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The Pocket Guide to 125 Medicinal Plants and Their Uses

ALMA R. HUTCHENS

1. Indians of North America—Ethnobotany—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Herbs—North America—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Ethnobotany—North America—Handbooks, manuals, etc.


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 Copyright©   
 1992 by Alma R. Hutchens 

ABOUT THE BOOK
This authoritative guide—based on the author’s classic reference work, Indian Herbalogy of North
America—is a portable illustrated companion for the professional and amateur herbalist alike. It
provides detailed descriptions of 125 of the most useful medicinal plants commonly found in North
America, along with directions for a range of uses, remedies for common ailments, and notes on the
herbal traditions of other lands. Entries include staples of folk medicine such as echinacea and
slippery elm as well as common kitchen herbs—such as parsley, thyme, and pepper—whose tonic
and healing properties are less widely known.
....

EDITOR’S FOREWORD
Each book has its own fate and destiny,” Alma Hutchens observed in the preface to her classic, Indian
Herbalogy of North America. The prescience of that statement will be evident to those who have watched
Mrs. Hutchens’s work unfold in the thirty years since she began her research under the tutelage of her
mentor, the noted herbalist N. G. Tretchikoff. Indian Herbalogy, first published in the 1960s, came at a
time of burgeoning interest in folk medicine and natural healing methods, and it met the need for a detailed
reference book for North American herbalists. It has since become known as a standard work on the
subject in many countries and has gone through seventeen printings as of 1992.
As the years have gone by and interest in herbs and their uses has increased, the need for a “portable”
version of Indian Herbalogy has been felt. It is with this need in mind that Mrs. Hutchens has compiled
this Handbook of Native American Herbs. In it are found descriptions of 125 of the most useful medicinal
plants commonly found on the North American continent. Included are dosages, directions for use,
remedies for some common ailments, homeopathic methods, and lore from the folk medicine of other
countries—particularly Russia, China, India, and Pakistan—where the arts of herbal healing have
traditionally flourished.
The fate and destiny of Alma Hutchens’s work in herbology has proven to be its enduring influence in
the field. A Handbook of Native American Herbs represents the latest phase in that unique destiny.
....


Table of Contents
Editor’s Foreword
Ale Hoof
Alfalfa
Aloe
Angelica
Arnica
Arsesmart
Balsam Fir
Barberry
Bayberry
Bearberry
Beech
Beechdrops
Beth Root
Bilberry
Birch
Bitterroot
Bittersweet
Blackberry
Black Cohosh
Black Root
Black Walnut
Bloodroot
Blue Cohosh
Blue Flag
Blue Vervain
Burdock
Capsicum
Castor Bean
Catnip
Celandine
Centaury
Chaga
Chamomile
Cherry
Chestnut
Chickweed
Cleavers
Coltsfoot
Comfrey
Couch Grass
Crampbark
Creosote Bush
Damiana
Dandelion
Echinacea
Elder
Elecampane
Eucalyptus
Feverfew
Five Finger Grass
Fringe Tree
Ginger, Wild
Ginseng
Goldenseal
Goldthread
Hellebore
Hops
Horehound
Horseradish
Horsetail
Hydrangea
Hyssop
Juniper
Lady’s Slipper
Licorice
Life Root
Linden
Lobelia
Lungwort
Mandrake
Milkweed
Mint
Motherwort
Mugwort
Mullein
Nettle
Oak
Oats
Parsley
Plantain
Poke
Prickly Ash
Raspberry
Red Clover
Sage
Sanicle
Sarsaparilla
Sassafras
Senega
Senna
Skullcap
Slippery Elm
Solomon’s Seal
Spikenard
St. John’s Wort
Strawberry
Sumac
Sundew
Sunflower
Swamp Beggar’s Tick
Sweet Flag
Sweet Gum
Tamarack
Tansy
Thuja
Thyme
Turkey Corn
Valerian
Violet
Virginia Snakeroot
Watercress
Water Pepper
White Pine
White Pond Lily
Wild Carrot
Wild Yam
Willow, Black
Wintergreen
Witch Hazel
Wormseed
Wormwood
Yarrow
Yellow Dock
Yellow Parilla
Yerba Santa
Definitions
Index
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A Handbook of Native American Herbs
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Shambhala Publications, Inc.
Horticultural Hall
300 Massachusetts Avenue
Boston, Massachusetts 02115

E98.B7H87 1992 92–50122
615′.321′097—dc20 CIP

MOSBY ELSEVIER

Linda Skidmore-Roth, RN, MSN, NP

Consultant
Littleton, Colorado
Formerly, Nursing Faculty
New Mexico State University
Las Cruces, New Mexico
El Paso Community College
El Paso, Texas


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 Copyright©   
 2010, 2006, 2004, 2001
 by Mosby, Inc., an affi liate of Elsevier, Inc 

preface
It is estimated that almost half of all health care consumers in the United States
take some form of herbal or natural product supplement alone or in combination
with conventional medicines. Yet the therapeutic value of many of these products is
unproven. Additionally, some products may interact with prescription medications,
and some products may be harmful to clients with certain conditions. Of perhaps
even greater concern is the fact that the majority of clients who use alternative
medicines never mention their use to their health care providers.
Because of the prevalence of the use of herbal products, health care professionals
need access to reliable, unbiased information about herbs and other alternative medicines.
Mosby’s Handbook of Herbs & Natural Supplements, fourth edition, does not
advocate for or against the use of herbal products and other natural supplements.
Rather, this book acknowledges the widespread use of these types of remedies with
the goal of providing health care professionals with current, reliable, unbiased information
with which to advise clients on the responsible and intelligent use of herbal
products as a part of their overall health treatment and maintenance plan.
This book contains detailed monographs of 300 herbs and natural supplements,
appendixes fi lled with key information, a glossary, and a comprehensive index, all
designed to be easy to use and to provide the depth of information today’s health
care professionals demand.

