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A Guide to the Classical Education You Never Had 

SUSAN WISE BAUER

1. Books and reading. 2. Best books. 3. Reading. 4. Literature—History and criticism. 5. Self-culture. 6. Education, Humanistic.


The Well-Educated Mind- A Guide to the Classical Education You Never Had
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 2003 by Susan Wise Bauer

A SEVEN-MINUTE HISTORY OF POETS 
AND THEIR LANGUAGE

The Age of Epics
The earliest Western poetry is that
of the Greeks, and the earliest Greek
poetry is epic poetry—sprawling oral
tales of heroes and battles, finally
written down by Homer around
8oo B.C. In the Iliad, the warrior
Achilles falls out with his commander,
Agamemnon, and manages
to turn Zeus against his own army;
in the Odyssey, Odysseus tries to
get home after the Trojan War has
ended. Incident-filled, plot-driven,
centered around the failings and
strengths of men and women: These
epics seem much more like novels
than poems. Why, then, are they
considered the first great poems,
rather than the first great tales? And
where is the "personal presence" of
the poet in these stories of bloodshed
and sea adventure?
Poetry, for the Greeks, was a
term that covered a much broader
territory than it does today.
"Poetry," wrote Aristotle, "is more
philosophical and more worthwhile
than history, for poetry
speaks in general terms, while history
concerns itself with detail." In
other words, poetry was language
that sought to demonstrate univer-
Rage—Goddess, sing the rage of Peleus's
son Achilles,
murderous, doomed, that cost the Achaeans
countless losses,
hurling down to the House of Death so
many sturdy souls,
great fighters' souls, but made their bodies
carrion, feasts for the dogs and birds,...
Begin, Muse, when the two first broke and
clashed, Agamemnon lord of men and brilliant Achilles.
—Homer, The Iliad, translated by Robert
Fagles (NewYork: Penguin, 1990), book
I, Unes 1-7.
....

THE ANNOTATED POETRY
In the list that follows, poets are organized in chronological order of their
birth date. When you read a novel, you read a work; when you read a series
of poems, you read a life. So in many cases I have recommended a collected
"greatest works" rather than a particular volume published during the poet's
lifetime. Because poems are meant not to be read once, but returned to again
and again, the list of recommended editions is aimed at helping you build a
poetry library. There are many other editions of most of these poets available;
I have listed some "Be sure to read" poems so that if you wish to use another
edition, you can still experience the poet's most characteristic works.
You can go as far as you please into investigating a poet who seizes your
fancy; for the collected poems, I have suggested a brief list of poems that
you should be certain to read. If you find this hard going, you don't necessarily
need to read on: A poem, like a spice, is not going to suit every taste.
The recommended poems are not necessarily the poet's "best" (an impossible
judgment by any means), but they are that poet's most commonly
referred to, criticized, and quoted poems. Reading them will allow you to
understand the place the poet occupies in the larger world of poetry.
As with fiction, some of these poem collections are available in much
cheaper editions, if you're willing to put up with small print and narrow
margins. For ancient works, I suggest that you use the recommended translations,
rather than the out-of-date or anonymous versions often used in
cheaper paperbacks.
....


Table of Contents
Acknowledgments 9

PART I
BEGINNING:
PREPARING FOR CLASSICAL EDUCATION
Chapter 1
Training Your Own Mind:
The Classical Education You Never Had 13
Chapter 2
Wrestling with Books:
The Act of Reading 24
Chapter 3
Keeping the Journal:
A Written Record of New Ideas 34
Chapter 4
Starting to Read:
Final Preparations 41

PART II
READING:
JUMPING INTO THE GREAT CONVERSATION
Chapter 5
The Story of People:
Reading through History with the Novel 57
Chapter 6
The Story of Me:
Autobiography and Memoir 114
Chapter 7
The Story of the Past:
The Tales of Historians (and Politicians) 163
Chapter 8
The World Stage:
Reading through History with Drama 240
Chapter 9
History Refracted:
The Poets and Their Poems 307
Permissions 405
Index 407


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- Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams -

Matthew Walker, PhD


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 Copyright©   
 2017 by Matthew Walker

About the Author
MATTHEW WALKER, PHD, is a professor of neuroscience and psychology at UC Berkeley, the
director of its Sleep and Neuroimaging Lab, and a former professor of psychiatry at Harvard
University. He has published more than a hundred scientific studies and has appeared on 60
Minutes, Nova, BBC News, and NPR’s Science Friday. Why We Sleep is his first book.

MEET THE AUTHORS, WATCH VIDEOS AND MORE AT
....

Conclusion
To Sleep or Not to Sleep

Within the space of a mere hundred years, human beings have abandoned their biologically
mandated need for adequate sleep—one that evolution spent 3,400,000 years perfecting in service
of life-support functions. As a result, the decimation of sleep throughout industrialized nations is
having a catastrophic impact on our health, our life expectancy, our safety, our productivity, and
the education of our children.
This silent sleep loss epidemic is the greatest public health challenge we face in the twenty-first
century in developed nations. If we wish to avoid the suffocating noose of sleep neglect, the
premature death it inflicts, and the sickening health it invites, a radical shift in our personal,
cultural, professional, and societal appreciation of sleep must occur.
I believe it is time for us to reclaim our right to a full night of sleep, without embarrassment or
the damaging stigma of laziness. In doing so, we can be reunited with that most powerful elixir of
wellness and vitality, dispensed through every conceivable biological pathway. Then we may
remember what it feels like to be truly awake during the day, infused with the very deepest
plenitude of being.
....


