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The Encyclopedia of Clairvoyance, Channeling, and Spirit Communication

RAYMOND BUCKLAND


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 Copyright©   
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About the Author
Raymond Buckland has been studying and practicing
Spiritualism, fortune-telling, Witchcraft, Gypsy magic,
and other aspects of the supernatural for fifty years. He
has had nearly forty titles published, with translations in
seventeen languages, including The Witch Book, The
Fortune-Telling Book, and the classic Buckland’s Complete
Book of Witchcraft. Of Romany (Gypsy) descent,
Buckland was born in London, where he obtained a doctorate
in anthropology. In 1962 he moved to the United
States and became affiliated with Wicca pioneer Dr.
Gerald Gardner. Buckland has been the subject of and
has written countless newspaper and magazine articles, appeared on many television
and radio shows, served as technical advisor for several movies, and lectured
on college campuses nationwide.
....

RAPS, TAPS, AND SPIRIT VOICES:
AN INTRODUCTION
It all officially began on the night of Friday, March 31, 1848. That was the night
when two frightened children and their mother “spoke” with the spirit of a dead
(murdered) peddler.
The episode occurred at the Fox homestead in Hydesville, Wayne County,
New York. Hydesville was a small community founded by Dr. Henry Hyde in 1815.
The Fox family rented and moved into a small cabin in the community on December
11, 1847. For several weeks, strange, unexplained taps and knocks were heard in various
parts of the house. John Fox and his wife, Margaret, would move from room to
room, carefully examining both the outside and the inside of the building, searching
for the source of these noises. They ensured that shutters were tightly fastened and
that no tree limbs rattled against the structure; that cupboard doors were fixed firmly
and animals safely penned. Yet night after night the noises continued. It was usually
during the hours of darkness that the raps and taps were heard, causing John and Margaret
to prowl the house through the night, with lanterns in hand.
As the weeks passed, the noises continued, and the Fox’s two young daughters
became more and more distraught. Margaretta was seven and Cathie, or Kate, was ten
years of age. They were disturbed by the noises but also upset by their mother’s reactions.
Margaret Fox was losing sleep and her nerves were frayed. The children begged
and were allowed to sleep in a bed in the same room as their parents. On the night of
Friday, March 31, 1848, the noises were especially loud, even in the early evening
before it really got dark. As the raps and thumps continued, young Cathie—on
impulse—sat up, clapped her hands three times, and said aloud, “Mr. Splitfoot, do as I
do.” (The children, thinking of a cloven-hoofed imp, had dubbed the perpetrator “Mr.
Splitfoot.”) Immediately there came three raps on the wall. Cathie repeated her claps
and the spirit repeated the raps. Then the girl sat silent and no noise was heard.
Cathie’s sister Margaretta cried out, “Do just as I do. Count one, two, three, four.” She
clapped her hands together to that count. Again, the raps echoed her, coming once,
twice, three times, and four times. Margaretta fell silent, in awe of the phenomenon.
Margaret Fox then had an idea. She spoke out and asked that the ages of her
children be rapped out. Immediately it happened. Each one of her seven children’s
ages was sounded. There was a slight pause at the end and then three more loud raps
were given, for the youngest child who had died at that age. Margaret was dumbfounded.
In a statement made later, she said,
I then asked, “Is this a human being that answers my questions so correctly?” There
was no rap. I asked, “Is it a spirit? If it is, make two raps.” Two sounds were given as
soon as the request was made. (History of Spiritualism, Arthur Conan Doyle)
So began the first recorded intercourse between the living and the dead. The
Foxes went on with their questions and slowly learned that the spirit was a thirty-oneyear-
old man, a peddler named Charles B. Rosna, who had been murdered in the house.
John Fox was not entirely satisfied and had his wife ask, “Will you continue to
rap if I call in my neighbors, that they may hear it too?” The raps were affirmative. Margaret
Fox called in her neighbor, Mrs. Redfield. In her testimony, Margaret recalled,
Mrs. Redfield is a very candid woman. The girls were sitting up in bed clinging
to each other and trembling in terror … Mrs. Redfield came immediately (this
was about half past seven), thinking she would have a laugh at the children. But
when she saw them pale with fright and nearly speechless, she was amazed and
believed there was something more serious than she had supposed. I asked a few
questions for her and she was answered as before. He told her age exactly. She
then called her husband, and the same questions were asked and answered. (History
of Spiritualism, Arthur Conan Doyle)
....


Table of Contents
Introduction [xiii]
Acknowledgments [xix]