Herbal Monographs
Mosby’s Handbook of Herbs & Natural Supplements provides the user with an
essential reference that allows easy access to extensive information on 300 herbal
and natural supplements. A unique feature of this handbook is the consistent format,
which allows for quick reference without sacrifi cing the depth of detail necessary for
a thorough understanding of the material presented. The following information is
provided whenever possible:
Common Name. Each herb or supplement is arranged alphabetically by the
most common name, in natural order. Hence, black hellebore is located within
the Bs and white cohosh within the Ws.
Scientifi c Name. The scientifi c, or botanical, name immediately follows the
common name whenever applicable. The scientifi c name provides positive
identifi cation for various species or substances that might share a common
name. Occasionally, more than one species is listed when various herbs are
chemically similar. Gentian, for example, has two scientifi c names: Gentiana
lutea and Gentiana acaulis.
Other Common Names. Most herbs and natural supplements are known by a
variety of additional names. The most common of these are listed here and in the
index of the book to aid the user in locating and identifying particular herbs or
natural supplements.
Origin. This section briefl y states the origins of each herb or supplement.
Uses. This section explains the uses for which the remedy is known or has been
known in the past. Included in the section wherever possible is Investigational
Uses, a category that provides information on current research and possible new
uses for a variety of herbs and supplements.
Actions. In this section of the monograph, the actions of the herb or supplement
are explained, together with any research or studies performed.
Product Availability. The common available forms and plant parts used are
listed in this section of the monograph, followed by dosages. Whenever possible,
the dosages are divided by use; age group, including specifi c pediatric and
geriatric doses; and any limiting conditions, such as renal impairment or
pregnancy. Because of great variance in reported dosages, references are cited
whenever possible.
Contraindications. This section includes classifi cation systems and an
explanation of situations in which a particular herb or supplement should not be
used. This information may also include warnings for specifi c groups of people
based on lack of research in a particular area. The fi rst classifi cation system is
from the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. While this system is
recommended for drugs, it is also appropriate for herbs because it allows for
individual analysis of herbs in pregnancy. The second classifi cation system is
used for breastfeeding. Both of these systems classify only a select group of herbs
and focus solely on pregnancy and breastfeeding. The third classifi cation system,
which has been used in past editions, is from the American Herbal Products
Association (AHPA). The AHPA assigns a safety rating to many of the herbs and
supplements in use today. These ratings are broken into four main classes with
several subclasses, and usually identify specifi c plant parts or forms of each herb.
Detailed descriptions of all three of these classifi cations can be found in the
beginning of the book.
Side Effects/Adverse Reactions. Side effects and adverse reactions are
broken down by body system. Any life-threatening side effects are underlined and
in bold, italic type, making them easy to fi nd.
Interactions. The interactions are conveniently broken into four categories—drug,
herb, food, and lab test interactions—making it quick and easy to look for particular
types of interactions.
Pharmacology. Pharmacokinetics for various herbs and natural supplements,
including information on peak, half-life, binding, and excretion, are covered here.
Immediately following the pharmacokinetic information is a table of Chemical
Components and Possible Actions. This table lists the potentially active chemical
constituents for each herb and any possible actions those components might have.
Client Considerations. Client considerations are based loosely on the nursing
process and are organized into Assess, Administer, and Teach Client/Family
categories. Considerations are consistently organized under these headings to
highlight information in a format convenient for client care.
Icons. Throughout the monographs, certain icons are used to highlight key
information. The Alert icon ! calls out key information regarding toxicity,
dangerous interactions, and other signifi cant reactions that may threaten a
client’s health. The Popular Herb icon is used to show that an herb has been
designated by the Herbal Research Foundation as an herb in common use in the
United States. The Pregnancy icon identifi es information of special interest to
pregnant or lactating clients. The Pediatric icon highlights information for
pediatric clients.

Appendixes
Herb Resources. This appendix contains a list of herbal resources located on
the Internet, including key organizations, not-for-profi t research agencies, and
additional educational resources.
Herb/Drug Interactions. This table is a single, handy resource for reviewing
all known drug interactions for the herbs and supplements listed in this book.
Pediatric Herbal Use. This extensive appendix covers current pediatric herbal
use and research.
Abbreviations. This alphabetical list explains the meanings of abbreviations
found in this book.
References
Each monograph has been individually referenced, with detailed references listed
at the end of the book.
Glossary
The glossary explains the special vocabulary of herbal medicine. Terms such as
tincture, infusion, extract, and decoction are defi ned clearly and succinctly.
Index
The comprehensive index allows the user to look up each herb by any of its common
or scientifi c names, as well as by any of the conditions it may be used to treat.
That is, the reader can use the index to fi nd a comprehensive list of herbs used in
the treatment of cancer, HIV, or other conditions.
....

