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The Encyclopedia of Clairvoyance, Channeling, and Spirit Communication

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Book Details
 522 p
 File Size 
 28,851 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 2005 by Visible Ink Press 

About the Author
Raymond Buckland has been studying and practicing
Spiritualism, fortune-telling, Witchcraft, Gypsy magic,
and other aspects of the supernatural for fifty years. He
has had nearly forty titles published, with translations in
seventeen languages, including The Witch Book, The
Fortune-Telling Book, and the classic Buckland’s Complete
Book of Witchcraft. Of Romany (Gypsy) descent,
Buckland was born in London, where he obtained a doctorate
in anthropology. In 1962 he moved to the United
States and became affiliated with Wicca pioneer Dr.
Gerald Gardner. Buckland has been the subject of and
has written countless newspaper and magazine articles, appeared on many television
and radio shows, served as technical advisor for several movies, and lectured
on college campuses nationwide.

It all officially began on the night of Friday, March 31, 1848. That was the night
when two frightened children and their mother “spoke” with the spirit of a dead
(murdered) peddler.
The episode occurred at the Fox homestead in Hydesville, Wayne County,
New York. Hydesville was a small community founded by Dr. Henry Hyde in 1815.
The Fox family rented and moved into a small cabin in the community on December
11, 1847. For several weeks, strange, unexplained taps and knocks were heard in various
parts of the house. John Fox and his wife, Margaret, would move from room to
room, carefully examining both the outside and the inside of the building, searching
for the source of these noises. They ensured that shutters were tightly fastened and
that no tree limbs rattled against the structure; that cupboard doors were fixed firmly
and animals safely penned. Yet night after night the noises continued. It was usually
during the hours of darkness that the raps and taps were heard, causing John and Margaret
to prowl the house through the night, with lanterns in hand.
As the weeks passed, the noises continued, and the Fox’s two young daughters
became more and more distraught. Margaretta was seven and Cathie, or Kate, was ten
years of age. They were disturbed by the noises but also upset by their mother’s reactions.
Margaret Fox was losing sleep and her nerves were frayed. The children begged
and were allowed to sleep in a bed in the same room as their parents. On the night of
Friday, March 31, 1848, the noises were especially loud, even in the early evening
before it really got dark. As the raps and thumps continued, young Cathie—on
impulse—sat up, clapped her hands three times, and said aloud, “Mr. Splitfoot, do as I
do.” (The children, thinking of a cloven-hoofed imp, had dubbed the perpetrator “Mr.
Splitfoot.”) Immediately there came three raps on the wall. Cathie repeated her claps
and the spirit repeated the raps. Then the girl sat silent and no noise was heard.
Cathie’s sister Margaretta cried out, “Do just as I do. Count one, two, three, four.” She
clapped her hands together to that count. Again, the raps echoed her, coming once,
twice, three times, and four times. Margaretta fell silent, in awe of the phenomenon.
Margaret Fox then had an idea. She spoke out and asked that the ages of her
children be rapped out. Immediately it happened. Each one of her seven children’s
ages was sounded. There was a slight pause at the end and then three more loud raps
were given, for the youngest child who had died at that age. Margaret was dumbfounded.
In a statement made later, she said,
I then asked, “Is this a human being that answers my questions so correctly?” There
was no rap. I asked, “Is it a spirit? If it is, make two raps.” Two sounds were given as
soon as the request was made. (History of Spiritualism, Arthur Conan Doyle)
So began the first recorded intercourse between the living and the dead. The
Foxes went on with their questions and slowly learned that the spirit was a thirty-oneyear-
old man, a peddler named Charles B. Rosna, who had been murdered in the house.
John Fox was not entirely satisfied and had his wife ask, “Will you continue to
rap if I call in my neighbors, that they may hear it too?” The raps were affirmative. Margaret
Fox called in her neighbor, Mrs. Redfield. In her testimony, Margaret recalled,
Mrs. Redfield is a very candid woman. The girls were sitting up in bed clinging
to each other and trembling in terror … Mrs. Redfield came immediately (this
was about half past seven), thinking she would have a laugh at the children. But
when she saw them pale with fright and nearly speechless, she was amazed and
believed there was something more serious than she had supposed. I asked a few
questions for her and she was answered as before. He told her age exactly. She
then called her husband, and the same questions were asked and answered. (History
of Spiritualism, Arthur Conan Doyle)

Table of Contents
Introduction [xiii]
Acknowledgments [xix]