A
Acorah, Derek • Adare, Lord
(1841–1926) • Affirmations • Âkâsa •
Akashic Records • Alden, Willard
(1800–1878) • Allison, Lydia Winterhalter
(1880–1959) • American Association
of Electronic Voice Phenomena •
American Psychical Institute and Laboratory
• American Society for Psychical
Research • Anderson, George •
Andrews, Mary • Angel • Anka, Darryl
• Annali Dello Spiritismo • Anthony,
Susan Brownell (1820–1906) • Apparition
• Apports • Arigó, José (1918–
1971) • Art, Automatic • Asport •
Association of Progressive Spiritualists
of Great Britain • Association for
Research and Enlightenment • Astral
Body • Astral Plane; Astral World •
Astral Projection • Atlantis • Aura • Automatism
B
Babbett, Elwood (b. 1922) • Bailey,
Charles • Bailey, Lillian • Balfour,
Arthur James, First Earl of (1848–1930)
• Ballou, Adin (1828–1886) • Bangs
Sisters: Elizabeth S. (1859–1922) and
May Eunice (b. 1853) • Barbanell,
Maurice (1902–1981) • Barkel, Kathleen
• Barrett, Sir William Fletcher
(1845–1926) • Bayless, Raymond •
Belk Psychic Research Foundation •
Berry, Catherine (1813–1891) • Bible •
Billets and Billet Reading • Biofeedback
• Bird, J. Malcolm • Blake, Elizabeth
(d. 1920) • Blake, William (1757–
1827) • Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna
(1831–1891) • Book of Spirits • Book
Test • Borley Rectory • Boston Society
for Psychical Research • Boursnell,
Richard (1832–1909) • British College
of Psychic Science • British National
Association of Spiritualists • Britten,
Emma Floyd Hardinge (1823–1899) •
Brown, Margaret Lumley • Brown,
Rosemary (b. 1917) • Browne, Sylvia •
Buddhism • Burroughs, Hugh Gordon
C
Cabinet • Caddy, Peter and Eileen •
Cahagnet, Alphonse (1809–1885) •
Camp Chesterfield • Camp Edgewood •
Camp Meetings • Campbell Brothers:
Allen B. Campbell (1833–1919) and
Charles Shourds (d. 1926) • Carington,
Walter Whateley (1884–1947) • Carrington,
Hereward (1881–1959) •
Carter, Dr. Jeremiah F. (1814–1897) •
Cassadaga Spiritualist Camp • Cayce,
Edgar (1877–1945) • Center for Spiritualist
Studies • Chair Test • Chakra •
Channeling • Chapman, George (b.
1921) • Ch’i • China • Church of the
New Jerusalem, The • Churchill, Sir
Winston Leonard Spencer (1874–1965)
• Circle • City of Light, The •
Clairalience • Clairaudience • Clairgustance
• Clairhambience • Clairsentience
• Clairvoyance • Colburn, Nettie
(Mrs. William Porter Maynard) (d.
1892) • College of Psychic Studies •
College of Spiritualist Studies •
Colville, Wilberforce Juvenal
(1860–1917) • Compton, Elizabeth J.
(b. 1830) • Computers • Cone of Power
• Control • Cook, Florence (1856–
1904) • Cook, Katie • Crandon, Mina
Stinson (“Margery”) (1888–1941) •
Croiset, Gérard (1909–1980) • Crookall,
Dr. Robert (1890–1981) • Crookes, Sir
William (1832–1919) • Cross Correspondence
• Crystal Gazing • Crystals •
Cull, Jean (b. 1943) • Cummins, Geraldine
(1890–1969) • Curran, Pearl
(1887–1937)
D
Davenport Brothers: Ira Erastus
(1839–1911) and William Henry
(1841–1877) • Davis, Andrew Jackson
(1826–1910) • Deane, Ada Emma • De
Gasparin, Count Agenor (1810–1871)
• De Guldenstubbé, Baron L.
(1820–1873) • Déjà Vu • Denton, Professor
William (1823–1883) • D’Esperance,
Madame (Elizabeth Hope—
1855–1919) • Development Circle •
Dingwall, Eric John (1890–1986) •
Direct Voice • Direct Writing • Distant
Healing • Divination • Divining Rod •
Dixon, Jeane (1918–1987) • Doyle, Sir
Arthur (1859–1930) • Dreams •
Drop–In • Drummer of Tedworth •
Duncan, Helen Victoria (1897–1956)
E
Ectoplasm • Eddy Brothers: Horatio and
William • Edmonds, John Worth
(1816–1874) • Edward, John (b. 1969)
• Edwards, Harry (1893–1976) • Eglinton,
William (b. 1857) • Egyptians •
Eisenbud, Jule (1908–1998) • Electronic
Voice Phenomena (EVP) • Empath •
Endor, Woman of • d’Esperance,
Madame (Elizabeth Hope–1855–1919)
• Eva C. (Carriere) • Evans, Colin •
Exorcism • Extrasensory Perception
(ESP) • Extraterrestrials
F
Fairies • Faith Healing • Fay, Annie
Eva • Fay, Mrs. H. B. • Fielding, Francis
Henry Everard (1867–1936) • Findlay,
James Arthur (1883–1966) • Flammarion,
Camille (1842–1925) • Fletcher,
John William (1852–1913) • Flint,
Leslie (1911–1994) • Flower Readings
• Fodor, Nandor (1895–1964) • Ford,
Arthur Augustus (1897–1971) • Fortune,
Dion (1891–1946) • Fortune–
Telling Book, The • Foundation for
Research on the Nature of Man, The •