Table of Contents
Herbal Monographs
Acidophilus, 1
Aconite, 4
Agar, 6
Agrimony, 9
Alfalfa, 12
Allspice, 15
Aloe, 18
American Hellebore, 22
Andrographis, 24
Androstenediol, 26
Angelica, European, 27
Anise, 30
Arginine, 33
Arnica, 35
Artichoke, 37
Ash, 39
Astragalus, 40
Avens, 42
Balsam of Peru, 45
Barberry, 46
Barley, 49
Basil, 50
Bay, 52
Bayberry, 54
Bearberry, 56
Bee Pollen, 59
Benzoin, 61
Beta-Carotene, 63
Betel Palm, 64
Bethroot, 67
Betony, 68
Bilberry, 70
Birch, 73
Bistort, 75
Bitter Melon, 76
Bitter Orange, 78
Black Catechu, 80
Black Cohosh, 82
Black Haw, 85
Black Hellebore, 87
Black Pepper, 89
Black Root, 91
Blessed Thistle, 93
Bloodroot, 95
Blue Cohosh, 97
Blue Flag, 99
Bogbean, 101
Boldo, 103
Boneset, 105
Borage, 107
Boron, 110
Boswellia, 111
Brewer’s Yeast, 112
Broom, 114
Buchu, 116
Buckthorn, 118
Bugleweed, 120
Burdock, 122
Butcher’s Broom, 125
Butterbur, 127
Cacao Tree, 130
Calcium, 132
Calumba, 133
Capsicum, 134
Caraway, 137
Cardamom, 138
Carline Thistle, 140
Carnitine, 141
Cascara, 143
Castor, 145
Catnip, 147
Cat’s Claw, 149
Celandine, 152
Celery, 154
Centaury, 156
Chamomile, 158
Chaparral, 160
Chaste Tree, 163
Chaulmoogra Oil, 165
Chickweed, 166
Chicory, 168
Chinese Cucumber, 170
Chinese Rhubarb, 172
Chitosan, 175
Chondroitin, 176
Chromium, 178
Cinnamon, 180
Clary, 182
Clematis, 184
Cloves, 186
Coenzyme Q10, 188
Coffee, 190
Cola Tree, 193
Colostrum, Bovine, 196
Coltsfoot, 197
Comfrey, 199
Condurango, 202
Copper, 204
Coriander, 205
Corkwood, 207
Couchgrass, 209
Cowslip, 211
Cranberry, 213
Creatine, 215
Cucumber, 217
Daffodil, 219
Daisy, 221
Damiana, 222
Dandelion, 224
Devil’s Claw, 228
DHEA, 230
Dill, 232
Dong Quai, 234
Echinacea, 238
Elderberry, 241
Elecampane, 243
Ephedra, 245
Eucalyptus, 249
Evening Primrose Oil, 252
Eyebright, 254
False Unicorn Root, 257
Fennel, 258
Fenugreek, 260
Feverfew, 263
Figwort, 265
Fish Oils, 268
Flax, 269
Folic Acid, 272
Fo-ti, 273
Fumitory, 274
Galanthamine, 277
Gamma Linolenic Acid, 278
Garcinia, 280
Garlic, 281
Gentian, 285
Ginger, 287
Ginkgo, 290
Ginseng, 294
Glossy Privet, 297
Glucomannan, 299
Glucosamine, 301
Glutamine, 303
Glycine, 304
Goat’s Rue, 304
Golden Rod, 306
Goldenseal, 308
Gossypol, 311
Gotu Kola, 314
Grapeseed, 316
Graviola, 318
Green Tea, 319
Ground Ivy, 322
Guarana, 323
Guar Gum, 326
Guggul, 328
Gymnema, 330
Hawthorn, 332
Hops, 334
Horehound, 337
Horse Chestnut, 339
Horseradish, 341
Horsetail, 343
Huperzine A, 345
Hyssop, 346
Iceland Moss, 349
Indigo, 350
Inosine, 352
Irish Moss, 353
Jaborandi, 355
Jamaican Dogwood, 357
Jambul, 359
Jimsonweed, 360
Jojoba, 363
Juniper, 364
Kaolin, 367
Karaya Gum, 368
Kava, 369
Kelp, 373
Kelpware, 375
Khat, 377
Khella, 379
Kudzu, 381
Lady’s Mantle, 384
Lavender, 385
Lecithin, 387
Lemon Balm, 389
Lemongrass, 392
Lentinan, 393
Licorice, 395
Lily of the Valley, 400
Lobelia, 402
Lovage, 404
Lungwort, 406
Lycopene, 408
Lysine, 409
Maitake, 411
Male Fern, 412
Mallow, 415
Marigold, 416
Marijuana, 418
Marjoram, 420
Marshmallow, 422
Mayapple, 424
Meadowsweet, 427
Melatonin, 429
Milk Thistle, 432
Mistletoe, European, 434
Monascus, 436
Morinda, 439
Motherwort, 441
Mugwort, 443
Mullein, 445
Mustard, 447
Myrrh, 449
Myrtle, 452
Neem, 455
Nettle, 457
New Zealand Green-Lipped
Mussel, 459
Night-Blooming Cereus, 460
Nutmeg, 462
Oak, 466
Oats, 468
Octacosanol, 470
Oleander, 471
Oregano, 473
Oregon Grape, 475
Pansy, 478
Papaya, 479
Parsley, 481
Parsley Piert, 483
Passionfl ower, 484
Pau D’arco, 487
Peach, 489
Pectin, 491
Pennyroyal, 492
Peppermint, 494
Perilla, 497
Peyote, 499
Pill-Bearing Spurge, 501
Pineapple, 503
Pipsissewa, 504
Plantain, 506
Pokeweed, 508
Pomegranate, 510
Poplar, 513
Poppy, 514
Prickly Ash, 516
Propolis, 518
Pulsatilla, 519
Pumpkin, 521
Pycnogenol, 522
Pygeum, 524
Queen Anne’s Lace, 527
Quince, 529
Quinine, 530
Ragwort, 533
Raspberry, 534
Rauwolfi a, 536
Red Bush Tea, 538
Rose Hips, 540
Rue, 541
Saffl ower, 545
Saffron, 547
Sage, 548
SAM-e, 550
Sassafras, 552
Savory, 554
Saw Palmetto, 555
Schisandra, 558
Senega, 559
Senna, 561
Shark Cartilage, 564
Siberian Ginseng, 565
Skullcap, 567
Slippery Elm, 569
Sorrel, 571
Soy, 572
Spirulina, 575
Squill, 577
St. John’s Wort, 579
Storax, 582
Tea Tree Oil, 584
Thymus Extract, 585
Tonka Bean, 586
Turmeric, 588
Valerian, 591
White Cohosh, 593
Wild Cherry, 594
Wild Yam, 596
Wintergreen, 598
Witch Hazel, 599
Wormseed, 601
Yarrow, 603
Yellow Dock, 605
Yellow Lady’s Slipper, 607
Yerba Maté, 608
Yerba Santa, 610
Yew, 612
Yohimbe, 614
Appendixes
A. Herbal Resources, 617
B. Drug/Herb Interactions, 618
C. Pediatric Herbal Use, 646
D. Abbreviations, 662
References, 663
Glossary, 715
Index, 717


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Library of Congress Control Number 2009923753
Editor: Tamara Myers
Senior Developmental Editor: Laura M. Selkirk
Publishing Services Manager: Pat Joiner-Myers
Project Manager: Joy Moore
Design Project Manager: Paula Catalano

James A. Duke

with Mary Jo Bogenschutz-Godwin, Judi duCellier, Peggy-Ann K. Duke

1. Medicinal plants. 2. Herbs. 3. Herbals. 4. Traditional medicine. 5. Material medica,


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The Author
James A. “Jim” Duke, Ph.D., is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the University of North Carolina,
where he received his Ph.D. in Botany. He then moved on to postdoctoral activities at Washington
University and the Missouri Botanical Gardens in St. Louis, Missouri, where he assumed professor
and curator duties, respectively. He retired from the United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) in 1995 after a 35-year career there and elsewhere as an economic botanist. After retiring,
he was appointed Senior Scientific Consultant to Nature’s Herbs
(A Twin Labs subsidiary), and to an online company, ALLHERB.COM. He currently teaches a master’s degree course in botanical healing at the Tai Sophia Institute in Columbia, Maryland.
Dr. Duke spends time exploring the ecology and culture of the Amazonian Rain Forest and sits
on the board of directors and advisory councils of numerous organizations involved in plant
medicine and the rainforest. He is updating several of his published books and refining his online
database, http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/, still maintained at the USDA. He is also expanding his
private educational Green Farmacy Garden at his residence in Fulton, Maryland.
....