Table of Contents
– Part 1 –
This Thing Called Sleep
Chapter 1 To Sleep . . .
Chapter 2 Caffeine, Jet Lag, and Melatonin: Losing and Gaining Control of Your Sleep Rhythm
Chapter 3 Defining and Generating Sleep: Time Dilation and What We Learned from a Baby in
1952
Chapter 4 Ape Beds, Dinosaurs, and Napping with Half a Brain: Who Sleeps, How Do We Sleep,
and How Much?
Chapter 5 Changes in Sleep Across the Life Span
– Part 2 –
Why Should You Sleep?
Chapter 6 Your Mother and Shakespeare Knew: The Benefits of Sleep for the Brain
Chapter 7 Too Extreme for the Guinness Book of World Records: Sleep Deprivation and the Brain
Chapter 8 Cancer, Heart Attacks, and a Shorter Life: Sleep Deprivation and the Body
– Part 3 –
How and Why We Dream
Chapter 9 Routinely Psychotic: REM-Sleep Dreaming
Chapter 10 Dreaming as Overnight Therapy
Chapter 11 Dream Creativity and Dream Control
– Part 4 –
From Sleeping Pills to Society Transformed
Chapter 12 Things That Go Bump in the Night: Sleep Disorders and Death Caused by No Sleep
Chapter 13 iPads, Factory Whistles, and Nightcaps: What’s Stopping You from Sleeping?
Chapter 14 Hurting and Helping Your Sleep: Pills vs. Therapy
Chapter 15 Sleep and Society: What Medicine and Education Are Doing Wrong; What Google
and NASA Are Doing Right
Chapter 16 A New Vision for Sleep in the Twenty-First Century
Conclusion: To Sleep or Not to Sleep
Acknowledgments
About the Author
Appendix: Twelve Tips for Healthy Sleep
Illustration Permissions


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SCRIBNER and design are registered trademarks of The Gale Group, Inc., used under license by Simon & Schuster, Inc., the publisher of this work.

Interior design by Jill Putorti
Jacket design by Jaya Miceli
Jacket photograph © Charles Morgan Smith/Photonica/Getty Images

by Leif H. Smith, PsyD, and Todd M. Kays, PhD

Published by
John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
6045 Freemont Blvd.
Mississauga, ON L5R 4J3
www.wiley.com

Sports—Psychological aspects

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 Copyright©   
 2010
 by John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd 

About the Authors
Leif H. Smith, PsyD, is the president of Personal Best Consulting, a sports
psychology and performance consultation fi rm located in Hilliard, Ohio. He
has worked with hundreds of individual athletes from all walks of life — from
amateurs and weekend warriors to professional athletes from Major League
Baseball, the National Basketball Association, and the National Football
League. Leif’s company contracts with the Department of Athletics at The
Ohio State University to provide counseling and performance consultation
to its 36 sports and nearly 1,000 athletes. He has also worked with teams
and athletes from The University of Iowa and Duquesne University, among
others. Leif is an adjunct faculty member at the University of Dayton, teaching
graduate courses in clinical assessment. He earned his doctorate in clinical
psychology from The Chicago School of Professional Psychology and did
his postdoctoral fellowship in applied sports psychology and counseling at
The Ohio State University Sports Medicine Center. His work has been cited
in publications such as The New York Times, The Columbus Dispatch, and
Entrepreneur magazine, among others.

Todd M. Kays, PhD, is president of the Athletic Mind Institute, a sports and
performance consulting fi rm in Dublin, Ohio. He is a licensed psychologist,
devoted to helping athletes and people of all walks of life achieve peak
performance on a consistent and frequent basis. He attended the University
of Notre Dame for his undergraduate degree and earned his doctorate at
the State University of New York at Buffalo. His training and guidance have
helped hundreds of athletes eliminate the most common mental errors and
breakdowns in sports. For fi ve years, Todd was the sports psychologist for
the Columbus Crew, the major league soccer team in Columbus, Ohio; he
continues to work with numerous soccer players and coaches throughout
the country. He has consulted with athletes and coaches from all different
levels of sports, including Major League Soccer, USA Olympic Hockey, the
Professional Golf Association, and the Ladies Professional Golf Association.
He consults regularly with the athletic departments at The Ohio State
University and Ohio University, both of which he serves as an adjunct
faculty member. Todd was the fi rst sports psychology fellow at The Ohio
State University, training several athletes, coaches, and teams, including
national champions, all-Americans, and Olympians. He has coauthored two
books — Positive Transitions for Student Athletes: Life Skills for Transitions in
Sport, College, and Career (Holcomb Hathaway Publishing) and The Parent’s
Playbook: Developing a Gameplan for Maximizing Your Child’s Athletic
Experience (Champion Athletic Consulting ) — and produced Peak Mental
Performance in Golf: Sharpening the Mental Side of Your Game, a CD, book,
and video series addressing mental training for the sport of golf. Todd has
appeared on radio and television and in newspapers and magazines, including
ESPN, Fox Sports, the New York Post, and NASCAR Illustrated.

Introduction
Sports psychology is a relatively new field, but it’s one of the fastest-growing
areas in sports performance. Professional sports are big money, and
teams want a return on their investment in their players. So it should come
as no surprise that every NFL, NBA, MLB, and NHL team employs someone
trained in sports psychology to assist them with helping players work
through mental blocks, slumps, and general decreases in performance.
We wrote this book because we want to get the information that we teach
to elite athletes and teams to the general public. The services we provide as
sports psychologists can be expensive, and most athletes who are just
looking for a way to get the edge in their sports participation can’t afford to
fork over hundreds of dollars to meet with their own sports psychologist.
With this book, you don’t have to — you hold in your hands the same
information we share with our clients, for a tiny fraction of the cost.
This book is packed full of information that can help you get more out of
your physical talent. We’ve filled this book with techniques and skills that
we teach to professional and Olympic athletes — skills that you can apply in
your own training today.


Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................. 1
About This Book ..............................................................................................1
Conventions Used in This Book .....................................................................2
What You’re Not to Read ................................................................................2
Foolish Assumptions .......................................................................................2
How This Book Is Organized ..........................................................................3
Part I: Getting the Winning Edge:
Sports Psychology Fundamentals ....................................................3
Part II: Your Mental Toolkit for Success .............................................3
Part III: Staying Competitive: Sports Psychology in Action ..............4
Part IV: Improving Team Performance with Sports Psychology .....4
Part V: Sports Psychology for Coaches and Parents.........................4
Part VI: The Part of Tens .......................................................................5
Icons Used in This Book .................................................................................5
Where to Go from Here ...................................................................................6
Part I: Getting the Winning Edge:
Sports Psychology Fundamentals ................................... 7
Chapter 1: Introducing Sports Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Your Secret Weapon: Your Mind .................................................................10
Defi ning mental toughness .................................................................10
Setting effective goals ..........................................................................11
Understanding your motivation .........................................................11
Building confi dence in sports and life ...............................................12
Assembling Your Mental Toolkit .................................................................13
Seeing Sports Psychology in Action ............................................................13
Harnessing the Power of Teams ..................................................................14
Applying Sports Psychology as a Coach or Parent ...................................15
Chapter 2: The Gladiator Mind: Strengthening
What’s Under the Helmet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Defi ning Mental Toughness ..........................................................................17
What mental toughness is ..................................................................18
Why mental toughness matters .........................................................19
Increasing Your Mental Toughness: A Plan of Attack ...............................21
Knowing your starting point: Your mental toughness today .........21
Making the commitment .....................................................................22
Preparing for specifi c situations ........................................................25
Evaluating and measuring your progress .........................................26
Chapter 3: Setting Goals: Aiming High and Hitting the Bull’s-Eye . . .29
Setting Effective Goals ..................................................................................30
Determining your goals .......................................................................31
Making your goals specifi c .................................................................33
Setting goals that challenge you ........................................................34
Setting deadlines for each goal ..........................................................34
Tracking Your Success in Reaching Your Goals ........................................35
Holding yourself accountable ............................................................35
Coming up with a way to measure your goals .................................36
Giving yourself permission to adjust your goals .............................38
Chapter 4: Stoking the Fire in Your Belly:
How to Fan the Flames of Motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Debunking Common Myths about Motivation ...........................................40
You can get your motivation from other people .............................40
Fame and fortune are great motivators ............................................40
Motivation alone can lead to success ...............................................41
Defi ning Motivation .......................................................................................41
The two types of motivation: Internal and external ........................41
Identifying which type of motivation is better .................................43
Assessing and Understanding Your Current Motivation Level ...............43
Measuring your motivation ................................................................43
Making sense of your motivation .......................................................44
Maximizing Your Motivation: How Fires Can Become Bonfi res ..............45
Being completely honest with yourself.............................................46
Thinking about why you play the game ............................................46
Focusing on tasks, not ego .................................................................46
Finding ways to experience success .................................................47
Mixing up your training .......................................................................47
Surrounding yourself with highly motivated people ......................47
Being disciplined ..................................................................................48
Seeking support ...................................................................................48
Moving on from your mistakes ..........................................................48
Thinking positive .................................................................................48
Overcoming Obstacles to Staying Motivated .............................................49
When your role on the team has changed ........................................49
When you’re burned out .....................................................................49
When you’re being pulled in different directions ............................50
When you’re not seeing eye to eye
with your coaches and teammates ................................................51
When your priorities in life change ...................................................52
Chapter 5: Swagger: The Art and Science of
Building Real Confi dence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
What Confi dence Is and Why It Matters .....................................................55
Debunking Myths about Confi dence ...........................................................56
Tapping Into the Confi dence Cycle .............................................................58
Thinking positive .................................................................................59
Taking risks...........................................................................................60
Experiencing success ..........................................................................61
Building Your Confi dence .............................................................................61
Focusing on day-to-day success ........................................................62
Concentrating on process, not outcomes ........................................63
Tackling the Obstacles That Get in the Way of Confi dence .....................64
When you have a bad game ................................................................65
When you’re not getting playing time ...............................................66
When you’re sick or injured ...............................................................66
When you aren’t as prepared as you could be ................................67
Part II: Your Mental Toolkit for Success ....................... 69
Chapter 6: Mastering the Art of Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
What Focus Is and Why It Matters ..............................................................72
Thinking Big or Sweating the Small Stuff: The Zones of Focus ................74
Focusing on What Matters ............................................................................76
Relevant points of focus......................................................................76
Irrelevant points of focus ....................................................................77
Using Focus to Reduce or Eliminate Pressure ...........................................80
Overcoming the Obstacles to Focus ...........................................................81
Thinking about outcomes ...................................................................81
Getting too emotional ..........................................................................82
Letting off-the-fi eld stuff get in the way.............................................83
Dealing with fans, offi cials, and coaches ..........................................83
Improving Your Focus ...................................................................................84
Chapter 7: Seeing Is Believing: What You Need
to Know about Imagery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Introducing Imagery ......................................................................................88
Internal imagery: From your own point of view ...............................89
External imagery: Looking at yourself from the outside ................89
Determining What Type of Imager You Are ...............................................90
Visual: Monkey see, monkey do .........................................................91
Auditory: I hear you loud and clear ...................................................91
Physical: I feel you, man ......................................................................92
Considering the Key Characteristics of Ideal Images ...............................92
Painting images with vivid detail .......................................................93
Picturing images of your success ......................................................94
Getting Started with Imagery .......................................................................96
What to image ......................................................................................96
When to use imagery ...........................................................................98
Where to use imagery .......................................................................100
Evaluating the Success of Your Imagery ..................................................101
Chapter 8: Self-Talk: Making Sure You’re Not
Yelling in Your Own Ear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Considering the Consequences of Self-Talk .............................................105
The two types of self-talk: Positive and negative...........................106
How self-talk affects performance ...................................................106
Changing the Channel on Negative Self-Talk ............................................109
Paying attention to the messages you send yourself ....................109
Stopping the negativity .....................................................................111
Replacing negatives with positives .................................................111
Using Self-Talk to Improve Your Performance .........................................114
Journaling before practice ................................................................114
Coming up with cue words ...............................................................115
Creating a mental recovery routine.................................................115
Practicing positive imagery ..............................................................117
Chapter 9: Getting a Hold of Your Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Time Management versus Task Management:
Recognizing the Difference .....................................................................120
Time management: The old way ......................................................120
Task management: An easier way to manage your time...............121
Clarifying Your Values ................................................................................122
Setting Priorities ..........................................................................................125
Adding Up the Hours You Waste ...............................................................127
Maintaining Accountability ........................................................................128
Part III: Staying Competitive:
Sports Psychology in Action ...................................... 131
Chapter 10: Winning Habits: How Routines
Improve Performance in Competition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
Identifying How Routines Improve Focus and Performance ..................135
Recognizing the Difference between Routines and Superstitions .........136
Exploring the Routines of Elite Athletes ...................................................138
Example #1: First on the fi eld ...........................................................139
Example #2: Leisurely and relaxed ..................................................140
Example #3: Movies and meditation................................................141
Coming Up with Effective Practice and Game-Day Routines .................141
Practice routines ................................................................................142
Game-day routines .............................................................................145
Knowing When and How to Adjust Your Routines ..................................147
Chapter 11: Handling Pressure: Playing in the
Fire without Getting Burned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Probing into Pressure: What It Is and Why It Occurs .............................150
The signs of pressure ........................................................................150
What causes pressure in sports.......................................................152
Why some athletes choke under pressure .....................................153
Understanding the Difference between Arousal and Pressure ..............154
Handling Pressure like a Pro ......................................................................157
Focusing on the task at hand ...........................................................157
Being prepared, in every way ...........................................................157
Getting perspective ...........................................................................160
Changing your self-talk ......................................................................160
Understanding what you have control over ...................................161
Journaling ...........................................................................................162
Breathing and stretching ..................................................................163
Chapter 12: Staying Strong: The Importance of
Managing Energy Levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