Acorah, Derek • Adare, Lord
(1841–1926) • Affirmations • Âkâsa •
Akashic Records • Alden, Willard
(1800–1878) • Allison, Lydia Winterhalter
(1880–1959) • American Association
of Electronic Voice Phenomena •
American Psychical Institute and Laboratory
• American Society for Psychical
Research • Anderson, George •
Andrews, Mary • Angel • Anka, Darryl
• Annali Dello Spiritismo • Anthony,
Susan Brownell (1820–1906) • Apparition
• Apports • Arigó, José (1918–
1971) • Art, Automatic • Asport •
Association of Progressive Spiritualists
of Great Britain • Association for
Research and Enlightenment • Astral
Body • Astral Plane; Astral World •
Astral Projection • Atlantis • Aura • Automatism
Babbett, Elwood (b. 1922) • Bailey,
Charles • Bailey, Lillian • Balfour,
Arthur James, First Earl of (1848–1930)
• Ballou, Adin (1828–1886) • Bangs
Sisters: Elizabeth S. (1859–1922) and
May Eunice (b. 1853) • Barbanell,
Maurice (1902–1981) • Barkel, Kathleen
• Barrett, Sir William Fletcher
(1845–1926) • Bayless, Raymond •
Belk Psychic Research Foundation •
Berry, Catherine (1813–1891) • Bible •
Billets and Billet Reading • Biofeedback
• Bird, J. Malcolm • Blake, Elizabeth
(d. 1920) • Blake, William (1757–
1827) • Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna
(1831–1891) • Book of Spirits • Book
Test • Borley Rectory • Boston Society
for Psychical Research • Boursnell,
Richard (1832–1909) • British College
of Psychic Science • British National
Association of Spiritualists • Britten,
Emma Floyd Hardinge (1823–1899) •
Brown, Margaret Lumley • Brown,
Rosemary (b. 1917) • Browne, Sylvia •
Buddhism • Burroughs, Hugh Gordon
Cabinet • Caddy, Peter and Eileen •
Cahagnet, Alphonse (1809–1885) •
Camp Chesterfield • Camp Edgewood •
Camp Meetings • Campbell Brothers:
Allen B. Campbell (1833–1919) and
Charles Shourds (d. 1926) • Carington,
Walter Whateley (1884–1947) • Carrington,
Hereward (1881–1959) •
Carter, Dr. Jeremiah F. (1814–1897) •
Cassadaga Spiritualist Camp • Cayce,
Edgar (1877–1945) • Center for Spiritualist
Studies • Chair Test • Chakra •
Channeling • Chapman, George (b.
1921) • Ch’i • China • Church of the
New Jerusalem, The • Churchill, Sir
Winston Leonard Spencer (1874–1965)
• Circle • City of Light, The •
Clairalience • Clairaudience • Clairgustance
• Clairhambience • Clairsentience
• Clairvoyance • Colburn, Nettie
(Mrs. William Porter Maynard) (d.
1892) • College of Psychic Studies •
College of Spiritualist Studies •
Colville, Wilberforce Juvenal
(1860–1917) • Compton, Elizabeth J.
(b. 1830) • Computers • Cone of Power
• Control • Cook, Florence (1856–
1904) • Cook, Katie • Crandon, Mina
Stinson (“Margery”) (1888–1941) •
Croiset, Gérard (1909–1980) • Crookall,
Dr. Robert (1890–1981) • Crookes, Sir
William (1832–1919) • Cross Correspondence
• Crystal Gazing • Crystals •
Cull, Jean (b. 1943) • Cummins, Geraldine
(1890–1969) • Curran, Pearl
Davenport Brothers: Ira Erastus
(1839–1911) and William Henry
(1841–1877) • Davis, Andrew Jackson
(1826–1910) • Deane, Ada Emma • De
Gasparin, Count Agenor (1810–1871)
• De Guldenstubbé, Baron L.
(1820–1873) • Déjà Vu • Denton, Professor
William (1823–1883) • D’Esperance,
Madame (Elizabeth Hope—
1855–1919) • Development Circle •
Dingwall, Eric John (1890–1986) •
Direct Voice • Direct Writing • Distant
Healing • Divination • Divining Rod •
Dixon, Jeane (1918–1987) • Doyle, Sir
Arthur (1859–1930) • Dreams •
Drop–In • Drummer of Tedworth •
Duncan, Helen Victoria (1897–1956)
Ectoplasm • Eddy Brothers: Horatio and
William • Edmonds, John Worth
(1816–1874) • Edward, John (b. 1969)
• Edwards, Harry (1893–1976) • Eglinton,
William (b. 1857) • Egyptians •
Eisenbud, Jule (1908–1998) • Electronic
Voice Phenomena (EVP) • Empath •
Endor, Woman of • d’Esperance,
Madame (Elizabeth Hope–1855–1919)
• Eva C. (Carriere) • Evans, Colin •
Exorcism • Extrasensory Perception
(ESP) • Extraterrestrials
Fairies • Faith Healing • Fay, Annie
Eva • Fay, Mrs. H. B. • Fielding, Francis
Henry Everard (1867–1936) • Findlay,
James Arthur (1883–1966) • Flammarion,
Camille (1842–1925) • Fletcher,
John William (1852–1913) • Flint,
Leslie (1911–1994) • Flower Readings
• Fodor, Nandor (1895–1964) • Ford,
Arthur Augustus (1897–1971) • Fortune,
Dion (1891–1946) • Fortune–
Telling Book, The • Foundation for
Research on the Nature of Man, The •