Introduction
By the time this second edition is published, the first edition of the
Handbook of Medicinal Herbs will have been out more than 15 years. The second edition is designed to present most of the old information plus new information on the more important of those original 365 herbs. I submitted the first edition under the original unpublished title, Herbs of Dubious Salubrity.
I intentionally left out many of the completely safe culinary herbs, spices, and food plants that are clearly medicinal. I also intentionally omitted some strictly dangerous herbs, such as foxglove, that were too unhealthy for use in unskilled hands. I did include several obscure hallucinogenic plants of dubious salubrity. I did, or should have, dropped some of these because they have little medicinal importance. Some poorly documented species, such as Mimosa hostilis and Phoradendron leucarpum, for example, were retained with fragmentary entries, so as to at least mention species from the first edition that might better have been dropped.
Now I think I have the most important herbs well covered here. In edition two, which I will
refer to frequently as my Herbal Desk Reference (HDR), I have tried to concisely corral the data
on some 1000 herbs in as little space as possible, striving to make a reliable, referenced resource
to parallel the PDR for Herbal Medicines. I use the three-letter abbreviation, HDR, to indicate the
ssecond edition of my Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, because I compare and contrast it to other
important sources, which are also represented by three-letter abbreviations. (See the reference abbreviation appendix.)
With this edition, I have tried to cover most of the widely mentioned medicinal plants, whether
they are extremely salubrious or extremely toxic. Without counting them, I estimate we include
more than 1000 of the most important herbs, including the more important herbs from the young
Native American and the European traditions (including most of those approved by Commission
E (KOM), and almost all of those included in the PDR for Herbal Medicine (PHR for the first
edition, and PH2 for the second edition). Unlike Commission E and the Herbal PDR, which seem
to stress European and American traditions, I include proportionately more herbs from the older
African, Ayurvedic, and Chinese traditions as well, not wanting to slight any major medicinal plant
from any major tradition.
Let me explain the new format for the second edition. First, a common name appears, usually
but not always in English, followed by a recently accepted scientific name, with the authority for
the scientific name. Then follows a safety score, X, +, ++, or +++. An X means I don’t recommend
taking it at all, or realize that it is so dangerous that it should not be taken without expert guidance.
But for litigious reasons, I give some potent medicinal herbs the X (amateurs beware!). A single
plus (+) indicates that I do not consider that the herb is, overall, as safe as coffee. I score two
pluses (++) for those herbs I think of, overall, as being as safe as coffee. I score three pluses (+++)
for those herbs I believe to be safer than coffee. In the first edition, I related the plus sign to a cup
of coffee, figuring that 1, 2, or 3 cups per day of an herbal tea from the herb would be as safe as
1, 2, or 3 cups per day of coffee. I often drink more than 3 cups of coffee a day, especially while
I worked on this project! Clearly, this is an oversimplification. Too often, some parts of a plant are
more helpful or more toxic than other parts of the same species, and different ethnic groups or
cultures may use parts differently. The safety scoring is a continuation of the same scoring system
I used in the first edition. Some scores have been upgraded a bit, some have been downgraded.
Often, there are some comments on synonymy and other nomenclature difficulties that arose
in completing this opus. I inject these following the nomenclature line. Here you may find some
proven and/or suspected synonyms, or notes of related species that may be included in this species
concept, especially by nontaxonomically trained authors. I have often used, as final arbiter of
scientific names and sometimes common names, the nomenclature database at the USDA (www.arsgrin.
gov; curator, Dr. John. H. Wiersema: sbmljw@ars-grin.gov).
Unfortunately, the new American Herbal Products Association (AHP) book on nomenclature
arrived too late for our consideration. Attempts to standardize common names, although admirable,
are often aggravating to special interests. It was with some misgiving that I arranged this book
alphabetically by common names, when the first edition was by scientific name. It generated big
headaches for all of us who think more along the lines of scientific names. Would it be under
mulberry or black mulberry, chamomile or German chamomile? Some plants have dozens of
common names. Several have suffered almost as many scientific names, such as, for example,
feverfew. Hopefully, you will find it easy to use.
In the Activities and Indications sections, parenthetical numbers are followed by three-letter
abbreviations (abbreviation of source) or an alphanumeric X-1111111 to identify PubMed citations.
A parenthetical efficacy score of (1) means that a chemical in the plant or in an extract of the plant
has shown the activity or proven out experimentally (animal, not clinical) for the indication. 
This could be in vitro animal or assay experiments. 
A hint: not real human proof! Nothing clinical yet!
I give it a score of (2) if the aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, or decoction or tea derived from
the plant has been shown to have the activity, or to support the indication in clinical trials.
Commission E (KOM) and Tramil Commission (TRA) approvals were automatically given a score
of (2) also, because they represented consensus opinions of distinguished panels. The rare score
of (3) for efficacy means that clinical trials exist to show that the plant itself (not just an extract
or phytochemical derivative) has the indications or activities. The solitary score of (f) in many of
the citations means it is unsupported folk medicine, or I have not seen the science to back it up.
The three-letter abbreviations are useful short citations of the references consulted in arriving at
these numbers. I have by no means cited every source. However, unlike KOM and hopefully better
than PHR, we indicate at least one source for every indication and activity we report.
Thus, we have a score for Safety and a score for Efficacy, the latter backed up by the threeletter
abbreviations or citations, often PubMed citations. In addition to our three letter abbreviations
for the frequently consulted texts, we occasionally cite articles cited from the PubMed database
with their unique abstract number, preceded by the letter X. For example, I received a paper showing
that ginger contained several COX-2 inhibitors. I looked in the PubMed database to find the unique
abstract citation number, PMID: 11437391, which I shortened for database purpose to X11437391.
So, all alpha-numeric (X-numerical) combinations will refer you to the source in the PubMed
database. Whenever I update one of my Herb-a-Day columns, I automatically search PubMed for
>species name AND 2000 <, which automatically gives me the post 1999 abstracts. In 2001, I
search for >species AND 2001<. Then I order hard copies of those articles that look promising for
database purposes.
Often, many more than 10 sources were involved in my decision-making. In many instances,
I limited citations to three, typically the ones that were most important at arriving at my scores.
Not wanting to blow my own horn, my own books were first to be deleted from the list when it
exceeded three. In preparing this edition I realized that for patent litigation, the earlier citations
were most valuable, so at the last minute I added several older references, such as DEP, FEL, HHB,
and MAD. For example, even I was surprised when I read about Remifemin in HHB (1973, p. 12),
three decades ago, since Remifemin seems so new here in America. But in my mind it is just
another native American remedy, coming back home to us, slightly upgraded, after having been
better studied in Europe than it has been in America (other examples include evening primrose,
passionflower, and saw palmetto). DEP and FEL citations are more than 100 years old, and might
be useful in challenging frivolous patents.
One very important abbreviation, WAM, might as well be viewed as MOM, meaning pediatric.
This comes from the excellent book, Kids, Herbs, Health, by Dr. Linda White, MD, and Sunny
Mavor. So, if you are looking for an herb that has been suggested by a pediatrician, scroll down
to WAM. Ditto for PIP, Hans Schilcher’s Phytotherapy in Paediatrics
.
This is an evolving system that changes as new science validates the folklore, often resulting
in an upgrading of the indication or activity. Occasionally, bad news about the plant will result in
my lowering its safety rating, from +++ to ++, or ++ to +, or + to X. This does not constitute my
recommendation of an herb. It merely indicates how I think the herb compares with others, based
on the literature surveyed. As a botanist, I cannot legally, and do not, prescribe. But I find mechanical
searches of the Handbook of Medicinal Herbs to be an extremely fast way to find the better herbs for a given indication.
We have used the same abbreviations that are used in my database at the USDA 
(http://www.arsgrin.gov/duke). I much prefer the abbreviations used there because they do not get you into as much trouble when you e-mail a query to the taxpaying public. For example, the preferred abbreviation of microgram, at least with some publishers (including CRC), but not me, is
μ g. Too often, if I put that abbreviation (or use an italicizedu) in an e-mail, the u or μ
disappears and the reader receives g instead of u g or μ g, giving an often dangerously high reading, a million times too high. Ditto for u l or μ l (microliter) as opposed to ml (milliliter). And with
uM and m M, micromole and millimole, respectively.
In a sense, my scored second edition is a loner’s approach to a Commission E, but I am the sole
member of the fictitious commission, Commission U.S. for us, here in the good old USA. Note that
unlike the ratings in, for example, APA, my ratings assess the efficacy of each activity and indication.
I’ll keep revising the scoring for an online version as new information, positive or negative,
comes in on the safety or efficacy of the herb, or chemicals it contains. So, like the allopaths, health
announcers, and reporters, I reserve the right to change my mind as I oscillate from side to side
of the pendulum on my long, tedious, treacherous, and tumultuous trip, veering like a coiled
caduceus, deviously toward the truth.
Users will find it easy to search and find which herbs score highest for efficacy and safety. The
three-letter abbreviations will lead them to some, but by no means all, of the sources I consulted
including the one(s) or some of them that led me to the numerical scores for efficacy. The scores
are my own. Only rarely did all the cited and consulted sources agree; but one of the indicated
sources provided the evidence that led me to arrive at the assigned score. By no means should
these scores be attributed to anyone except me.
....