Eliminating Energy Wasters .......................................................................167
Negative self-talk ................................................................................168
Emotional excess ...............................................................................168
Lack of preparation ...........................................................................169
Tracking Your Energy Levels .....................................................................170
During practice...................................................................................171
Before competition ............................................................................171
During competition ............................................................................171
Managing Your Energy Levels ....................................................................172
Identifying your ideal competitive state .........................................173
Pumping yourself up .........................................................................173
Competitive relaxation: Relaxing while kicking butt .....................175
Chapter 13: Handling Adversity: The Psychological Art
of Bouncing Back. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Looking at Loss Differently .........................................................................182
Recognizing that loss isn’t necessarily failure ...............................182
Seeing the difference between getting beat and losing.................183
Pulling Yourself Out of Slumps ..................................................................183
Understanding why slumps happen ................................................184
Focusing on fundamentals ................................................................184
Being mindful......................................................................................185
Bouncing Back after Mistakes in Competition .........................................187
Knowing what happens mentally after a mistake ..........................187
Establishing a post-mistake routine ................................................189
Dealing with Injuries ....................................................................................191
Preventing injuries .............................................................................192
Coping with injuries...........................................................................194
Part IV: Improving Team Performance
with Sports Psychology ............................................. 199
Chapter 14: Communicating as a Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201
Dispelling Common Misconceptions about Communication .................202
Communication is all about the words you say .............................202
As long as you say it, they’ll hear it .................................................203
Understanding How You Communicate:
What You Say without Words ................................................................204
Body language ....................................................................................205
Tone of voice ......................................................................................207
Setting Up the Conditions for Ideal Communication ..............................207
The right time .....................................................................................207
The right place ...................................................................................208
Improving Your Communication Skills .....................................................209
Don’t take things personally.............................................................209
Remember what they say about assuming .....................................210
Focus on the present, not the past ..................................................210
Never say “always” or “never” .........................................................211
Chapter 15: Leading Your Team to Victory: Athletes as Leaders. . . .213
Knowing What Leadership Is (And What It Isn’t) ....................................214
Investigating Your Style of Leadership .....................................................215
The dictator ........................................................................................215
The people’s champion .....................................................................215
The hands-off leader ..........................................................................216
Being the Leader in the Big Moments .......................................................217
Before competition ............................................................................217
During competition ............................................................................217
After competition ...............................................................................218
In the off-season .................................................................................219
During practice...................................................................................220
Off the fi eld .........................................................................................220
Enhancing Your Leadership Skills .............................................................223
Building trust and respect ................................................................223
Walking the walk ................................................................................223
Holding your teammates accountable ............................................224
Modeling effective leadership ..........................................................225
Chapter 16: Developing Teamwork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
Developing a Team Mission .......................................................................230
Coming up with your mission statement ........................................230
Getting the buy-in of everyone on the team ...................................231
For Coaches: Helping Your Players Come Together as a Team ............232
Defi ning your players’ roles and responsibilities ..........................232
Getting the team to take ownership of their success....................233
Building a “we” mentality instead of a “me” mentality .................235
Managing egos ....................................................................................236
For Players: Putting Your Team above Yourself .....................................237
Getting to know your teammates .....................................................237
Knowing and embracing your role on the team ............................238
Recognizing that you’re responsible for your
own success and failure ................................................................239
Part V: Sports Psychology for Coaches and Parents ..... 243
Chapter 17: Coaching Today’s Athlete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
Improving Your Athletes’ Focus ................................................................246
Preparing athletes for practice ........................................................246
Keeping athletes focused ..................................................................248
Tracking and evaluating your athletes’ focus ................................248
Teaching Your Athletes to Perform under Pressure ..............................249
Simulating competition .....................................................................250
Using imagery before, during, and after practice ..........................250
Creating pressure-packed drills .......................................................251
Motivating Your Athletes ...........................................................................253
Showing them the big picture ..........................................................254
Designing fast-moving practices ......................................................256
Finding inspiration .............................................................................256
Getting Your Athletes to Play as a Team ..................................................258
Discussing the common mission everyday ....................................258
Demonstrating how “we” is better than “me” ................................259
Giving teamwork more than lip service ..........................................260
Chapter 18: Parenting an Athlete: How to
Be More than Just a Fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Differentiating Between Your Motivation and Your Kids’ ......................264
Encouraging Your Kids Instead of Pushing Them ...................................266
Getting Your Kids Ready for the Game .....................................................267
Asking what they need ......................................................................268
Providing pre-game reminders and encouragement .....................268
Emphasizing effort .............................................................................269
Focusing on fun ..................................................................................269
Cheering on Your Kid the Right Way ........................................................270
Cheer, but don’t yell ..........................................................................270
Follow the 24-hour rule .....................................................................271
Let the coach coach ..........................................................................271
Have a sense of humor ......................................................................271
Be patient with offi cials .....................................................................272
Don’t play the blame game ...............................................................272
Keep age and skill level in mind .......................................................272
Be a role model ..................................................................................273
Teach, don’t lecture ..........................................................................273
Understanding and Managing Athletic Burnout ......................................273
Talking with Your Kids When They Want to Quit ...................................276
Exploring the best decision for your kid ........................................276
Separating yourself from the process .............................................277
Finding the right time ........................................................................278
Exiting gracefully ...............................................................................280
Part VI: The Part of Tens ........................................... 281
Chapter 19: Ten Ways You Can Use Sports Psychology at the Offi ce...283
Preparing for the Workday .........................................................................283
Defi ning Career Success .............................................................................284
Balancing Work and Your Personal Life ...................................................285
Concentrating Amidst Distractions ...........................................................286
Taking a Timeout from Stress ....................................................................286
Performing Well Under Pressure ...............................................................288
Developing Effective Work Routines .........................................................288
Focusing On Tasks rather than Outcomes ...............................................289
Coping with Confl ict and Adversity on the Job .......................................290
Enlisting Your Own Support Team ............................................................291
Chapter 20: Ten Ways to Be a Better Competitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
Evaluate Where You Are .............................................................................293
Know What Motivates You .........................................................................294
Defi ne Your Goals ........................................................................................294
Set an Action Plan ........................................................................................295
Improve Gradually and Consistently ........................................................295
Train Your Mind Daily .................................................................................296
Improve Your Physical Skills .....................................................................296
Tweak Your Methods ..................................................................................297
Develop and Maintain Your Fitness ..........................................................297
Seek Out Pressure .......................................................................................297
Chapter 21: Ten Ways to Manage Stress Better. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
Prioritize .......................................................................................................300
Strive for Balance ........................................................................................300
Meditate ........................................................................................................301
Use Imagery ..................................................................................................302
Manage Your Thoughts and Emotions .....................................................302
Exercise .........................................................................................................303
Get Enough Sleep .........................................................................................304
Cultivate a Support Network ......................................................................305
Laugh .............................................................................................................305
Practice Gratitude .......................................................................................306
Chapter 22: Ten Ways to Parent an Athlete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
Deciding Whether to Specialize .................................................................309
Choosing the Right League .........................................................................311
Knowing What to Say after a Loss .............................................................311
Being a Fan, not a Coach .............................................................................312
Cheering, not Yelling ...................................................................................312
Talking with Your Kid’s Coach ..................................................................313
Rewarding the Things That Matter ...........................................................314
Budgeting Your Time and Money ..............................................................314
Focusing on Learning Life Skills .................................................................315
Living Your Own Life instead of Living through Your Kid .....................316
Index ....................................................................... 317