Fowler, Lottie (1836–1899) • Fox Family
• Fox, Oliver (1885–1949) • Fraudulent
Mediums Act • Fry, Colin • Fuld,
William • Fuller, Curtis
Gallup Poll • Garrett, Eileen Jeanette
Vancho Lyttle (1893–1970) • de Gasparin,
Count Agenor (1810–1871) •
Gatekeeper • Gehman, Rev. Beatrice
Anne • Geller, Uri (b. 1946) • Ghost •
Glossolalia • Goligher Girls • Grant,
Joan (b. 1907) • Greece • Greeley,
Horace (1811–1972) • Guardian
Angels • Guide • Guided Meditation •
de Guldenstubbé, Baron L. (1820–1873)
• Guppy–Volckman, Agnes Nichol (d.
1917) • Gurney, Edmund (1847–1888)
• Gypsies
Hallucination • Hamilton–Parker,
Craig (b. 1954) and Jane (b. 1950) •
Hardy, Mary M. • Harmony Grove Spiritualist
Community • Haunting • Healing
• Health • Herne, Frank • History
of Spiritualism, The • Hodgson, Dr.
Richard (1855–1905) • Hollis (Hollis–
Billing), Mary J. • Home, Daniel
Dunglas (1833–1886) • Hope, William
(1863–1933) • Houdini, Harry (Ehrich
Weiss) (1874–1926) • Howe, Lyman C.
(1832–1910) • Hudson, Frederick A.
(b. ca. 1812) • Hughes, Irene • Hull,
Moses (1835–1907) • Hurkos, Peter
(1911–1988) • Husk, Cecil (1847–
1920) • Hydesville • Hypnagogic State;
Hypnopompic State • Hypnotism •
Hyslop, James Hervey (1854–1920)
Imperator • Independent Spiritualist
Association of America • Infinite Intelligence
• Infrared • Inspirational
Speaking; Writing; Art • Institut
Métapsychique International • Institute
of Noetic Sciences • Instrumental
Transcommunication (ITC) • International
College of Spiritual Science and
Healing • International Federation of
Spiritualists • International General
Assembly of Spiritualists • International
Psychic Gazette • Intuition • Italy
James, William (1842–1910) • Jesus •
Joan of Arc (1412–1431) • Juergenson,
Friedrich (1903–1987)
Kardec, Allan (1804–1869) • Karma •
Kelly, Rev. Thomas John (Jack)
(1899–1964) • Kilner, Walter John
(1847–1920) • Kirlian Photography •
Klusky, Franek (b. 1874) • Knight,
Gareth (b. 1930) • Knight, Judy “Zebra”
(b. 1946) • Koenig, Hans–Otto •
Koons, Jonathan • Kübler–Ross, Elisabeth
(1926–2004) • Kuhlman, Kathryn
Lake Pleasant • Lang, Dr. William
(1852–1937) • Lansing, Jessica • Laona
Free Association • Layne, Al • Leadbeater,
Charles Webster (1847–1934) •
Lees, Robert James (1849–1931) •
Leonard, Gladys Osborne (1882–1968)
• Le Shan, Dr. Lawrence (b. 1920) •
Levitation • Ley Lines • Light • Lily
Dale Assembly • Lily Dale Museum •
Lincoln, Abraham (1809–1865) • Livermore,
Charles F. • Lodge, Sir Oliver
Joseph (1851–1940) • Lyceum
MacLaine, Shirley (b. 1934) • Maeterlinck,
Maurice (1862–1949) • Maginot,
Adèle • Mak, Arie (b. 1914) • Mana •
Manning, Matthew (b. 1955) • Mansfield,
Dr. J. V. • Mantra • Maplewood
Hotel • Marshall, Mary (1842–1884) •
Marylebone Spiritualist Association •
Massey, Gerald (1828–1907) • Materialization
• McConnell, R. A. (b. 1914)
• McDougall, Dr. William (1871–1938)
• McIndoe, John B. • McKenzie, James
Hewat (1870–1929) • McMahan, Elizabeth
Anne (b. 1924) • Meditation •
Medium; Mediumship • Medium’s
League • Meek, George W. • Mellon,
Annie Fairlamb • Melzer, Heinrich (b.
1873) • Mental Mediumship • Mentor
• Meredith, Rev. Chris • Mesmer, Franz
Anton (1734–1815) • Messages •
Metagraphology • Metaphysics •
Meyer, Jean (d. 1931) • Mikhailova,
Nelya (b. 1927) • Miller, C. V. •
Mirabelli, Carlos Carmine (1889–1951)
• Mirror • Mitchell, Edgar D. (b. 1930)
• Monck, Rev. Francis Ward • Monroe,
Robert Allan (1915–1995) • Montgomery,
Ruth (1912–2001) • Moody,
Dr. Raymond (b. 1944) • Moon • Morris,
Mrs. L. A. Meurig (b. 1899) •
Morse, James Johnson (1848–1919) •
Moses, William Stainton (1839–1892)
• Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
(1756–1791) • Muldoon, Sylvan Joseph
• Müller, Auguste • Mumler, William
H. • Murphy, Dr. Edgar Gardner
(1895–1979) • Myers, Dr. Arthur
Thomas (1851–1894) • Myers, Frederick
William Henry (1843–1901)
Nagy, Ronald Michael (b. 1949) •
National Laboratory of Psychical
Research • National Spiritual Alliance
of the United States of America •
National Spiritual Association of
Churches • National Spiritualist Summit,
The • Native Americans • Nature Spirits
• Near Death Experiences (NDE) •
Newbrough, Dr. John Ballou
(1828–1891) • Newspaper Tests •
Northage, Ivy • Nostradamus (Michel
de Nostredame: 1503–1566) • Numerology