Contents


Catalog of Herbs (A to Z) ............................1

Reference Abbreviations ........................815

References ...........................821

Illustration Credits............................829

Scientific Name Index..................................831

Common Name Index.......................843

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Introduction
Herbs and spices play a pivotal role in the day-to-day life of mankind as important
flavouring agents in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals and also as ingredients in
perfumes and cosmetics. The manufacturers of foods, beverages, cosmetics and
pharmaceuticals are responding to the growing wave of consumer resistance and
legislative limitations set for products containing chemical additives. Spices as sources
of natural colours and flavours present welcome opportunities in the international
market. The nutritional, antioxidant, antimicrobial and medicinal properties of spices
also have widespread applications.

I.1 Production of quality spices
Production of quality clean spices without any pesticide/chemical residues is important
in this era of free international trade resulting from globalisation. Organic spices
which fetch 20 to 50% higher prices than spices from conventional farms are devoid
of pesticides and chemical residues and are superior in quality. Adoption of good
agricultural practices helps to reduce the above contaminants. Quality assurance
systems such as HACCP is of great relevance in the production of quality spices.
Decontamination techniques and proper packaging and storage techniques play a
major role in maintaining quality of spices.

I.1.1 Rational uses of pesticides and controlling the pesticide/chemicals
residues in herbs and spices
All over the world, people are becoming more and more conscious of health problems
due to consumption of foods contaminated with pesticide residues. It is estimated
that a large number of people suffer from pesticide poisoning and suffer every year
due to the toxic effects of chemicals. Promotion of a farming technique adopting
ecologically sound plant protection measures, organic recycling and bio-waste
management would go a long way in bringing back the health of soil and reducing the
pesticide residues of farm produce. The role played by various beneficial microorganisms
including mycorrhizae, biocontrol agents and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria
are enormous in enhancing crop growth and disease control without leaving any
chemical residues on plants. The effective bioagents for the control of major diseases
of spice crops are listed in Table I.1.

I.1.2 Radiation processing to decontaminate spices
Radiation processing offers good scope for increasing shelf life, enhancing quality
and microbial safety without changing the natural flavour attributes of spices. This
technique is widely practised in North America and Europe to decontaminate imported
spices. The various producing countries also started installing facilities for radiation
processing of spices. Radiation sterilisation along with good agricultural and
manufacturing practices help to produce clean, high quality spices free from pesticide
and chemical residues. Being a cold process, it does not affect the delicate aroma and
flavour compounds in spices. The risk of post-treatment contamination can be eliminated
by subjecting the pre-packed spices to irradiation. Table I.3 gives the list of countries
that have approved irradiation processing of food products and spices items permitted
for irradiation under the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA) rules.
Low doses of irradiation (< 1 K.Gy) help to inhibit sprouting in onion, garlic,
ginger, etc. A medium dose application (1–10 K.Gy) eliminates spoilage microbes
and food pathogens and high dose application (>10 K.Gy) sterilises food for special
requirements and for shelf-stable foods without refrigeration.

I.1.3 Packaging in spices for maintenance of quality
Spice products are hygroscopic in nature and being highly sensitive to moisture,
absorption of moisture may result in caking, discolouration, hydrolytic rancidity,
mould growth and insect infestation. As spices contain volatile aromatic principles,
loss of these principles and the absorption of foreign odours as a result of inefficient
packaging may pose serious problems. In addition, heat and light accelerate deterioration
of aroma and flavour components.
Spices containing natural colouring pigments need protection from light (capsicum,
cardamom, turmeric and saffron). Spice powders like onion and garlic contain highly
volatile sulphur compounds and need rigorous protection from loss/absorption of
flavour. The essential oil components naturally present in most of the spices are
subject to oxidation by atmospheric oxygen, particularly at high storage temperature
resulting in the development of off-flavours. Packing of spice oils and oleoresins is
done in epoxy lined steel drums and high-density polythene containers. For certain
oils and oleoresins, aluminium and stainless steel containers are used. Polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) bottles, which possess very good odour barrier properties and
food-grade high-molecular-weight high-density polyethylene (HMHDPE) containers
are also used for storing essential oils and oleoresins. Most of the whole spices are
protected by pericarp and the natural antioxidants present therein, and need less
rigorous protection than ground spices. The packaging materials suitable for different
spice products are listed in Table I.4.