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About This Book
Most sports psychology books provide good stories and education on sports
psychology concepts, but they don’t take the next step and cover actual
techniques and strategies that athletes can use. In this book, we do exactly that.
Plus, this book is organized for busy athletes who are on the go and don’t
have a lot of time to waste. The information is easy to access and written in
plain English, without any psychobabble to bog you down. You don’t need
a PhD to understand this book. All you need is a thirst for knowledge and a
willingness to work hard to reach your goals — we bring the rest.

Romeo T. Toledo
Rakesh K. Singh
Fanbin Kong


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Book Details
 Price
 3.00
 Pages
 463 p
 File Size 
 16,419 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 978-3-319-90097-1
 978-3-319-90098-8 (eBook)
 Copyright©   
 Springer International Publishing AG,
 part of Springer Nature 2007, 2018 2nd edition 
 ©Aspen Publishers, Inc. 1999

Preface
Since the publication of the first edition in 1981, the second edition in 2001,
and the third edition in 2007, this textbook has been widely adopted for Food
Engineering courses worldwide. The authors express their gratitude to
colleagues who have adopted this textbook and to those who have made
constructive criticisms on the materials in the previous editions. This new
edition not only incorporates changes suggested by colleagues, but additional
materials have been added to include facilitated problem-solving using a
computer and new food processing and food product technologies, such
aseptic processing and emerging food processing technologies. New sections
have been added in most of the chapters reflecting the current state of the
technology. The expanded coverage may result in not enough time available
in a school term to cover all areas; therefore, instructors are advised to
carefully peruse the book and select the most appropriate sections to cover
in a school term. The advantage of the expanded coverage is the elimination of
the need for a supplementary textbook.

The success of this textbook has been attributed to the expansive coverage
of subject areas specified in the Institute of Food Technologists model curriculum
for food science majors in the USA and the use of examples utilizing
conditions encountered in actual food processing operations. This theme
continues in the fourth edition. In addition to the emphasis on problemsolving,
technological principles that form the basis for a process are
presented so that the process can be better understood and selection of
processing parameters to maximize product quality and safety can be made
more effective. The fourth edition incorporates most of what was in the third
edition with most of the material updated to include the use of computers in
problem-solving. Use of the spreadsheet and macros such as the determinant
for solving simultaneous linear equations, the solver function, and programming
in Visual BASIC are used throughout the book. The manual problemsolving
approach has not been abandoned in favor of the computer approach.