Fowler, Lottie (1836–1899) • Fox Family
• Fox, Oliver (1885–1949) • Fraudulent
Mediums Act • Fry, Colin • Fuld,
William • Fuller, Curtis
G
Gallup Poll • Garrett, Eileen Jeanette
Vancho Lyttle (1893–1970) • de Gasparin,
Count Agenor (1810–1871) •
Gatekeeper • Gehman, Rev. Beatrice
Anne • Geller, Uri (b. 1946) • Ghost •
Glossolalia • Goligher Girls • Grant,
Joan (b. 1907) • Greece • Greeley,
Horace (1811–1972) • Guardian
Angels • Guide • Guided Meditation •
de Guldenstubbé, Baron L. (1820–1873)
• Guppy–Volckman, Agnes Nichol (d.
1917) • Gurney, Edmund (1847–1888)
• Gypsies
H
Hallucination • Hamilton–Parker,
Craig (b. 1954) and Jane (b. 1950) •
Hardy, Mary M. • Harmony Grove Spiritualist
Community • Haunting • Healing
• Health • Herne, Frank • History
of Spiritualism, The • Hodgson, Dr.
Richard (1855–1905) • Hollis (Hollis–
Billing), Mary J. • Home, Daniel
Dunglas (1833–1886) • Hope, William
(1863–1933) • Houdini, Harry (Ehrich
Weiss) (1874–1926) • Howe, Lyman C.
(1832–1910) • Hudson, Frederick A.
(b. ca. 1812) • Hughes, Irene • Hull,
Moses (1835–1907) • Hurkos, Peter
(1911–1988) • Husk, Cecil (1847–
1920) • Hydesville • Hypnagogic State;
Hypnopompic State • Hypnotism •
Hyslop, James Hervey (1854–1920)
I
Imperator • Independent Spiritualist
Association of America • Infinite Intelligence
• Infrared • Inspirational
Speaking; Writing; Art • Institut
Métapsychique International • Institute
of Noetic Sciences • Instrumental
Transcommunication (ITC) • International
College of Spiritual Science and
Healing • International Federation of
Spiritualists • International General
Assembly of Spiritualists • International
Psychic Gazette • Intuition • Italy
J
James, William (1842–1910) • Jesus •
Joan of Arc (1412–1431) • Juergenson,
Friedrich (1903–1987)
K
Kardec, Allan (1804–1869) • Karma •
Kelly, Rev. Thomas John (Jack)
(1899–1964) • Kilner, Walter John
(1847–1920) • Kirlian Photography •
Klusky, Franek (b. 1874) • Knight,
Gareth (b. 1930) • Knight, Judy “Zebra”
(b. 1946) • Koenig, Hans–Otto •
Koons, Jonathan • Kübler–Ross, Elisabeth
(1926–2004) • Kuhlman, Kathryn
(1907–1976)
L
Lake Pleasant • Lang, Dr. William
(1852–1937) • Lansing, Jessica • Laona
Free Association • Layne, Al • Leadbeater,
Charles Webster (1847–1934) •
Lees, Robert James (1849–1931) •
Leonard, Gladys Osborne (1882–1968)
• Le Shan, Dr. Lawrence (b. 1920) •
Levitation • Ley Lines • Light • Lily
Dale Assembly • Lily Dale Museum •
Lincoln, Abraham (1809–1865) • Livermore,
Charles F. • Lodge, Sir Oliver
Joseph (1851–1940) • Lyceum
M
MacLaine, Shirley (b. 1934) • Maeterlinck,
Maurice (1862–1949) • Maginot,
Adèle • Mak, Arie (b. 1914) • Mana •
Manning, Matthew (b. 1955) • Mansfield,
Dr. J. V. • Mantra • Maplewood
Hotel • Marshall, Mary (1842–1884) •
Marylebone Spiritualist Association •
Massey, Gerald (1828–1907) • Materialization
• McConnell, R. A. (b. 1914)
• McDougall, Dr. William (1871–1938)
• McIndoe, John B. • McKenzie, James
Hewat (1870–1929) • McMahan, Elizabeth
Anne (b. 1924) • Meditation •
Medium; Mediumship • Medium’s
League • Meek, George W. • Mellon,
Annie Fairlamb • Melzer, Heinrich (b.
1873) • Mental Mediumship • Mentor
• Meredith, Rev. Chris • Mesmer, Franz
Anton (1734–1815) • Messages •
Metagraphology • Metaphysics •
Meyer, Jean (d. 1931) • Mikhailova,
Nelya (b. 1927) • Miller, C. V. •
Mirabelli, Carlos Carmine (1889–1951)
• Mirror • Mitchell, Edgar D. (b. 1930)
• Monck, Rev. Francis Ward • Monroe,
Robert Allan (1915–1995) • Montgomery,
Ruth (1912–2001) • Moody,
Dr. Raymond (b. 1944) • Moon • Morris,
Mrs. L. A. Meurig (b. 1899) •
Morse, James Johnson (1848–1919) •
Moses, William Stainton (1839–1892)
• Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
(1756–1791) • Muldoon, Sylvan Joseph
• Müller, Auguste • Mumler, William
H. • Murphy, Dr. Edgar Gardner
(1895–1979) • Myers, Dr. Arthur
Thomas (1851–1894) • Myers, Frederick
William Henry (1843–1901)
N
Nagy, Ronald Michael (b. 1949) •
National Laboratory of Psychical
Research • National Spiritual Alliance
of the United States of America •
National Spiritual Association of
Churches • National Spiritualist Summit,
The • Native Americans • Nature Spirits
• Near Death Experiences (NDE) •
Newbrough, Dr. John Ballou
(1828–1891) • Newspaper Tests •
Northage, Ivy • Nostradamus (Michel
de Nostredame: 1503–1566) • Numerology
O