I.2 Herbs and spices as sources of natural colours and flavours
The food sector is now experiencing a trend back towards natural colourants due to
changes in legislation and consumer preference as synthetic food colourants pose
health hazards like cancer, asthma, allergy, hyperacidity and thyroidism. But low
tinctorial power, poor stability (to changes in pH, oxygen, heat and light), low solubility,
off-flavour and high cost limit the use of natural colours. These problems can be
overcome by improving the traditional extraction methods using enzymes,
microorganisms, super-critical CO2, membrane processing and encapsulation techniques.
Before synthetic colours came into existence, spices like chilli, saffron, turmeric,
etc., were used in Indian cuisines to add colour. The Central Food Technological
Research Institute of India (CFTRI) has developed technology for the manufacture of
certain natural food colours such as kokum (red) and chillies (red). Kokum contains
2–3% anthocyanin and is regarded as a natural colour source for acidic foods.
Garcinol is the fat soluble yellow pigment isolated from rind of kokum fruit. Garcinol
is added at 0.3% level to impart an acceptable yellow colour to butter. Colour components
present in spices and natural shades available with spices are presented in Table I.5.

I.2.1 Sources of natural colours in spices
Paprika
The colour in paprika is due to carotenoids, namely capsanthin and capsorubin,
comprising 60% of total carotenoids. Other pigments are cryptoxanthin, xeaxanthin,
violaxanthin, neoxanthin and lutein. The outer pericarp of paprika is the main source
of capsanthin and capsorubin. Indian paprika oleoresin is orange in colour which is
less preferred in the international market. Oleoresin contains up to 50% capsorubin.
Paprika oleoresin is insoluble in water whilst being readily soluble in vegetable oil
and is made dispersible in water by the addition of polysorbate.
Applications are in sausages, cheese sauces, gravies, salad dressings, baked goods,
snacks, icings, cereals and meat products.
Turmeric
Curcumin is the golden-yellow pigment present in turmeric, regarded as the pure
colouring principle with very little of flavour components. It is produced by
crystallisation from the oleoresin and has a purity level of 95%. Pure curcumin is
insoluble in water and hence is dissolved in food grade solvent and permitted emulsifier
(Polysorbate 80). Curcumin gives a lemon-yellow colour in acidic pH. It is used at
levels of 5–20 ppm. Curcumin is available in two basic forms, oleoresin and curcumin
powder, both are used as food colourants.
Saffron
Saffron gives a wonderful golden colour to food but due to its powerful and distinctive
flavour, it is prized in soups, stews, bread and rice dishes in many global cuisines.
Saffron is perceived as luxurious and expensive and hence its use is restricted in
foods. The intensive colour of saffron is caused by carotenoids, especially crocetine
esters with gentobiose. Other carotenoids present are alpha and b carotene, lycopene
and zeaxanthin.

I.2.2 Spices as sources of natural flavours
The increasing demand in developed countries for natural flavour offers tremendous
potential for spice crops as sources of natural flavours. The main flavour compounds
present in herbs and spices are presented in Table I.6. The recovery of essential oil
and oleoresin from various spices and the major aromatic principles present in spices
are illustrated in Table I.7. Extraction of oils and oleoresins is accomplished using a
range of methods, including steam distillation, hydrocarbon extraction, chlorinated
solvent extraction, enzymatic treatment and fermentation, and super-critical carbon
dioxide extraction.
Carbon dioxide extraction from solid botanicals is now adopted on a commercial
scale. The resulting essential oils have no solvent residue, fewer terpenes and enhanced
black notes. Enzymatic treatment and fermentation of raw botanicals also result in
greater yields and quality of essential oil. More recently, the use of genetic engineering

I.2.3 Herbs and spices as medicinal plants
The medicinal properties of spices have been known to mankind from time immemorial.
Spices were used extensively in the traditional systems of medicines such as
Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani. In the recent past, there has been increasing interest in
the biological effects of spices as they are safe and cause no side effects to humans.
Extensive studies are going on in developed countries for the separation of medicinal
components from spices and evaluation of their biological properties. A classic example
for such study is the Piperine alkaloid separated from black pepper and marketed as
Bioperine (98% pure piperine). This alkaloid could increase bioavailability of certain
drugs and nutrients like beta carotene. 
The medicinal properties of spices are summarised in Table I.8.
This volume is the third in the series Handbook of herbs and spices and has two
parts. The first part deals with general aspects referred to the industry such as quality
spice production, quality assurance systems, decontamination techniques, packaging,
spices as sources of natural colours and flavours, effect of Agreement on Agriculture
on spice production and export, etc. The second part deals with detailed information
on individual spices. It is hoped that this book will form a good reference source for
those who are involved in the study, cultivation, trade and use of spices and herbs.