Thus, users can still apply the concepts to better understand a process rather
than just mechanically entering inputs into a preprogrammed algorithm.
Entirely new sections include enthalpy change calculations in freezing
based on the freezing point depression, evaporative cooling, interpretation
of pump performance curves, determination of shape factors in heat exchange
by radiation, unsteady-state heat transfer, kinetic data for thermal degradation
of foods during thermal processing, pasteurization parameters for shelf-stable
high-acid foods and long-life refrigerated low-acid foods, high-pressure
processing of fluid and packaged foods, concentration of juices, environmentally
friendly refrigerants, modified atmosphere packaging of produce, sorption
equations for water activity of solid foods, the osmotic pressure and water
activity relationships, vacuum dehydration, new membranes commercially
available for food processing and waste treatment, and supercritical fluid extraction.

This edition contains much new hard-to-find data needed to conduct food
process engineering calculations and will be very useful as a sourcebook of
data and calculation techniques for practicing food engineers.
Athens, GA, USA 
Romeo T. Toledo
Rakesh Singh
Fanbin Kong



Table of Contents
1 Units and Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Systems of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 The SI System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3.1 Units in SI and Their Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3.2 Prefixes Recommended for Use in SI . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Conversion of Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4.1 Precision, Rounding-Off Rule,
and Significant Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.5 The Dimensional Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.6 Conversion of Units Using the Dimensional Equation . . . 4
1.7 The Dimensional Constant (Gc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.8 Determination of Appropriate SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.9 Dimensional Consistency of Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.10 Conversion of Dimensional Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2 Material Balances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1 Basic Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1.1 Law of Conservation of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1.2 Process Flow Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1.3 System Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.1.4 Total Mass Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.5 Component Mass Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.1.6 Basis and “Tie Material” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2 Material Balance Problems Involved in Dilution,
Concentration, and Dehydration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2.1 Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2.2 Volume Changes on Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2.3 Continuous Versus Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.4 Recycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.5 Unsteady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3 Blending of Food Ingredients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.3.1 Total Mass and Component Balances . . . . . . . . 22
2.3.2 Use of Specified Constraints in Equations . . . . . 25
2.4 Multistage Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3 Gases and Vapors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.1 Equations of State for Ideal and Real Gases . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.1.1 The Kinetic Theory of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.1.2 Absolute Temperature and Pressure . . . . . . . . . 42
3.1.3 Quantity of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.1.4 The Ideal Gas Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.1.5 Van Der Waals Equation of State . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.1.6 Critical Conditions for Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.1.7 Gas Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.2 Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.2.1 Thermodynamic Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.2.2 The Relationship Between Cp and Cv
for Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.2.3 P-V-T Relationships for Ideal Gases
in Thermodynamic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.2.4 Changes in Thermodynamic Properties, Work,
and Heat Associated with Thermodynamic
Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.2.5 Work and Enthalpy Change on Adiabatic
Expansion or Compression of an Ideal Gas . . . . 51
3.2.6 Work and Enthalpy Change on Isothermal
Expansion or Compression of an Ideal Gas . . . . 52
3.3 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.3.1 The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.3.2 Liquid Condensation from Gas Mixtures . . . . . . 53
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4 Energy Balances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.1 General Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.2 Energy Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.2.1 Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.2.2 Heat Content, Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.2.3 Specific Heat of Solids and Liquids . . . . . . . . . 58
4.3 Enthalpy Changes in Foods During Freezing . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.3.1 Correlation Equations Based on Freezing
Points of Food Products Unmodified
from the Natural State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.3.2 Enthalpy Changes During the Freezing
of Foods Calculated from Molality of Liquid
Water Fraction of the Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.3.3 Freezing Point Depression by Solutes . . . . . . . . 64
4.3.4 Amount of Liquid Water and Ice at Temperatures
Below Freezing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.3.5 Sensible Heat of Water and Ice
at Temperatures Below the Freezing Point . . . . 65
4.3.6 Total Enthalpy Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.3.7 Specific Heats of Gases and Vapors . . . . . . . . . 66
4.4 Properties of Saturated and Superheated Steam . . . . . . . . 68
4.4.1 The Steam Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.4.2 Properties of Steam Having Less Than 100%
Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.5 Heat Balances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5 Flow of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
5.1 The Concept of Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
5.2 Rheology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.2.1 Viscometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.2.2 Effect of Temperature on Rheological
Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.2.3 Back Extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5.2.4 Determination of Rheological Properties
of Fluids Using Rotational Viscometers . . . . . . 99
5.3 Continuous Viscosity Monitoring and Control . . . . . . . . . 104
5.3.1 Capillary Viscometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.3.2 Rotational Viscometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.3.3 Viscosity-Sensitive Rotameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
5.4 Flow of Falling Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
5.4.1 Films of Constant Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
5.4.2 Time-Dependent Film Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . 108
5.4.3 Processes Dependent on Fluid Film
Thicknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
5.5 Transportation of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
5.5.1 Momentum Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
5.5.2 The Continuity Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
5.6 Fluid Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
5.6.1 The Reynolds Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
5.6.2 Pipes and Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
5.6.3 Frictional Resistance to Flow of Newtonian
Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
5.6.4 Frictional Resistance to Flow of Non-Newtonian
Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
5.6.5 Frictional Resistance Offered by Pipe Fittings
to Fluid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
5.7 Mechanical Energy Balance: The Bernoulli Equation . . . . 120
5.8 Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
5.8.1 Types of Pumps and Their Characteristics . . . . . 124
5.8.2 Factors to Be Considered in Pump Selection . . . 124
5.8.3 Performance Curves of Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
6 Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
6.1 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
6.1.1 Heat Transfer by Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
6.1.2 Fourier’s First Law of Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . 135
6.1.3 Estimation of Thermal Conductivity of Food
Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
6.1.4 Fourier’s Second Law of Heat Transfer . . . . . . . 138
6.1.5 Temperature Profile for Unidirectional Heat
Transfer Through a Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
6.1.6 Conduction Heat Transfer Through Walls
of a Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
6.1.7 The Temperature Profile in the Walls
of a Cylinder in Steady-State Heat Transfer . . . . 141
6.1.8 Heat Transfer by Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
6.1.9 Heat Transfer by Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
6.1.10 Microwave and Dielectric Heating . . . . . . . . . . 149
6.2 Temperature Measuring Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
6.2.1 Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
6.2.2 Fluid-Filled Thermometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
6.2.3 Bimetallic Strip Thermometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
6.2.4 Resistance Temperature Devices (RTDs) . . . . . . 154
6.2.5 Thermocouples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
6.2.6 Radiation Pyrometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
6.2.7 Accurate Temperature Measurements . . . . . . . . 155
6.3 Steady-State Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
6.3.1 The Concept of Resistance to Heat Transfer . . . 155
6.3.2 Combined Convection and Conduction:
The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient . . . . . . . . 156
6.4 Heat Exchange Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
6.4.1 Heat Transfer in Heat Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . 160
6.4.2 The Logarithmic Mean Temperature
Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
6.5 Local Heat Transfer Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
6.5.1 Dimensionless Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
6.5.2 Equations for Calculating Heat Transfer
Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
6.6 Unsteady-State Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
6.6.1 Heating of Solids Having Infinite Thermal
Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
6.6.2 Solids with Finite Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . 170
6.6.3 The Semi-Infinite Slab with Constant
Surface Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
6.6.4 The Infinite Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
6.6.5 Temperature Distribution for a Brick-Shaped
Solid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
6.6.6 Use of Heisler and Gurney-Lurie Charts . . . . . . 174
6.7 Calculating Surface Heat Transfer Coefficients
from Experimental Heating Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
6.8 Freezing Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Suggested Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
7 Kinetics of Chemical Reactions in Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.1 Theory of Reaction Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.2 Types of Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.2.1 Unimolecular Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.2.2 Bimolecular Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
7.2.3 Reversible Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
7.3 Enzyme Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
7.4 Reaction Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
7.4.1 Zero-Order Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
7.4.2 First-Order Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
7.4.3 Second-Order Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
7.4.4 nth-Order Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
7.5 Reactions Where Product Concentration Is Rate
Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
7.6 The Reaction Rate Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.7 Temperature Dependence of Reaction Rates . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.7.1 The Arrhenius Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.7.2 The Q10 Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
7.7.3 The z Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
7.8 Determination of Reaction Kinetic Parameters . . . . . . . . . 191
7.9 Use of Chemical Reaction Kinetic Data for Thermal
Process Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
8 Thermal Process Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
8.1 Processes and Systems for Stabilization of Foods for Shelf-
Stable Storage: Systems Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
8.1.1 In-Container Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
8.1.2 Processing Products Packaged in Flexible Plastic
Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
8.1.3 Processing in Glass Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
8.1.4 Flame Sterilization Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
8.1.5 Continuous Flow Sterilization: Aseptic
or Cold Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
8.1.6 Steam-Air Mixtures for Thermal Processing . . . 201
8.2 Microbiological Inactivation Rates at Constant Temperature 201
8.2.1 Rate of Microbial Inactivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
8.2.2 Shape of Microbial Inactivation Curves . . . . . . 202
8.2.3 Sterilizing Value or Lethality of a Process . . . . . 204
8.2.4 Acceptable Sterilizing Value for Processes . . . . 205
8.2.5 Selection of Inoculation Levels in Inoculated
Packs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
8.2.6 Determination of D Values Using
the Partial Sterilization Technique . . . . . . . . . . 207
8.2.7 The Heat Resistance of Spoilage Microorganisms 207
8.2.8 F0 Values Used in Commercial Sterilization
of Canned Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
8.2.9 Surface Sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
8.3 Effect of Temperature on Thermal Inactivation of
Microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
8.4 Inactivation of Microorganisms and Enzymes in
Continuously Flowing Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
8.4.1 Time and Temperature Used in the Pasteurization
of Fluid Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
8.4.2 Microbial Inactivation in Continuously
Flowing Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
8.4.3 Nutrient Degradation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
8.4.4 High-Pressure Pasteurization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
8.4.5 Sterilization of Fluids Containing Discreet
Particulates by Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
8.5 Sterilizing Value of Processes Expressed as F0 . . . . . . . . . 223
8.6 Thermal Process Calculations for Canned Foods . . . . . . . 223
8.6.1 The General Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
8.6.2 Heat Transfer Equations and Time-Temperature
Curves for Canned Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
8.6.3 Plotting Heat Penetration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
8.6.4 Formula Methods for Thermal Process Evaluation 231
8.6.5 Evaluation of Probability of Spoilage from a
Given Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
8.7 Broken Heating Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
8.8 Quality Factor Degradation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
9 Aseptic Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
9.1 The System and Its Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
9.2 Characteristics of Specific Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
9.2.1 Flow Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
9.2.2 Heat Transfer/Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
9.2.3 Hold Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
9.2.4 Deaerators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
9.2.5 Aseptic Surge Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
9.3 Thermal Process for the Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
9.3.1 Influence of Product Characteristics . . . . . . . . . 252
9.3.2 Thermal Process Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
9.4 Flow Characteristics of Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
9.4.1 Residence Time Distribution (RTD) . . . . . . . . . 258
9.5 Heat Transfer to Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
9.6 Filling and Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
9.7 Monitors and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
9.8 Processing System Sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
9.8.1 Maintenance of Sterility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
9.8.2 Process Confirmation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
10 Refrigeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
10.1 Mechanical Refrigeration System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
10.1.1 Principle of Operation: The Heat Pump . . . . . . . 277
10.1.2 Refrigerants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
10.1.3 The Refrigeration Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
10.1.4 The Refrigeration Cycle as a Series of
Thermodynamic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
10.1.5 The Refrigeration Cycle on the Pressure/Enthalpy
