on the Orontes.
A Night in a Roadside Khan. Snow-storms. A Dead Horse. The Village
of Tokat and its ^habitants. A Last Day of Misery. We arrive at Aleppo 23
CHAPTER III.
We are entertained by a Wise Man. Tales of my Landlord. How Jeclaan
laughed at the Pasha's Beard, and made his Friend Ahmet happy. The
Anazeh and their Migrations. We are inspired with the Idea of visiting the
Bedouins. Seyd Ahmet and the Jews. A Sturdy Beggar 35
CHAPTER IV.
The Castle of Aleppo. Inscription relating to King David. Legend of St.
Zacharias and the Muedin. The Prisons of Aleppo. Strange Justice.
Curro the Kurd. We give half a Crown to a Murderer, and offend Public Feeling" 47
CHAPTER V.
We buy Horses, being resolved to join the Anazeh. Hagar. News from the
Desert. Wars and Rumors of Wars. Jedaan at Bay. The World is much
"mixed up." A Chapter on Politics
CHAPTER VI.
We leave Aleppo. Wandering in the Dark. An Arab Village. The Desert.
First View of the Euphrates. A Weldi Camp. Zaptiehs. A Melanch<
Exile, and a Dish of Francolins. Bivouacking by the River -
CHAPTER VII.
Lion District of the Euphrates.-The Afuddli Hunters.-A Bedouin Barnum.-
The Kaimakam of Rakka.-A Wild Ass.-Sport in the Tamwrfcl
Wonderful Horse. We arrive at Deyr
CHAPTER VIII.
Hiiseyn Pasha's Paternal Government The Ottoman Policy in the Desert.
" Divide et Impera." We are placed under Surveillance, and hospitably
thwarted in our Design of visiting the Anazeh. Deyr, the best Market for
pure Arabian Horses. First Talk of the Shammar. Their Hero, Abd ul
Kerim, his Adventures and Death. They threaten Deyr. A dishonest Zaptieh.
I fall into a Well, and am Rescued. We depart for Bagdad - Page 90
CHAPTER IX.
A fresh Start. We join a Caravan bound for Bagdad. The Son of a Horse.
Turkish Ladies on a Journey. How to tether a fidgety Horse. Salahiyeh.
An Encampment of Agheyl. The Mudir of Abu-Kamal's. Wolves at Night.
Wild-boars and others. The Boatswain's Log. Palm Groves. We arrive at Ana 107
CHAPTER X.
A Bedouin Foray. We converse with a Ghost. Engagement of Zenil Aga.
We resolve to Depart. The Kaimakam accompanies us. Entertained by
Sotamm. A Bedouin Meal. News from Home 119
CHAPTER XI.
Modern Bagdad a poor Place. Causes of its Decay. The Plague. Midhat
Pasha takes down its Walls and lets in a Deluge. Dr. Colville'g Vjpw pf tfcp
Bedouins. An Indian Prince. Akif Pasha's Fortune. His Stud. We buy
Asses and Camels, and plan an Evasion -- 142
CHAPTER XII.
The King of Oude and his "Desert-house." We are sent away with Gifts.
The Mesopotamia!! Desert. Pleasures of Freedom. How to Navigate the
Desert. Alarms and False Alarms. Stalking a Wolf. We reach the Shammar 159
CHAPTER XIII.
Ferhan's Camp "at Sherghat. His Wives and Sons. We diplomatize. We
start to cross Mesopotamia. Ismail on Horseflesh. We are received by
Smeyr. His Account of Nejd : its Rulers and its Horses 188
CHAPTER XIV.
The City and Palace of El Haddr. We are mobbed in the Ruins. Smeyr sends
us on our Way. We put our House in Order, and march Westward. Quarrel
with Ismail. He leaves us. We discover Salt Lakes. A Wade through
the Mud. A silly Old Man. Faris at last - - - - 205
CHAPTER XV.
A Gentleman of the Desert and his Mother, the Hatoun Amsheh. Well-behaved
Boys. Tellal. Faris goes out Shooting. He Swims the River.