Table of Contents
Contributor contact details ................................................................................ xiii
Introduction ........................................................................................................ xix
I.1 Production of quality spices........................................................... xix
I.2 Herbs and spices as sources of natural colours and flavours ....... xxiv
I.3 References and further reading ...................................................... xxviii
Part I Improving the safety of herbs and spices....................................... 1
1 Detecting and controlling mycotoxin contamination of herbs
and spices .................................................................................................. 3
D. Heperkan, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 3
1.2 Naturally occurring mycotoxins in herbs and spices .................... 4
1.3 Mycobiota of spices and herbs and possible mycotoxin
production ....................................................................................... 13
1.4 Detecting mycotoxins in herbs and spices .................................... 19
1.5 Preventing and controlling mycotoxin contamination .................. 27
1.6 Future trends ................................................................................... 33
1.7 Sources of further information and advice.................................... 34
1.8 References ....................................................................................... 34
2 Controlling pesticide and other residues in herbs and spices ........... 41
K. J. Venugopal, AVT McCormick Ingredients (P) Ltd, India
2.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 41
2.2 The regulation of pesticide residues .............................................. 42
2.3 Analytical methods for detecting pesticide residues .................... 44
2.4 Control of pesticide residues in herbs and spices ......................... 49
2.5 Integrated pest management and organic production ................... 54
2.6 Acknowledgements......................................................................... 58
2.7 Bibliography ................................................................................... 58
3 Irradiation to decontaminate herbs and spices ................................... 60
A. Sharma, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India
3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 60
3.2 Quality considerations .................................................................... 61
3.3 Application of ionizing radiation ................................................... 67
3.4 Nutritional and safety aspects ........................................................ 70
3.5 International approval ..................................................................... 71
3.6 SPS application to boost international trade ................................. 71
3.7 Detection of irradiated spices and herbs ....................................... 72
3.8 References and further reading ...................................................... 73
4 Other decontamination techniques for
herbs and spices ....................................................................................... 74
C. K. George, Peermade Development Society, India
4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 74
4.2 Preventive measures against contamination .................................. 75
4.3 Organic production ......................................................................... 79
4.4 GAP, GMP, ISO 9000 and HACCP............................................... 79
4.5 Decontamination techniques .......................................................... 80
4.6 Sterilization of herbs and spices .................................................... 82
4.7 Detoxification ................................................................................. 83
4.8 Sources of further information and advice.................................... 84
4.9 References ....................................................................................... 85
5 Packaging and storage of herbs and spices .......................................... 86
K. King, Gourmet Garden, Australia
5.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 86
5.2 Consumer trends driving innovation ............................................. 86
5.3 Herb and spice product formats and packaging techniques ......... 87
5.4 Essential oils ................................................................................... 91
5.5 Oleoresins ....................................................................................... 92
5.6 Storage requirements for fresh and dried herbs and spices ......... 93
5.7 Types of packaging materials ........................................................ 94
5.8 Printing ............................................................................................ 97
5.9 Microbiological safety of herbs and spices ................................... 98
5.10 New packaging materials used in herbs and spices ...................... 100
5.11 Future trends ................................................................................... 100
5.12 Bibliography ................................................................................... 101
6 QA and HACCP systems in herb and spice production .................... 103
C. Kehler, Canadian Herb, Spice and Natural Health Coalition,
Canada and J. Schooley, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Canada
6.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 103
6.2 HACCP planning for herb and spice production .......................... 104
6.3 Plant identification practice ........................................................... 108
6.4 Future trends ................................................................................... 110
6.5 Acknowledgement .......................................................................... 110
6.6 Bibliography ................................................................................... 110
Part II Herbs and spices as functional ingredients and flavourings ..... 111
7 The range of medicinal herbs and spices ............................................. 113
T. S. C. Li, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food
Research Centre, Canada
7.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 113
7.2 The role of medicinal herbs and spices ......................................... 118
7.3 Major constituents and therapeutic uses of medicinal herbs
and spices ........................................................................................ 118
7.4 Future trends ................................................................................... 121
7.5 Sources of further information ...................................................... 121
7.6 References ....................................................................................... 121
8 Herbs, spices and cardiovascular disease ............................................. 126
H. Collin, University of Liverpool, UK
8.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 126
8.2 Chemical composition of herbs and spices ................................... 127
8.3 Herbs spices and cardiovascular disease ....................................... 129
8.4 Measurement of antioxidants ......................................................... 132
8.5 Complex mixtures versus single compounds ................................ 134
8.6 Conclusions ..................................................................................... 135
8.7 References ....................................................................................... 135
9 Herbs, spices and cancer ......................................................................... 138
S. Maiti and K. A. Geetha, National Research Centre for Medicinal
and Aromatic Plants, India
9.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 138
9.2 What is cancer? .............................................................................. 139
9.3 Cancer therapy in modern medicine .............................................. 139
9.4 Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) ...................... 140
9.5 Mechanism of action of herbs and spices ..................................... 142
9.6 Evidence supporting the functional benefits of herbs and spices 142
9.7 Botany of some important herbs in cancer therapy ...................... 145
9.8 References ....................................................................................... 149
10 Herbs, spices and gut health .................................................................. 151
C. C. Tassou, National Agricultural Research Foundation, Greece
10.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 151
10.2 Herbs and spices as digestive stimulants ...................................... 152
10.3 The effects of herbs and spices on enteric bacterial pathogens ... 154
10.4 Herbs and spices as growth promoters in animal studies ............. 159
10.5 Anti-inflammatory activity ............................................................. 161
10.6 Effect on gut immunity .................................................................. 163
10.7 Adverse effects ............................................................................... 165
10.8 Future trends ................................................................................... 166
10.9 Sources of further information ...................................................... 167
10.10 References ....................................................................................... 167
11 Volatiles from herbs and spices.............................................................. 177
T. J. Zachariah and N. K. Leela, Indian Institute of Spices
Research, India
11.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 177
11.2 Classification of volatiles ............................................................... 177
11.3 Biosynthesis of the components of volatile oils ........................... 179
11.4 Volatiles and plant sources ............................................................. 183
11.5 References ....................................................................................... 211
Part III Particular herbs and spices........................................................... 219
12 Asafetida .................................................................................................... 221
C. K. George, Peermade Development Society, India
12.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 221
12.2 World trade ..................................................................................... 224
12.3 Chemical constituents .................................................................... 225
12.4 Extraction ........................................................................................ 225
12.5 Processing ....................................................................................... 226
12.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 227
12.7 Main uses ........................................................................................ 227
12.8 References ....................................................................................... 229
13 Capers and caperberries ......................................................................... 230
G. O. Sozzi, Universidad de Buenos Aires and CONICET, Argentina
and A. R. Vicente, CONICET–UNLP, Argentina
13.1 Introduction: brief description ....................................................... 230
13.2 Chemical composition .................................................................... 231
13.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 233
13.4 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 243
13.5 Functional and health benefits ....................................................... 245
13.6 Quality issues and future trends .................................................... 247
13.7 References ....................................................................................... 247
14 Carambola................................................................................................. 257
K. N. Babu and D. Minoo, Indian Institute of Spices Research,
India and K. V. Tushar and P. N. Ravindran, Center for
Medicinal Plants Research, India
14.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 257
14.2 Description ...................................................................................... 258
14.3 Origin and distribution ................................................................... 258
14.4 Cultivars and varieties .................................................................... 260
14.5 Climate ............................................................................................ 260
14.6 Propagation ..................................................................................... 261
14.7 Planting ........................................................................................... 261
14.8 Soils, water and nutrients ............................................................... 262
14.9 Pests and diseases ........................................................................... 262
14.10 Harvesting and yield ...................................................................... 263
14.11 Keeping quality .............................................................................. 263
14.12 Food uses ........................................................................................ 264
14.13 Food value ...................................................................................... 265
14.14 Medicinal uses ................................................................................ 267
14.15 Other uses ....................................................................................... 267
14.16 References ....................................................................................... 267
15 Caraway .................................................................................................... 270
S. K. Malhotra, National Research Centre on Seed Spices, India
15.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 270
15.2 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 272
15.3 Chemical structure .......................................................................... 277
15.4 Main uses in food processing ........................................................ 280