Diagram for a Given Refrigerant . . . . . . . . . . . 281
10.1.6 The Condenser and Evaporator . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
10.1.7 The Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
10.2 Refrigeration Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
10.2.1 Heat Incursion Through Enclosures . . . . . . . . . 292
10.2.2 Heat Incursion Through Cracks
and Crevices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
10.2.3 Heat Incursion Through Open Doors . . . . . . . . 293
10.2.4 Heat Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
10.2.5 The Unsteady-State Refrigeration Load . . . . . . . 295
10.3 Commodity Storage Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
10.4 Controlled Atmosphere Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
10.4.1 Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
10.4.2 CA Gas Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
10.5 Modified Atmosphere Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
10.5.1 Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fruit,
Vegetables, Bakery Products, and Nuts . . . . . . . 301
10.5.2 MAP of Fresh Ready to Cook Meats . . . . . . . . 302
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
11 Evaporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
11.1 Single-Effect Evaporators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
11.1.1 The Vapor Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
11.1.2 The Condenser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
11.1.3 Removal of Noncondensible Gases . . . . . . . . . . 310
11.1.4 The Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
11.2 Improving the Economy of Evaporators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
11.2.1 Vapor Recompression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
11.2.2 Multiple-Effect Evaporators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
11.2.3 Entrainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
11.2.4 Essence Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
11.2.5 Temperature-Accelerated Short-Time Evaporator
(TASTE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
12 Dehydration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
12.1 Water Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
12.1.1 Thermodynamic Basis for Water Activity . . . . . 321
12.1.2 Osmotic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
12.1.3 Water Activity at High Moisture Contents . . . . . 323
12.1.4 Water Activity at Low Moisture Contents . . . . . 327
12.2 Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
12.2.1 Mass Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
12.2.2 Mass Transfer from Surfaces
to Flowing Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
12.3 Psychrometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
12.3.1 Carrying Capacity of Gases for Vapors . . . . . . . 334
12.3.2 The Psychrometric Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
12.3.3 Use of Psychrometric Chart to Follow
Changes in the Properties of Air-Water Mixtures
Through a Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
12.4 Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer in Dehydration . . . 338
12.5 The Stages of Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
12.6 Prediction of Drying Times from Drying Rate Data . . . . . 340
12.6.1 Materials with One Falling Rate Stage
Where the Rate of Drying Curve Goes
Through the Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
12.6.2 Materials with More than One Falling
Rate Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
12.6.3 The Constant Drying Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
12.7 Spray Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
12.7.1 Drying Times in Spray Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
12.8 Freeze Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
12.8.1 Drying Times for Symmetrical Drying . . . . . . . 349
12.9 Vacuum Belt Drier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
13 Physical Separation Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
13.1 Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
13.1.1 Filtrate Flow Through Filter Cake . . . . . . . . . . 356
13.1.2 Constant Pressure Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
13.1.3 Filtration Rate Model Equations for Prolonged
Filtration When Filter Cakes Exhibit
Time-Dependent Specific Resistance . . . . . . . . 360
13.1.4 Exponential Dependence of Rate on Filtrate
Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
13.1.5 Model Equation Based on Time-Dependent
Specific Cake Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
13.1.6 Optimization of Filtration Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . 363
13.1.7 Pressure-Driven Membrane Separation Processes 365
13.1.8 Membrane System Configurations . . . . . . . . . . 367
13.1.9 Transmembrane Flux in Pressure-Driven
Membrane Separation Processes
(Polarization Concentration and Fouling) . . . . . 368
13.1.10 Solute Rejection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
13.1.11 Sterilizing Filtrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
13.1.12 Ultrafiltration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
13.1.13 Reverse Osmosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
13.1.14 Temperature Dependence of Membrane
Permeation Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
13.1.15 Other Membrane Separation Processes . . . . . . . 377
13.2 Sieving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
13.2.1 Standard Sieve Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
13.3 Gravity Separations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
13.3.1 Force Balance on Particles Suspended
in a Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
13.3.2 Terminal Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
13.3.3 The Drag Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
14 Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
14.1 Types of Extraction Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
14.1.1 Single-Stage Batch Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
14.1.2 Multistage Cross-Flow Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . 386
14.1.3 Multistage Countercurrent Extraction . . . . . . . . 386
14.1.4 Continuous Countercurrent Extractors . . . . . . . . 387
14.2 General Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
14.2.1 Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
14.2.2 Solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
14.2.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
14.3 Solid-Liquid Extraction: Leaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
14.3.1 The Extraction Battery: Number
of Extraction Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
14.3.2 Determination of the Number of Extraction
Stages Using the Ponchon-Savarit Diagram . . . . 390
14.3.3 The Lever Rule in Plotting Position of a Mixture
of Two Streams in an X-Y Diagram . . . . . . . . . 390
14.3.4 Mathematical and Graphical Representation
of the Point J in the Ponchon-Savarit
Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
14.3.5 Mathematical and Graphical Representation
of the Point P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
14.3.6 Equation of the Operating Line and
Representation on the X-Y Diagram . . . . . . . . . 393
14.3.7 Construction of the Ponchon-Savarit
Diagram for the Determination
of the Number of Ideal Extraction Stages . . . . . 393
14.4 Supercritical Fluid Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
14.4.1 Extraction Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
14.4.2 Critical Points of Supercritical Fluids
Used in Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
14.4.3 Critical Point of Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
14.4.4 Properties of Supercritical Fluids Relative
to Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
14.4.5 Supercritical Fluid Extraction Parameters . . . . . 399
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
15 Emerging Food Processing Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
15.1 Microwave and Radio Frequency Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
15.1.1 Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
15.1.2 Heat Generation by MW and RF in Food . . . . . 405
15.1.3 Penetration Depth of Microwave
and Radio-Frequency Waves in Food . . . . . . . . 407
15.1.4 Technical Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
15.1.5 Research Status and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . 410
15.2 High-Pressure Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
15.2.1 Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
15.2.2 Technical Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
15.2.3 Research Status and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . 415
15.3 Pulse Electric Field Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
15.3.1 Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
15.3.2 Technical Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
15.3.3 Research Status and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445


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