Occult; Occultism • Odic Force •
Omen • Open Channeling • Oracle •
Orbs • Owen, The Reverend George
Vale (1869–1931) • Owens, Elizabeth (b. 1948)
Paladino, Eusapia (1854–1918) • Panchadasi,
Swami • Parakinesis • Parapsychological
Association • Parapsychology
• Parapsychology Foundation •
Parisian Society of Psychologic Studies
• Parker Brothers • Parkes, F. M. • Peebles,
Dr. James Martin (1822–1922) •
Pelham, George (1860–1892) • Pendulum
• Pepper, May S. • Perispirit • Phinuit,
Dr. • Physical Mediumship • Pickford,
Mary (1892–1979) • Piddington,
John George (1869–1952) • Pike, Bishop
James Albert (1913–1969) • Piper,
Leonora E. (1857–1950) • Planchette;
Pencil Planchette • Platform • Podmore,
Frank (1856–1910) • Poltergeist
• Poseidia Institute • Possession • Post,
Dr. Isaac (1798–1872) and Amy (1802–
1889) • Powell, Evan (b. 1881) • Pratt,
Morris • Prayer • Precognition • Prediction
• Premonition; Presentiment •
Price, Harry (1881–1948) • Prince, Dr.
Walter Franklin (1863–1934) •
Prophet, Elizabeth Clare (b. 1939) •
Prophet; Prophecy • Prophetic Dreams
• Psi • Psychic • Psychic Development
• Psychic Fairs • Psychic News • Psychic
Science • Psychic Surgery • Psychic
Telephone • Psychical Research • Psychokinesis
(PK); Telekinesis • Psychometry
• Puharich, Andrija Henry
Karl (1918–1994) • Pursel, Jach
Qabbalah • Quakers and Shakers •
Queen Victoria (1819–1901)
Rappings; Raps • Raudive, Dr. Konstantin
(1909–1974) • Raymond • Reading
• Red Cloud • Regurgitation •
Reichenbach, Baron Karl von (1788–
1869) • Reincarnation • Rescue Circle
• Retrocognition; Retrodiction • Revue
Spirite, La • Revue Spiritualiste, La •
Rhine, Joseph Banks (1895–1980) •
Richet, Professor Charles Robert
(1850–1935) • Richmond, Cora Lodencia
Veronica (1840–1923) • Ridley,
Hazel (b. 1900) • Roberts, Jane (1929–
1984) • Roberts, May Estelle (1889–
1970) • Rochas, Lt.–Col. Eugene •
Auguste Albert d’Aiglun (1837–1914) •
Rogo, Douglas Scott (1950–1990) •
Rome; Romans • Rosna, Charles B. (ca.
1812–1843) • Roy, William • Ryerson, Kevin
Schneider, Willi (1903–1971) and Rudi
(1908–1957) • Schreiber, Klaus •
Schrenck–Notzing, Baron Albert Phillbert
Franz, Freiherr von (1862–1929) •
Scole Experiments • Séance • Seer;
Seeress • Segrave, Sir Henry
(1896–1930) • Seidl, Franz • Sellers,
Peter (1925–1980) • Serios, Ted •
Shakespeare, William (1564–1616) •
Shamanism • Sherman, Harold Morrow
(b. 1898) • Showers, Mary • Sibyls •
Sidgwick, Professor Henry (1838–1900)
• Silva, Edivaldo Oliveira (1930–1974)
• Silver Cord • Skotograph • Slade,
Henry (d. 1905) • Slater, John
(1867–1932) • Sloan, John Campbell •
Smith, Gordon (b. 1962) • Soal,
Samuel George (1889–1975) • Society
for Psychical Research • Soothsayers •
Spheres • Spirit • Spirit Guide • Spirit
Lights • Spirit Photography • Spirit
World • Spiritism; Spiritist • Spiritual
Frontiers Fellowship International •
Spiritual Healing • Spiritualism; Spiritualist
• Spiritualists’ National Union •
“Splitfoot, Mr.” • Spokesperson • Spriggs,
George (1850–1912) • Stead,
William T. (1849–1912) • Stella C.
(Cranshaw) (b. 1902) • Stewart, Balfour
(1827–1887) • Stockwell, Tony (b.
1969) • Stokes, Doris (d. 1987) •
Stratford, Connecticut • Summerland •
Swaffer, Hannen (1879–1962) • Swedenborg,
Emmanuel (1688–1722) •
Symbolism • Synchronicity
Table Tipping; Table Turning • Talking
Board • Tape Recorder •
Tarot Cards • Telepathy • Teleportation
• Tenhaeff, Wilhelm Heinrich Carl
(1894–1981) • Theosophical Society •
Third Eye • Thompson, Mrs. R. •
Thoughtography • Trance • Transfiguration
• Tremblers • Trumpet • Tuttle,
Hudson (1835–1910) • Twain, Mark
(Samuel Langhorne Clemens) (1835–
1910) • Twigg, Ena (b. 1914) • Two Worlds
U, V
Universal Spiritualist Association •
Van Praagh, James • Vasilier, Dr. Leonid
L. (1891–1966) • Vietnamese Spiritualism
• Visualization • Vodoun; Voudon
• Voices, Spirit
Webber, John Boaden (Jack) (1907–
1940) • West, Mae (1893–1980) •
White, Stewart Edward (1873–1946) •
Wilde, Stuart (b. 1946) • Williams,
Charles • Wingfield, Kate (d. 1927) •
Witch; Witchcraft • Woodruff, Maurice
(d. 1973) • World Wars • World ITC •
Writing, Automatic • Writing, Slate
X, Y, Z
Xavier, Chico Francisco Candido (b.
1910) • X–Ray Clairvoyance •
Yogananda, Paramahansa (1893–1952)
• Zener Cards • Zener, Karl • Zolar
(Bruce King) (1897–1976)