Occult; Occultism • Odic Force •
Omen • Open Channeling • Oracle •
Orbs • Owen, The Reverend George
Vale (1869–1931) • Owens, Elizabeth (b. 1948)
P
Paladino, Eusapia (1854–1918) • Panchadasi,
Swami • Parakinesis • Parapsychological
Association • Parapsychology
• Parapsychology Foundation •
Parisian Society of Psychologic Studies
• Parker Brothers • Parkes, F. M. • Peebles,
Dr. James Martin (1822–1922) •
Pelham, George (1860–1892) • Pendulum
• Pepper, May S. • Perispirit • Phinuit,
Dr. • Physical Mediumship • Pickford,
Mary (1892–1979) • Piddington,
John George (1869–1952) • Pike, Bishop
James Albert (1913–1969) • Piper,
Leonora E. (1857–1950) • Planchette;
Pencil Planchette • Platform • Podmore,
Frank (1856–1910) • Poltergeist
• Poseidia Institute • Possession • Post,
Dr. Isaac (1798–1872) and Amy (1802–
1889) • Powell, Evan (b. 1881) • Pratt,
Morris • Prayer • Precognition • Prediction
• Premonition; Presentiment •
Price, Harry (1881–1948) • Prince, Dr.
Walter Franklin (1863–1934) •
Prophet, Elizabeth Clare (b. 1939) •
Prophet; Prophecy • Prophetic Dreams
• Psi • Psychic • Psychic Development
• Psychic Fairs • Psychic News • Psychic
Science • Psychic Surgery • Psychic
Telephone • Psychical Research • Psychokinesis
(PK); Telekinesis • Psychometry
• Puharich, Andrija Henry
Karl (1918–1994) • Pursel, Jach
Q
Qabbalah • Quakers and Shakers •
Queen Victoria (1819–1901)
R
Rappings; Raps • Raudive, Dr. Konstantin
(1909–1974) • Raymond • Reading
• Red Cloud • Regurgitation •
Reichenbach, Baron Karl von (1788–
1869) • Reincarnation • Rescue Circle
• Retrocognition; Retrodiction • Revue
Spirite, La • Revue Spiritualiste, La •
Rhine, Joseph Banks (1895–1980) •
Richet, Professor Charles Robert
(1850–1935) • Richmond, Cora Lodencia
Veronica (1840–1923) • Ridley,
Hazel (b. 1900) • Roberts, Jane (1929–
1984) • Roberts, May Estelle (1889–
1970) • Rochas, Lt.–Col. Eugene •
Auguste Albert d’Aiglun (1837–1914) •
Rogo, Douglas Scott (1950–1990) •
Rome; Romans • Rosna, Charles B. (ca.
1812–1843) • Roy, William • Ryerson, Kevin
S
Schneider, Willi (1903–1971) and Rudi
(1908–1957) • Schreiber, Klaus •
Schrenck–Notzing, Baron Albert Phillbert
Franz, Freiherr von (1862–1929) •
Scole Experiments • Séance • Seer;
Seeress • Segrave, Sir Henry
(1896–1930) • Seidl, Franz • Sellers,
Peter (1925–1980) • Serios, Ted •
Shakespeare, William (1564–1616) •
Shamanism • Sherman, Harold Morrow
(b. 1898) • Showers, Mary • Sibyls •
Sidgwick, Professor Henry (1838–1900)
• Silva, Edivaldo Oliveira (1930–1974)
• Silver Cord • Skotograph • Slade,
Henry (d. 1905) • Slater, John
(1867–1932) • Sloan, John Campbell •
Smith, Gordon (b. 1962) • Soal,
Samuel George (1889–1975) • Society
for Psychical Research • Soothsayers •
Spheres • Spirit • Spirit Guide • Spirit
Lights • Spirit Photography • Spirit
World • Spiritism; Spiritist • Spiritual
Frontiers Fellowship International •
Spiritual Healing • Spiritualism; Spiritualist
• Spiritualists’ National Union •
“Splitfoot, Mr.” • Spokesperson • Spriggs,
George (1850–1912) • Stead,
William T. (1849–1912) • Stella C.
(Cranshaw) (b. 1902) • Stewart, Balfour
(1827–1887) • Stockwell, Tony (b.
1969) • Stokes, Doris (d. 1987) •
Stratford, Connecticut • Summerland •
Swaffer, Hannen (1879–1962) • Swedenborg,
Emmanuel (1688–1722) •
Symbolism • Synchronicity
T
Table Tipping; Table Turning • Talking
Board • Tape Recorder •
Tarot Cards • Telepathy • Teleportation
• Tenhaeff, Wilhelm Heinrich Carl
(1894–1981) • Theosophical Society •
Third Eye • Thompson, Mrs. R. •
Thoughtography • Trance • Transfiguration
• Tremblers • Trumpet • Tuttle,
Hudson (1835–1910) • Twain, Mark
(Samuel Langhorne Clemens) (1835–
1910) • Twigg, Ena (b. 1914) • Two Worlds
U, V
Universal Spiritualist Association •
Van Praagh, James • Vasilier, Dr. Leonid
L. (1891–1966) • Vietnamese Spiritualism
• Visualization • Vodoun; Voudon
• Voices, Spirit
W
Webber, John Boaden (Jack) (1907–
1940) • West, Mae (1893–1980) •
White, Stewart Edward (1873–1946) •
Wilde, Stuart (b. 1946) • Williams,
Charles • Wingfield, Kate (d. 1927) •
Witch; Witchcraft • Woodruff, Maurice
(d. 1973) • World Wars • World ITC •
Writing, Automatic • Writing, Slate
X, Y, Z
Xavier, Chico Francisco Candido (b.
1910) • X–Ray Clairvoyance •
Yogananda, Paramahansa (1893–1952)
• Zener Cards • Zener, Karl • Zolar
(Bruce King) (1897–1976)