15.5 Functional properties ...................................................................... 285
15.6 Toxicity ........................................................................................... 290
15.7 Quality specifications ..................................................................... 291
15.8 References ....................................................................................... 293
16 Cayenne/American pepper ..................................................................... 299
S. Kumar, R. Kumar and J. Singh, Indian Institute of Vegetable
Research, India
16.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 299
16.2 The genus Capsicum ...................................................................... 300
16.3 Pod types and quality breeding goals ............................................ 301
16.4 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 301
16.5 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 307
16.6 Conclusions ..................................................................................... 309
16.7 References ....................................................................................... 311
17 Celeriac ...................................................................................................... 313
A. A. Farooqi, C. Kathiresan and K. N. Srinivasappa, University of
Agricultural Sciences, India
17.1 Introduction and description .......................................................... 313
17.2 Production ....................................................................................... 314
17.3 References ....................................................................................... 316
18 Celery ......................................................................................................... 317
S. K. Malhotra, National Research Centre on Seed Spices, India
18.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 317
18.2 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 319
18.3 Post-harvest handling ..................................................................... 321
18.4 Cultivars .......................................................................................... 321
18.5 Chemical structure .......................................................................... 322
18.6 Main uses in food processing ........................................................ 324
18.7 Functional properties ...................................................................... 328
18.8 Quality specifications ..................................................................... 331
18.9 References ....................................................................................... 334
19 Chives ........................................................................................................ 337
H. Chen, Beijing Vegetable Research Centre, China
19.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 337
19.2 Chemical composition and nutritional value ................................. 337
19.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 340
19.4 Varieties .......................................................................................... 343
19.5 References and further reading ...................................................... 344
20 Galanga ..................................................................................................... 347
P. N. Ravindran and G. S. Pillai, Centre for Medicinal Plants
Research, India
20.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 347
20.2 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 348
20.3 Tissue culture studies ..................................................................... 349
20.4 Functional properties ...................................................................... 350
20.5 Chemistry ........................................................................................ 351
20.6 Uses ................................................................................................. 352
20.7 K. rotunda ....................................................................................... 353
20.8 References and further reading ...................................................... 353
21 Galangal .................................................................................................... 357
P. N. Ravindran and I. Balachandran, Centre for Medicinal Plants
Research, India
21.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 357
21.2 Production ....................................................................................... 359
21.3 Molecular pharmacology................................................................ 360
21.4 Functional properties ...................................................................... 360
21.5 Alpinia officinarum Hance (lesser galangal, Chinese ginger) ...... 362
21.6 Alpinia calcarata (lesser galangal) ................................................ 363
21.7 References and further reading ...................................................... 363
22 Leek and shallot ....................................................................................... 365
K. R. M. Swamy and R. Veere Gowda, Indian Institute of
Horticultural Research, India
22.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 365
22.2 Leek................................................................................................. 366
22.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 370
22.4 Uses in food industry/processing ................................................... 378
22.5 Functional properties ...................................................................... 378
22.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 380
22.7 Shallot ............................................................................................. 381
22.8 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 383
22.9 Uses in food industry/processing ................................................... 386
22.10 Quality issues .................................................................................. 387
22.11 References ....................................................................................... 387
23 Lemon balm .............................................................................................. 390
H. Turhan, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey
23.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 390
23.2 Chemical composition .................................................................... 391
23.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 392
23.4 Main uses ........................................................................................ 394
23.5 Functional/health benefits .............................................................. 394
23.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 397
23.7 References ....................................................................................... 397
24 Lemongrass ............................................................................................... 400
B. P. Skaria, P. P. Joy, S. Mathew and G. Mathew, Aromatic and
Medicinal Plants Research Centre, India
24.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 400
24.2 Species and varieties ...................................................................... 400
24.3 Origin and distribution ................................................................... 401
24.4 Cultivation and processing ............................................................. 401
24.5 Physiology and Biochemistry ........................................................ 408
24.6 Chemical composition .................................................................... 408
24.7 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 409
24.8 Functional properties ...................................................................... 413
24.9 Quality issues .................................................................................. 414
24.10 References ....................................................................................... 416
25 Long pepper .............................................................................................. 420
K. N. Babu and M. Divakaran, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India;
P. N. Ravindran, Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, India; and
K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University, India
25.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 420
25.2 Chemical composition of long pepper .......................................... 423
25.3 Uses ................................................................................................. 428
25.4 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 431
25.5 Quality specifications ..................................................................... 434
25.6 Biotechnology ................................................................................. 434
25.7 Future .............................................................................................. 435
25.8 References ....................................................................................... 436
26 Lovage........................................................................................................ 438
M. H. Mirjalili, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran and
J. Javanmardi, Shiraz University, Iran
26.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 438
26.2 Chemical composition .................................................................... 439
26.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 443
26.4 Use in food ..................................................................................... 446
26.5 Functional/health benefits .............................................................. 448
26.6 References ....................................................................................... 450
27 Pandan wangi ........................................................................................... 453
S. Wongpornchai, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
27.1 Description ...................................................................................... 453
27.2 Cultivation, production and processing ......................................... 454
27.3 Chemical structure .......................................................................... 455
27.4 Uses in food .................................................................................... 457
27.5 Functional properties ...................................................................... 458
27.6 References ....................................................................................... 458
28 Peppermint ................................................................................................ 460
P. Pushpangadan and S. K. Tewari, National Botanical Research
Institute, India
28.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 460
28.2 Description ...................................................................................... 460
28.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 462
28.4 Chemical composition .................................................................... 470
28.5 Commercial uses ............................................................................ 471
28.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 475
28.7 References ....................................................................................... 478
29 Perilla ......................................................................................................... 482
P. N. Ravindran, Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, India and
M. Shylaja Providence Women’s College, India
29.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 482
29.2 Crop production and management ................................................. 484
29.3 Chemical composition .................................................................... 486
29.4 Biotechnological approaches ......................................................... 487
29.5 Functional properties and pharmacological studies ...................... 488
29.6 References and further reading ...................................................... 491
30 Potato onion (Multiplier onion) ............................................................. 494
U. B. Pandey, National Horticultural Research and Development
Foundation, India
30.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 494
30.2 Chemical composition and uses .................................................... 495
30.3 Production ....................................................................................... 496
30.4 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 498
30.5 Medicinal properties ....................................................................... 498
30.6 Toxicity ........................................................................................... 499
30.7 Quality............................................................................................. 499
30.8 References ....................................................................................... 500
31 Spearmint .................................................................................................. 502
N. K. Patra and B. Kumar, Central Institute of Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants, India
31.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 502
31.2 Chemical composition, biosynthesis and genetics of
the essential oil ............................................................................... 503
31.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................ 504
31.4 Diseases, pests and their control ................................................... 510
31.5 Food uses ........................................................................................ 512
31.6 Medicinal uses ................................................................................ 512
31.7 Functional benefits ......................................................................... 512
31.8 Quality issues .................................................................................. 516
31.9 References ....................................................................................... 517
Index ................................................................................................................. 520


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