Resources [445]
Index [473]

The Spirit Book
Visible Ink Press®
43311 Joy Rd. #414
Canton, MI 48187-2075
Visible Ink Press is a registered trademark of Visible Ink Press LLC.

Art Director: Mary Claire Krzewinski
Typesetting: The Graphix Group

Cover image:
I-D-O Psy-ch-i-deo-graph, 1919, by Theodore H. White.
Collection of Louis Wildfong,
Cultural Relics and Artifacts Place,
Ferndale, Michigan.

James A. Duke

with Mary Jo Bogenschutz-Godwin, Judi duCellier, Peggy-Ann K. Duke

1. Medicinal plants. 2. Herbs. 3. Herbals. 4. Traditional medicine. 5. Material medica,
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Book Details
 893 p
 File Size 
 7,908 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 0-8493-1284-1 (alk. paper) 
 2002 by CRC Press LLC 

The Author
James A. “Jim” Duke, Ph.D., is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the University of North Carolina,
where he received his Ph.D. in Botany. He then moved on to postdoctoral activities at Washington
University and the Missouri Botanical Gardens in St. Louis, Missouri, where he assumed professor
and curator duties, respectively. He retired from the United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) in 1995 after a 35-year career there and elsewhere as an economic botanist. After retiring,
he was appointed Senior Scientific Consultant to Nature’s Herbs
(A Twin Labs subsidiary), and to an online company, ALLHERB.COM. He currently teaches a master’s degree course in botanical healing at the Tai Sophia Institute in Columbia, Maryland.
Dr. Duke spends time exploring the ecology and culture of the Amazonian Rain Forest and sits
on the board of directors and advisory councils of numerous organizations involved in plant
medicine and the rainforest. He is updating several of his published books and refining his online
database,, still maintained at the USDA. He is also expanding his
private educational Green Farmacy Garden at his residence in Fulton, Maryland.