Resources [445]
Index [473]


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Cover image:
I-D-O Psy-ch-i-deo-graph, 1919, by Theodore H. White.
Collection of Louis Wildfong,
Cultural Relics and Artifacts Place,
Ferndale, Michigan.

A Comprehensive Reference to Herbs of Flavor and fragrance

Arthur O. Tucker & Thomas DeBaggio

Edited by Francesco DeBaggio


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Book Details
 Price
 3.00
 Pages
 1078 p
 File Size 
 8,292 KB
 File Type
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 ISBN-13
 978-0-88192-994-2
 Copyright©   
 2009
 by Arthur O. Tucker and Thomas DeBaggio

How to Use the Book
In this book we have attempted to update the lore of the past with current
horticultural practices from around the world to prepare you for the garden of
your life. The book is arranged in two large sections. The first section provides a
detailed overview of herb growing, harvesting, and preserving techniques.
The second section is an alphabetized listing intended to equip you with the
details to identify, understand, cultivate, care for, and use herbs of flavor and
fragrance. Each entry is filled with detailed descriptions and histories of
individual herbs. A typical entry provides the plant’s botanical name and family,
whether it is an annual or perennial, and its height, hardiness, light requirements,
water consumption, required soil type and pH. The plant’s name in various
languages is included, as is a history of the plant, its chemistry, how to propagate
the plant, and its culinary and landscape uses. A botanical key is given to
identify the plant, and its description includes its country of origin and various
data on the leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds.
Who We Are
We have known the thrill of discovery in the garden and share a longstanding
passion for cultivating the earth, and between us we have over eighty years of
dirty knees. Art is Dr. Tucker to his students and many others. He spends much
of his time in the highly technical milieu of a botanist who has specialized in the
identification and chemistry of herbs. He has published and lectured widely and
has a list of degrees that ends in a Ph.D. from Rutgers.
Tom had a more checkered career. He was a reformed journalist who since
1976 has been a commercial grower and seller of herb plants and has written for
numerous publications about herbs. While Art has familiarity with Latin, French,
German, and “Botanese,” Tom needed translations of all four. Tom’s expertise
was passed onto his son, Francesco, upon Tom’s diagnosis of Alzheimer’s, and
Francesco has continued the tradition.
We both marvel at the intense interest that Americans have shown recently in
herbs. Pollsters estimate that over 6 million U.S. households grow herbs and
they found that over half of the nation’s population recognized garlic, parsley,
dill, chives, and basil. Commercial growers responded to this increasing hunger
with record fresh herb harvests. All this interest helped to fuel new research and
made this book possible and more worthwhile.
Our aim has been to fill a gap between the highly technical scientific research
of herbs and the homey, anecdotal approach bathed in generalities. We set out to
compile diverse information and offer it in a single volume that will appeal to a
wide range of gardeners and specialists, from home gardeners to commercial
growers as well as professional horticulturists and academics. We think of this
book, in a modest way, as a modern, updated version of the great herbals of the
past. We hope that it will encourage more Americans, and others around the
globe, to successfully grow and enjoy these beautiful and useful plants.
....

Introduction
THIS BOOK PROVIDES accurate information to help identify, grow, and use
hundreds of herbs. Although it draws heavily on scientific research from around
the world, it is tempered by personal gardening experience and written in a
simple understandable style.

No single book is big enough to describe all the plants called herbs, so we
have focused on herbs that are most common in home gardens, catalogs,
restaurants, and markets (or should be). For the purpose of this book, we define
an herb as any temperate climate herbaceous or woody plant used for flavor or
fragrance. This excludes a wide range of herbs for medicine, dyes, fibers,
insecticides, soap, and rubber.

We believe our range, while limited, remains wide. Old favorites, such as
basil, dill, parsley, coriander, lavender, mint, sage, rosemary, tarragon, and thyme
are included in detail and many species that have not reached a wide audience
are included. Among the unusual or hard to find herbs are rau r m or Vietnamese
cilantro (Persicaria odorata), which immigrated to the United States along with
the airlift of 140,000 Vietnamese in 1975. Another cilantro-flavored ethnic herb,
papaloquelite (Porophyllum ruderale subsp. macrocephalum), comes from south
of the border. This nine-foot marigold relative has been used in Mexican cooking
for centuries but only entered Texan cuisine around 1990.

The Encyclopedia of Herbs grew from our frustration with the superficial
treatment of our favorite herbs and the gross errors about them in many popular
herb books (a recent one erroneously claimed that dill “resembles fennel in
appearance and aroma”). We have spent years searching for thorough, unbiased
research to dispel many cultivation myths perpetuated by four centuries of
misinformation.

The most interesting data we uncovered was not in the popular press but in
small circulation technical books and journals where scientists use shorthand and
jargon to communicate with each other. This is one of the first times that most of
these research findings have been available in a non-scientific venue.
We rely on botanists and agricultural scientists for an understanding of herbs
and their cultivation, and we believe that their research provides useful
guidelines, but it is not infallible and should not be read as the last word on the
subject. Every spring brings new revelations to the observant gardener, as well as
to the careful scientists.

The first edition of this book, entitled The Big Book of Herbs and published by
Interweave Press, was extremely well received, earning awards from both the
International Herb Association (2001 Book Awards) and The Herb Society of
America (Gertrude B. Foster Award, 2004). However, in the intervening years,
amounting to almost a decade of newly published literature, new information has
emerged (e.g., absinthism was probably due to adulterants, not the content of
thujones) and scientific names have changed (e.g., vetiver is now Chrysopogon
zizanioides). In addition, we found a number of typographical errors or species
that we had inadvertently excluded (e.g., Agastache scrophulariifolia). Other
sections (e.g., Pelargonium) have been completely revamped. We thank all those
conscientious readers who wrote to us with these enlightenments and hope that
this book will be your ultimate reference on culinary and fragrant herbs for years to come.