Swearing Brotherhood. Rashid ibn Ali and the Sheykh of Samviga. The
CHAPTER XVI.
Difficulties arise with the Mutesherif. We are suspected of being Spies -
Kadderly Pasha. His excellent Principles. Turkey the Land of Freedom. We engage a Bedouin from the Mehed to take us to Jedaan - - - - 250
CHAPTER XVII.
Once more in the Desert. Our Guide fails us. Mohammed el Taleb. We
gather Manna. Arrested. The Tudmor Road. Fox - hunting. A Visit to
the Amur Robbers. We Arrive at Palmyra 261
CHAPTER XVIII.
Politics in Tudmor. A Blood-feud. AH Bey the Circassian. Intrigues and
Counter-intrigues. A Meeting in Camp. The Mudir lectured on his Duties. News of the Anazeh 378
CHAPTER XIX.
The odd Trick and four by Honors. A fast Forty Minutes. The Consul at last
We start -for the Hamad. Song of the Desert Lark. A real Ghazu.
Looking for the Anazeh. Jebel Ghorab. We discover Tents. Jedaan.
Married for the fifteenth Time, and yet not happy. Blue Blood in the Desert.
A Discourse on Horse-breeding. We are intrusted with a Diplomatic Mission to the Roala 291
CHAPTER XX.
Ferhan ibn Hedeb. The Gomussa and their Mares. Mohammed Dukhi. A
Lawsuit in the Desert. A Tribe of Gazelle-hunters. Beteyen's Mare. The
Sebaa are attacked by the Roala. A Panic and a Retreat. Our new Brother,
Meshur ibn Mershid. Scarcity of Water. We leave the Anazeh Camp and
make a forced March .to Bir Sukr 3 l %
CHAPTER XXI.
March under a burning Sun. The Welled Ali and their Sheep. We come to
the Roala Camp. One hundred and fifty thousand Camels. Sotamm ibn
Shaalan receives us. Diplomatic Checks. Sotamm's Wife. The Uttfa.
Mohammed's choice. Good-bye to the Desert 340
CHAPTER XXII.
Last Words. The Camel defended. Sotamm in Town. Farewells. A Tarty of Yahoos
CHAPTER XXIII.
Geography of Northern Arabia. Physical Features of the Desert-Migrations
of its Tribes. The Euphrates Valley.-Desert Villages.-! Map-makers
CHAPTER XXIV.
Desert History. The Shammar and Anazeh Invasions. Destruction of Civilization
in the Euphrates Valley. Reconquest by the Turks. Their present
Position in Arabia. List of the Bedouin Tribes. An Account of the Sabaeans Page 371
CHAPTER XXV.
Physical Characteristics of the Bedouin Arabs. They are Short-lived. On
certain Fallacies regarding them. Their Humanity. Their Respect for Law.
They are Defective in Truth and in Gratitude. Their childish Love of
Money. Their Hospitality. Bedouin Women 387
CHAPTER XXVI.
Religion of the Bedouins confined to a Belief in God. They have no Ceremonial
Observances. Their Oaths. They are without Belief in a Future
Life. Their Superstitions are few. Their Morality an Absolute Code. Their Marriages 399
CHAPTER XXVII.
Political Constitution of the Bedouins. Their Liberty. Their Equality.
Their Intolerance of Authority. Their Rules of Warfare. Their Bloodfeuds 408
CHAPTER XXVIII.
Arab Horse-breeding. Obscurity respecting it. There is no Nejdean Breed.
Picture of the Anazeh Horse. He is a bold Jumper. Is a fast Horse for his
Size. His Nerve excellent, and his Temper. Causes of Deterioration. How
the Bedouins judge a Horse. Their System of Breeding and Training.
Their Horsemanship indifferent. Their Prejudices. Pedigree of the thorough-bred Arabian Horse 418
POSTSCRIPT.
Scheme of a Euphrates Valley Railway. Of River Communication. The
Turkish System of Government. Its partial Success. Its Failings. A Guess at the Future 441

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