By the time this second edition is published, the first edition of the
Handbook of Medicinal Herbs will have been out more than 15 years. The second edition is designed to present most of the old information plus new information on the more important of those original 365 herbs. I submitted the first edition under the original unpublished title, Herbs of Dubious Salubrity.
I intentionally left out many of the completely safe culinary herbs, spices, and food plants that are clearly medicinal. I also intentionally omitted some strictly dangerous herbs, such as foxglove, that were too unhealthy for use in unskilled hands. I did include several obscure hallucinogenic plants of dubious salubrity. I did, or should have, dropped some of these because they have little medicinal importance. Some poorly documented species, such as Mimosa hostilis and Phoradendron leucarpum, for example, were retained with fragmentary entries, so as to at least mention species from the first edition that might better have been dropped.
Now I think I have the most important herbs well covered here. In edition two, which I will
refer to frequently as my Herbal Desk Reference (HDR), I have tried to concisely corral the data
on some 1000 herbs in as little space as possible, striving to make a reliable, referenced resource
to parallel the PDR for Herbal Medicines. I use the three-letter abbreviation, HDR, to indicate the
ssecond edition of my Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, because I compare and contrast it to other
important sources, which are also represented by three-letter abbreviations. (See the reference abbreviation appendix.)
With this edition, I have tried to cover most of the widely mentioned medicinal plants, whether
they are extremely salubrious or extremely toxic. Without counting them, I estimate we include
more than 1000 of the most important herbs, including the more important herbs from the young
Native American and the European traditions (including most of those approved by Commission
E (KOM), and almost all of those included in the PDR for Herbal Medicine (PHR for the first
edition, and PH2 for the second edition). Unlike Commission E and the Herbal PDR, which seem
to stress European and American traditions, I include proportionately more herbs from the older
African, Ayurvedic, and Chinese traditions as well, not wanting to slight any major medicinal plant
from any major tradition.
Let me explain the new format for the second edition. First, a common name appears, usually
but not always in English, followed by a recently accepted scientific name, with the authority for
the scientific name. Then follows a safety score, X, +, ++, or +++. An X means I don’t recommend
taking it at all, or realize that it is so dangerous that it should not be taken without expert guidance.
But for litigious reasons, I give some potent medicinal herbs the X (amateurs beware!). A single
plus (+) indicates that I do not consider that the herb is, overall, as safe as coffee. I score two
pluses (++) for those herbs I think of, overall, as being as safe as coffee. I score three pluses (+++)
for those herbs I believe to be safer than coffee. In the first edition, I related the plus sign to a cup
of coffee, figuring that 1, 2, or 3 cups per day of an herbal tea from the herb would be as safe as
1, 2, or 3 cups per day of coffee. I often drink more than 3 cups of coffee a day, especially while
I worked on this project! Clearly, this is an oversimplification. Too often, some parts of a plant are
more helpful or more toxic than other parts of the same species, and different ethnic groups or
cultures may use parts differently. The safety scoring is a continuation of the same scoring system
I used in the first edition. Some scores have been upgraded a bit, some have been downgraded.
Often, there are some comments on synonymy and other nomenclature difficulties that arose
in completing this opus. I inject these following the nomenclature line. Here you may find some
proven and/or suspected synonyms, or notes of related species that may be included in this species
concept, especially by nontaxonomically trained authors. I have often used, as final arbiter of
scientific names and sometimes common names, the nomenclature database at the USDA (www.arsgrin.
gov; curator, Dr. John. H. Wiersema:
Unfortunately, the new American Herbal Products Association (AHP) book on nomenclature
arrived too late for our consideration. Attempts to standardize common names, although admirable,
are often aggravating to special interests. It was with some misgiving that I arranged this book
alphabetically by common names, when the first edition was by scientific name. It generated big
headaches for all of us who think more along the lines of scientific names. Would it be under
mulberry or black mulberry, chamomile or German chamomile? Some plants have dozens of
common names. Several have suffered almost as many scientific names, such as, for example,
feverfew. Hopefully, you will find it easy to use.
In the Activities and Indications sections, parenthetical numbers are followed by three-letter
abbreviations (abbreviation of source) or an alphanumeric X-1111111 to identify PubMed citations.
A parenthetical efficacy score of (1) means that a chemical in the plant or in an extract of the plant
has shown the activity or proven out experimentally (animal, not clinical) for the indication. 
This could be in vitro animal or assay experiments. 
A hint: not real human proof! Nothing clinical yet!
I give it a score of (2) if the aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, or decoction or tea derived from
the plant has been shown to have the activity, or to support the indication in clinical trials.
Commission E (KOM) and Tramil Commission (TRA) approvals were automatically given a score
of (2) also, because they represented consensus opinions of distinguished panels. The rare score
of (3) for efficacy means that clinical trials exist to show that the plant itself (not just an extract
or phytochemical derivative) has the indications or activities. The solitary score of (f) in many of
the citations means it is unsupported folk medicine, or I have not seen the science to back it up.
The three-letter abbreviations are useful short citations of the references consulted in arriving at
these numbers. I have by no means cited every source. However, unlike KOM and hopefully better
than PHR, we indicate at least one source for every indication and activity we report.
Thus, we have a score for Safety and a score for Efficacy, the latter backed up by the threeletter
abbreviations or citations, often PubMed citations. In addition to our three letter abbreviations
for the frequently consulted texts, we occasionally cite articles cited from the PubMed database
with their unique abstract number, preceded by the letter X. For example, I received a paper showing
that ginger contained several COX-2 inhibitors. I looked in the PubMed database to find the unique
abstract citation number, PMID: 11437391, which I shortened for database purpose to X11437391.
So, all alpha-numeric (X-numerical) combinations will refer you to the source in the PubMed
database. Whenever I update one of my Herb-a-Day columns, I automatically search PubMed for
>species name AND 2000 <, which automatically gives me the post 1999 abstracts. In 2001, I
search for >species AND 2001<. Then I order hard copies of those articles that look promising for
database purposes.
Often, many more than 10 sources were involved in my decision-making. In many instances,
I limited citations to three, typically the ones that were most important at arriving at my scores.
Not wanting to blow my own horn, my own books were first to be deleted from the list when it
exceeded three. In preparing this edition I realized that for patent litigation, the earlier citations
were most valuable, so at the last minute I added several older references, such as DEP, FEL, HHB,
and MAD. For example, even I was surprised when I read about Remifemin in HHB (1973, p. 12),
three decades ago, since Remifemin seems so new here in America. But in my mind it is just
another native American remedy, coming back home to us, slightly upgraded, after having been
better studied in Europe than it has been in America (other examples include evening primrose,
passionflower, and saw palmetto). DEP and FEL citations are more than 100 years old, and might
be useful in challenging frivolous patents.
One very important abbreviation, WAM, might as well be viewed as MOM, meaning pediatric.
This comes from the excellent book, Kids, Herbs, Health, by Dr. Linda White, MD, and Sunny
Mavor. So, if you are looking for an herb that has been suggested by a pediatrician, scroll down
to WAM. Ditto for PIP, Hans Schilcher’s Phytotherapy in Paediatrics
This is an evolving system that changes as new science validates the folklore, often resulting
in an upgrading of the indication or activity. Occasionally, bad news about the plant will result in
my lowering its safety rating, from +++ to ++, or ++ to +, or + to X. This does not constitute my
recommendation of an herb. It merely indicates how I think the herb compares with others, based
on the literature surveyed. As a botanist, I cannot legally, and do not, prescribe. But I find mechanical
searches of the Handbook of Medicinal Herbs to be an extremely fast way to find the better herbs for a given indication.
We have used the same abbreviations that are used in my database at the USDA 
( I much prefer the abbreviations used there because they do not get you into as much trouble when you e-mail a query to the taxpaying public. For example, the preferred abbreviation of microgram, at least with some publishers (including CRC), but not me, is
μ g. Too often, if I put that abbreviation (or use an italicizedu) in an e-mail, the u or μ
disappears and the reader receives g instead of u g or μ g, giving an often dangerously high reading, a million times too high. Ditto for u l or μ l (microliter) as opposed to ml (milliliter). And with
uM and m M, micromole and millimole, respectively.
In a sense, my scored second edition is a loner’s approach to a Commission E, but I am the sole
member of the fictitious commission, Commission U.S. for us, here in the good old USA. Note that
unlike the ratings in, for example, APA, my ratings assess the efficacy of each activity and indication.
I’ll keep revising the scoring for an online version as new information, positive or negative,
comes in on the safety or efficacy of the herb, or chemicals it contains. So, like the allopaths, health
announcers, and reporters, I reserve the right to change my mind as I oscillate from side to side
of the pendulum on my long, tedious, treacherous, and tumultuous trip, veering like a coiled
caduceus, deviously toward the truth.
Users will find it easy to search and find which herbs score highest for efficacy and safety. The
three-letter abbreviations will lead them to some, but by no means all, of the sources I consulted
including the one(s) or some of them that led me to the numerical scores for efficacy. The scores
are my own. Only rarely did all the cited and consulted sources agree; but one of the indicated
sources provided the evidence that led me to arrive at the assigned score. By no means should
these scores be attributed to anyone except me.


Catalog of Herbs (A to Z) ............................1

Reference Abbreviations ........................815

References ...........................821

Illustration Credits............................829

Scientific Name Index..................................831

Common Name Index.......................843

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Library of Congress Card Number 2002017548
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Printed on acid-free paper

Edited by
Bernard Wood
The George Washington University

Executive Editor
Amanda Henry
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Editorial Assistant
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Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
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Preface and Acknowledgments
Not long ago the only information a student needed in order to do well in a course about
human evolution was an appreciation of general evolutionary principles, a familiarity with a
relatively sparse fossil record and its context, and knowledge of a few simple analytical methods.
But times have changed. The fossil record has grown exponentially, imaging techniques
allow researchers to capture previously unavailable gross morphological and microstructural
evidence in previously unimaginable quantities, analytical methods have burgeoned in scope
and complexity, phylogeny reconstruction is more sophisticated, molecular biology has revolutionized
our understanding of genetics, evolutionary history, modern human variation, and
development, and a host of different advances in biology, chemistry, earth sciences, and physics
have enriched evidence about the biotic, climatic, and temporal context of the hominin
fossil record. In short, the fossil evidence and the range of methods used to study human evolution
have grown by several orders of magnitude in the past six decades. Yet there is no single
reference source where students can go to find out about topics as diverse as sagittal crest,
Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Saint-Césaire, sampling with replacement, the Sangiran Dome,
sapropel, savanna, and satellite imagery.