Many readers, from gardeners to academics, also wrote to thank us for
including the references. Actually, this is not just academic show-and-tell or
some sort of weird academic compulsive disorder; it protects us legally. Pay
particular attention to our wording in the following chapters. In accordance with
the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, we may freely (1) quote scientific
literature, (2) quote ethnic or historic literature, or (3) cite how we personally use
herbs. However, as soon as we use terms like “recommend,” “prescribe,” or
show advocacy for consumption for herbs that are not GRAS (Generally
Recognized As Safe) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, then we (and
the publisher) are legally liable. Readers should pay particular attention to this
when advocating herbs like sassafras, which is not GRAS and has been shown to
be a pre-hepatocarcinogen; while you may not accept the scientific literature,
you are legally liable if you advocate its consumption and somebody does
develop liver cancer (which may not even be related to the consumption of
sassafras). In our litigious society today, this warning is not just scientific
arrogance, and even if you win a legal suit, you still have to pay lawyers in most
states and go through the hassle and time. When we make a statement, such as
garlic being antifungal, we have cited scientific papers to support that statement.
Herbs also fight a long uphill battle to prove their efficacy. Popular medical
journals will publish poorly conducted research that shows negative effects, and
the popular press will subsequently seize upon this, disregarding the many other
well-conducted positive studies. We also hope that these references will prompt
readers to locate the original scientific literature from their libraries and
investigate a topic further to make their own well-informed decisions, and if we
have inspired at least one student to research a topic further, then we have
succeeded.
....


Table of Contents
Introduction
Chapter 1. Plant Identification
Chapter 2. What’s in a Name?
Chapter 3. The Flavors and Fragrances of Herbs
Chapter 4. How to Maximize Flavor and Fragrance
Chapter 5. How to Create the Best Growing Conditions
Chapter 6. Container Cultivation
Chapter 7. Propagation and Planting
Chapter 8. Keeping Herbs Healthy
Chapter 9. The Harvest
Herb Profiles
Acorus
Agastache
Allium
Aloysia citriodora
Anethum graveolens
Angelica
Anthoxanthum
Anthriscus cerefolium
Armoracia rusticana
Artemisia
Asarum canadense
Bergera koenigii
Borago officinalis
Brassica
Calamintha
Calendula officinalis
Capparis spinosa
Capsicum
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Cedronella canariensis
Chamaemelum nobile
Chrysopogon zizanioides
Citrus hystrix
Coriandrum sativum
Crocus sativus
Cryptotaenia japonica
Cuminum cyminum
Cunila origanoides
Cymbopogon citratus
Dianthus
Dysphania ambrosioides
Elsholtzia
Eryngium foetidum
Ferula
Foeniculum vulgare
Galium
Geranium macrorrhizum
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Hedeoma pulegioides
Helichrysum italicum
Houttuynia cordata
Humulus lupulus
Hyssopus officinalis
Inula helenium
Iris
Juniperus communis
Laurus nobilis
Lavandula
Levisticum officinale
Limnophila chinensis subsp. aromatica
Lindera benzoin
Lippia
Litsea glaucescens
Matricaria
Melissa officinalis
Mentha
Monarda
Myrrhis odorata
Myrtus communis
Nepeta cataria
Nigella sativa
Ocimum
Oenanthe javanica
Origanum
Papaver somniferum
Pelargonium
Perilla frutescens
Persea borbonia
Persicaria odorata
Petroselinum crispum
Phyla scaberrima
Pimpinella anisum
Piper
Plectranthus
Pogostemon
Poliomintha bustamanta
Porophyllum ruderale subsp. macrocephalum
Pycnanthemum
Rhus coriaria
Rosa
Rosmarinus officinalis
Ruta graveolens
Salvia
Sanguisorba minor
Santolina
Sassafras albidum
Satureja
Sesamum orientale
Sinapis
Solidago odora
Stevia rebaudiana
Tagetes lucida
Tanacetum
Thymbra
Thymus
Trachyspermum ammi
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Umbellularia californica
Valeriana officinalis
Wasabia japonica
Zingiber mioga
Selected References
Index


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Illustrations copyright © 2000 by Marjorie C. Leggitt.
Frontispiece: Wasabia japonica. Opposite: Geranium macrorrhizum.

An earlier edition of this volume was published as The Big Book of Herbs
(Interweave Press, 2000).
Published in 2009 by Timber Press, Inc.

The Haseltine Building
133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450
Portland, Oregon 97204-3527

2 The Quadrant
135 Salusbury Road
London NW6 6RJ

Michael T. Murray, N.D. & Joseph E. Pizzorno, N.D.

From the bestselling authors of THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HEALING FOODS, the most comprehensive and practical guide available to the extraordinary healing powers of natural medicine

From two world-renowned naturopathic doctors comes the authoritative third edition of the classic
reference work, revised and expanded to include the latest cutting-edge natural therapies for the most common ailments. Michael Murray and Joseph Pizzorno focus on promoting health and treating disease with nontoxic, natural therapies, and this groundbreaking book—the leader in its field—shows you how to improve your health through a positive mental attitude, a healthy lifestyle, a health-promoting diet, and supplements, with plenty of practical tips.
With natural approaches for treating more than 80 common ailments, e Encyclopedia of Natural
Medicine will give you:
• Ways to prevent disease through enhancing key body systems
• The major causes and symptoms of each condition
• The therapeutic considerations you need to be aware of
• Detailed treatment summaries that include the most effective nutritional supplements and botanical medicines
• And much more
is text is a perfect introduction to the world of natural medicine, providing clear guidance in the use of the best natural remedies for all kinds of illnesses, big and small.

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 ISBN
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 Copyright©   
 1998, 2012
 by Joseph E. Pizzorno and Michael T. Murray

About the Authors
Author of more than thirty books, DR. MICHAEL T. MURRAY is regarded as one of the world’s top
authorities on natural medicine. An educator, lecturer, researcher, and health food industry consultant,
Murray also serves as the director of product development and education at Natural Factors, a major
producer of dietary supplements.

DR. JOSEPH PIZZORNO is a leader in the field of natural medicine and cofounder of Bastyr
University, the first ever accredited, multidisciplinary university of natural medicine in the United States (and the English-speaking world). He is an international lecturer and ongoing contributor to magazines such as Natural Health, Better Nutrition, and Let’s Live.....

PREFACE
This book was written in an effort to update the public’s knowledge about the use of natural
medicines in the maintenance of health and treatment of disease. It dispels a common myth about
the use of natural remedies—that natural medicine is “unscientific.” This book contains information
based on firm scientific inquiry and represents an evidence-based approach to wellness. This
encyclopedia is without question the most thoroughly researched and referenced book on the use of
natural medicines ever written for the public.

The book must not be used in place of consulting a physician or other qualified health care
practitioner. It is designed for use in conjunction with the services provided by physicians practicing
natural medicine. Readers are strongly urged to develop a good relationship with a physician
knowledgeable in the art and science of natural and preventive medicine, such as a naturopathic
physician. In all cases involving a medical complaint, ailment, or therapy, please consult a physician.
Proper medical care and advice can significantly improve the quality of your life and extend your life span.

Although this book discusses numerous natural approaches to various health conditions, it is not
intended as a substitute for appropriate medical care. Please keep the following in mind as you read:
• Do not self-diagnose. If you have concerns about any subject discussed in this book, please consult
a physician, preferably a naturopathic doctor (N.D.), nutritionally oriented medical doctor (M.D.)
or doctor of osteopathy (D.O.), chiropractor (D.C.), or other natural health care specialist.
• Make your physician aware of all the prescription medications, over-the-counter medications,
nutritional supplements, or herbal products you are currently taking, in order to avoid any negative
interactions.
• If you are currently taking a prescription medication, you absolutely must work with your doctor
before discontinuing any drug or altering any drug regimen.
• Many health conditions require a multifactorial solution: medical, nutritional, and lifestyle changes.
Do not rely solely on a single area of focus. You can’t just take pills and not change your diet, or do
the diet and the pills but ignore the lifestyle issues. Any truly effective approach to health must be
fully integrated.

We believe that if you commit to following the guidelines of natural health care described in this
book, you will be rewarded with a life full of health, vitality, and vigor.
Michael T. Murray, N.D.
Joseph E. Pizzorno, N.D.
....


Table of Contents
Acknowledgments
Preface
SECTION I
INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL MEDICINE
Chapter 1: What Is Natural Medicine?
Chapter 2: The Healing Power Within
SECTION II
THE FOUR CORNERSTONES OF GOOD HEALTH
Chapter 3: A Positive Mental Attitude
Chapter 4: A Health-Promoting Lifestyle
Chapter 5: A Health-Promoting Diet
Chapter 6: Supplementary Measures
SECTION III
SPECIAL TOPICS
Chapter 7: A Cellular Approach to Health
Chapter 8: Cancer Prevention
Chapter 9: Detoxification and Internal Cleansing
Chapter 10: Digestion and Elimination
Chapter 11: Heart and Cardiovascular Health
Chapter 12: Immune System Support
Chapter 13: Longevity and Life Extension
Chapter 14: Silent Inflammation
Chapter 15: Stress Management
Chapter 16: Obesity and Weight Management
SECTION IV
SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS
Chapter 17: Acne
Chapter 18: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and HIV Infection
Chapter 19: Alcohol Dependence
Chapter 20: Alzheimer’s Disease
Chapter 21: Anemia
Chapter 22: Angina
Chapter 23: Anxiety
Chapter 24: Asthma
Chapter 25: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Chapter 26: Autism Spectrum Disorder
Chapter 27: Boils
Chapter 28: Breast Cancer (Prevention)
Chapter 29: Bronchitis and Pneumonia
Chapter 30: Candidiasis, Chronic
Chapter 31: Canker Sores
Chapter 32: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Chapter 33: Cataracts
Chapter 34: Celiac Disease
Chapter 35: Cerebral Vascular Insufficiency
Chapter 36: Cervical Dysplasia
Chapter 37: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chapter 38: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chapter 39: Common Cold
Chapter 40: Congestive Heart Failure
Chapter 41: Constipation
Chapter 42: Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
Chapter 43: Cystitis and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder
Chapter 44: Depression
Chapter 45: Diabetes
Chapter 46: Diarrhea
Chapter 47: Ear Infection (Otitis Media)
Chapter 48: Endometriosis
Chapter 49: Erectile Dysfunction
Chapter 50: Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)
Chapter 51: Fibrocystic Breast Disease
Chapter 52: Food Allergy
Chapter 53: Gallstones
Chapter 54: Glaucoma
Chapter 55: Gout
Chapter 56: Hair Loss in Women
Chapter 57: Hay Fever
Chapter 58: Headache, Nonmigraine
Chapter 59: Heart Arrhythmias
Chapter 60: Hemorrhoids
Chapter 61: Hepatitis
Chapter 62: Herpes
Chapter 63: High Blood Pressure
Chapter 64: High Cholesterol and/or Triglycerides
Chapter 65: Hives (Urticaria)
Chapter 66: Hyperthyroidism
Chapter 67: Hypoglycemia
Chapter 68: Hypothyroidism
Chapter 69: Infertility (Female)
Chapter 70: Infertility (Male)
Chapter 71: Insomnia
Chapter 72: Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Chapter 73: Kidney Stones
Chapter 74: Macular Degeneration
Chapter 75: Menopause
Chapter 76: Menstrual Blood Loss, Excessive (Menorrhagia)
Chapter 77: Migraine Headache
Chapter 78: Multiple Sclerosis
Chapter 79: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)
Chapter 80: Osteoarthritis
Chapter 81: Osteoporosis
Chapter 82: Parkinson’s Disease
Chapter 83: Peptic Ulcer
Chapter 84: Periodontal Disease
Chapter 85: Premenstrual Syndrome
Chapter 86: Prostate Cancer (Prevention)
Chapter 87: Prostate Enlargement (BPH)
Chapter 88: Psoriasis
Chapter 89: Rheumatoid Arthritis
Chapter 90: Rosacea
Chapter 91: Seborrheic Dermatitis
Chapter 92: Sinus Infections
Chapter 93: Sports Injuries, Tendinitis, and Bursitis
Chapter 94: Strep Throat (Streptococcal Pharyngitis)
Chapter 95: Stroke (Recovery From)
Chapter 96: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Chapter 97: Uterine Fibroids
Chapter 98: Vaginitis
Chapter 99: Varicose Veins
Glossary
Appendix A: Are You an Optimist?
Appendix B: Glycemic Index, Carbohydrate Content, and Glycemic Load of Selected Foods
Appendix C: Acid-Base Values of Selected Foods
References
Index