The Wiley Blackwell Student Dictionary of Human Evolution is based on the principles that
were used to determine the content of the Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution,
but the layout and content are deliberately different and new. We used our combined student
and teaching experience to cull the entries in the Encyclopedia, select the ones most relevant to
students, and then rewrite them with an emphasis on explaining the relevance of each entry to
studies of human evolution. We are indebted to all the editors and contributors who were
involved in the assembly of the Encyclopedia, for without that as a template, our task would
have been much more difficult.

Kelvin Matthews at Wiley Blackwell, and Nik Prowse, our freelance copy editor and project
manager, made substantial and important contributions to any success this student dictionary
enjoys. We are also grateful to those who helped us improve the text. Laurel Poolman, a George
Washington University undergraduate archeology major, read through an early draft and
alerted us to topics we needed to explain more clearly or where we needed to do a better job of
explaining why they were included in the Dictionary. After BW and AH responded to these
suggestions the revised text was read in its entirety by two students in George Washington
University’s hominid paleobiology graduate program, Kevin Hatala and Laura Reyes. Their
comments were invaluable, in terms of both catching errors and making many constructive
suggestions for improvement. Charlotte Krohn’s help with the final stages of preparing
the manuscript is greatly appreciated. However, despite the best efforts of Laurel, Kevin, and
Laura, in a project like this errors will have been made. If you see one, please contact us
(, and we will make sure it is corrected in later editions.
Bernard Wood
Amanda Henry
July 2014

Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution
This comprehensive A to Z encyclopedia provides extensive coverage of important scientific
terms related to improving our understanding of how we evolved. Specifically, the 5,000 entries
cover evidence and methods used to investigate the relationships among the living great apes,
evidence about what makes the behavior of modern humans distinctive, and evidence about
the evolutionary history of that distinctiveness, as well as information about modern methods
used to trace the recent evolutionary history of modern human populations. This text provides
a resource for everyone involved in the study of human evolution.

Visit the companion site to browse additional references
and updates from this comprehensive encyclopedia.

Table of Contents
Preface and Acknowledgments vi
Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution viii
Hominin Fossil Abbreviations ix
A................................................................. 1
B............................................................... 27
C............................................................... 47
D............................................................... 86
E............................................................. 103
F............................................................. 124
G............................................................. 144
H............................................................ 166
I.............................................................. 200
J.............................................................. 209
K............................................................. 212
L............................................................. 227
M............................................................ 249
N............................................................. 288
O............................................................ 300
P............................................................. 318
Q............................................................. 364
R............................................................. 366
S.............................................................. 380
T............................................................. 419
U............................................................. 442
V............................................................. 447
W............................................................ 453
X............................................................. 458
Y............................................................. 459
Z............................................................. 460


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 Cambridge University Press 2009 