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First Atria Paperback edition July 2012

ATRIA PAPERBACK and colophon are trademarks of Simon & Schuster, Inc.
A Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.
1230 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10020

The Simon & Schuster Speakers Bureau can bring authors to your live event. For more information or to book an event contact the Simon & Schuster Speakers Bureau at 1-866-248-3049 or visit our website at www.simonspeakers.com.

Designed by Joe Rutt/Level C

A Guide to Health and Nutrition

JACQUELINEL . LONGE , EDITOR

Volume 1-2

A-L  M-Z

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 ISBN-10
 978-1-4144-2994-6 (e-book set)
 1-4144-2994-0 (e-book set)
 Copyright©   
 2008 The Gale Group 

ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS
The essays were compiled by experienced medical
writers, including registered dieticians, nutritionists,
healthcare practitioners and educators,
pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals.
The advisors reviewed all of the completed essays
to insure that they are appropriate, up-to-date, and
medically accurate.

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
The Gale Encyclopedia of Diets: A Guide to Health
and Nutrition has been designed with ready reference
in mind:
 Straight alphabetical arrangement allows users to
locate information quickly.
 Bold faced terms function as print hyperlinks that
point the reader to related entries in the encyclopedia.
 A list of key terms is provided where appropriate to
define unfamiliar words or concepts used within the
context of the essay. Additional terms may be found in the glossary.
 Cross-references placed throughout the encyclopedia
direct readers to where information on subjects without
their own entries can be found. Synonyms are
also cross-referenced.
 AResources section directs users to sources of further information.
 A comprehensive general index allows users to easily
target detailed aspects of any topic.

GRAPHICS
and Nutrition is enhanced with approximately 200 fullcolor
images, including photos, tables, and customized
line drawings.


Introduction
The Gale Encyclopedia of Diets: A Guide to Health
and Nutrition is a one-stop source for diet and nutrition
information that covers popular and special diets,
nutrition basics, and nutrition-related health conditions.
It also particularly addresses health and nutrition
concerns across all age groups from infancy through
old age. This encyclopedia avoids medical jargon and
uses language that laypersons can understand, while
still providing thorough coverage of each topic. The
Gale Encyclopedia of Diets: A Guide to Health and
Nutrition is not meant to be an endorsement for any
one diet or lifestyle but rather it presents authoritative,
balanced information.

SCOPE
Approximately 275 full-length articles are included
in The Gale Encyclopedia of Diets: A Guide to Health
and Nutrition. Articles follow a standardized format
that provides information at a glance. Rubrics include:
Special/Popular Diets
 Definition  Origins  Description
 Function  Benefits  Precautions
 Risks  Research and general acceptance
 Questions to ask your doctor  Resources
 Key terms Nutrition Basics  Definition
 Purpose  Description  Precautions
 Interactions  Aftercare  Complications
 Parental concerns  Resources  Key terms Health
 Definition  Description  Demographics
 Causes and symptoms  Diagnosis  Treatment
 Nutrition/Dietetic concerns  Therapy
 Prognosis  Prevention  Resources  Key terms

INCLUSION CRITERIA
A preliminary list of diets and nutrition topics was
compiled from a wide variety of sources, including
professional medical guides and textbooks, as well as
consumer guides and encyclopedias. The advisory
board evaluated the topics and made suggestions for
inclusion. Final selection of topics to include was made
by the advisors in conjunction with Gale Group editors.



Table of Contents

Alphabetical List of Entries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

Advisory Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

Volume 1 (A–L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Volume 2 (M–Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029

General Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1059

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and Nutrition is a health reference product designed to
inform and educate readers about a wide variety of
diets, nutrition and dietary practices, and diseases and
conditions associated with nutrition choices. The Gale
Group believes the product to be comprehensive, but
not necessarily definitive. It is intended to supplement,
not replace, consultation with a physician or
other healthcare practitioners. While The Gale
Group hasmade substantial efforts to provide information
that is accurate, comprehensive, and up-to-date, The
Gale Group makes no representations or warranties of
any kind, includingwithout limitation, warranties of merchantability
or fitness for a particular purpose, nor does it
guarantee the accuracy, comprehensiveness, or timeliness
of the information contained in this product. Readers
should be aware that the universe of medical knowledge
is constantly growing and changing, and that differences
of opinion exist among authorities. Readers are also
advised to seek professional diagnosis and treatment for
any medical condition, and to discuss information
obtained from this book with their healthcare provider
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