dictionary n. A book containing a selection of the
words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically,
giving information about their meanings,
pronunciations, etymologies, and the like.
psychology n. The study of the mind including
consciousness, perception, motivation, behavior,
the biology of the nervous system in its
relation to mind, scientifi c methods of studying
the mind, cognition, social interactions in relation
to mind, individual differences, and the
application of these approaches to practical
problems in organization and commerce and
especially to the alleviation of suffering.
It is perhaps most fi tting that a dictionary
of psychology begins with defi nitions of the
terms dictionary and psychology. This is the
defi nition of psychology presented in this
work, and it highlights several important
points concerning this dictionary. First,
psychology is broad. Its contents range from
the microlevel neural processes that form
the building blocks of thought, feeling, and
action to the macrolevel social and cultural
processes that bind us with our primate relatives
in our evolutionary history and defi ne
our collectives. For that reason, a dictionary
of psychology needs to include terms and concepts
related to neural structures, chemicals,
transmitters, genes, and anatomy, as much as
it needs to include social processes, network
analysis, and cultural norms and artifacts.
It also needs to include concepts related to
the array of abnormal behaviors and methods
related to their treatment.
Second, psychology is a science. Knowledge
in psychology is generated through empirical
research, a conglomeration of methods that
allow for the generation of theories of human
behavior and the testing of hypotheses
derived from those theories. This set of
methods includes both qualitative and
quantitative approaches, case studies as
well as carefully controlled experiments, and
rigorous statistical procedures and inferential
decision making. All knowledge in psychology
is based on such research. Thus, understanding
the meaning, boundaries, and limitations of
psychological knowledge requires students to
have a working knowledge of psychological
research methods, statistics, probability, and inference.
Third, because the discipline of psychology
is broad, and because it is based on science,
it is a living discipline. That means that the
theories, concepts, and terminology used in
psychology are never static but often are in
fl ux, changing across time as theories, methodologies,
and knowledge change. Terms
that had a certain meaning in previous years,
such as borderline personality, homosexuality, and
self, have different meanings today and will
likely mean different things in the future.
Additionally, new terms and concepts are
continually being invented (e.g., psychoneuroimmunology),
in keeping with the contemporary
and evolving nature of psychology as a science.
This dictionary captures these characteristics
of psychology as a living, scientifi c
discipline by focusing on several defi ning
characteristics. It is comprehensive, capturing
the major terms and concepts that frame the
discipline of psychology, from the level of
neurons to social structures and as a science.
It is interdisciplinary, highlighting psychological
concepts that cut behavior at its joints,
whether the joints refer to social cognitive
neuroscience (a term defi ned in this dictionary)
or the interactions among culture, personality,
and genes. And it is international and
cross-cultural, owing to the growth of psychology
around the world, the interaction between
American and international approaches and
perspectives, and the education of American
psychology by the study and practice of
psychology in other countries and cultures.
In this digital age, when information concerning
psychology and many other disciplines
is already readily available online and
in various reference texts, a relevant question
is, Why produce another? The answer is very
simple: because no other reference work on
the fi eld of psychology captures the characteristics
described previously. Many, for
example, do not do justice to psychology
as a science and therefore do not include references
to research methodologies and statistics.
This work does. Many reference works
present psychology from a more clinical orientation
and do not present psychology as
an interdisciplinary science. This work does.
And many other works present psychology
mainly from an American perspective and
do not present it as the global, international
discipline that it is. This work does.
These characteristics were accomplished
in several ways, the most important of which
were the recruitment and active participation
of a stellar Editorial Advisory Board (EAB).
Each of these individuals is an accomplished
scholar in his or her own right, and we were
very fortunate indeed to gain their participation
in the project. They guided me in every
single aspect of the production, and I was
fortunate to gain many insights their wisdom
and guidance provided.
Next, the entire work was reviewed not only
by the EAB but also by an equally stellar cast
of Managing Editors. Like the EAB, all of
these individuals are accomplished scholars
in their own right, and indeed are some of
the leading researchers in the world in their
respective areas of expertise. Equally important,
they are from many different countries,
cultures, and perspectives and have been able
to create the interdisciplinary, international,
and cross-cultural fl avor in the book, not only
in the selection of the keyword entries but
also in their writing.
Finally, we were very fortunate to have
so many authors contribute their time and
expertise to the project (see pages ix–xiii).
All of them are excellent researchers, teachers,
and scholars in psychology, and all
brought their expertise to bear in making
the discipline of psychology come to life in
their entries. They also made their entries
relevant to a global perspective, not just an
American one, and accessible to the educated lay reader.
These three groups of individuals worked
seamlessly as a team to deliver the product you
see today. The work started with the creation
of the keyword list. For any reference work of
this type, the selection of the keyword entries
is crucial to the success of the fi nal product,
and I believe that the process by which
they were selected for inclusion in this work
was exemplary. First, the Editorial Advisory
Board and I reviewed all of the keyword
entries in the various psychology dictionaries
that currently exist, as well as a number of
the leading textbooks used in introductory
psychology. This accomplished two goals.
While of course it led to an identifi cation of
keywords that we could deem “standard” in
the fi eld of psychology – by being cross-listed
in multiple sources – it also allowed us to identify
what was not included elsewhere, or that
which was idiosyncratic to its source. It was at
this point that the EAB and I were able to add
keyword terms that we felt could accomplish
the goal of making this work comprehensive
and timely, terms that specifi cally addressed
our goal of being international, crosscultural,
and interdisciplinary.
In addition, many contemporary dictionaries
do not focus on the scientifi c aspects
of psychology and consequently do not
include terms concerning research methods
or statistics. In this dictionary, however,
we have made a point of including many
of the terms that students of psychological
science will encounter, especially concerning
the numerous types of reliability and
validity, various types of statistics and probability,
and various experimental designs.
Finally, after the EAB and I had completed
our initial selection of keywords, our distinguished
group of Managing Editors and
authors provided us with yet additional levels
of expertise, proposing new keywords within
their areas of interests. For example, these
are a sampling of the keywords included
in the Cambridge Dictionary that are not
included in many of the other dictionaries
on the market:
Behavioral endocrinology
Collective self
Confi gurative culture
Culture assimilator training
Dialectical reasoning
Differential item functioning
Distributive justice
Ecological fallacy
Ecological-level analysis
Effect size
Emotion theory
Eta squared
Face (concept of)
False uniqueness effect
Filial piety
Fourfold point correlation
Front horizontal foreshortening theory
Gene expression
Hierarchical linear modeling
Implicit communication
Indigenous healing
Individual-level analysis
Intercultural adaptation
Intercultural adjustment
Intercultural communication
Intercultural communication competence
Intercultural sensitivity
Item reliability
Lay theories of behavioral causality
Naikan therapy
National character
Need for cognition
Neural imaging
Norm group
Omega squared
Omnibus test
Outgroup homogeneity bias
Ranked distribution
Regression weight
Response sets
Retributive justice
Social axiom
Social network analysis
Standardization sample
Statistical artifact
Statistical inference
Tacit communication
Terror management theory
Tetrachoric correlation
Ultimatum game
A quick perusal of the list makes it clear
that all of these terms are widely used in contemporary
psychology today, owing to its
interdisciplinary and cross-cultural ties and
its existence as a scientifi c discipline. These
entries, along with the way they were written,
make this text unique and timely in the fi eld.

Icek Aizen
University of Massachusetts
Dolores Albarracin
University of Florida
Jeanette Altarriba
SUNY – Albany
Bob Altemeyer
University of Manitoba
Drew A. Anderson
SUNY – Albany
Alfredo Ardila
Florida International University
Evelyn W. M. Au
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Ozlem N. Ayduk
University of California, Berkeley
Amy Badura-Brack
Creighton University
Mahzarin R. Banaji
Harvard University
Albert Bandura
Stanford University
Lisa M. Bauer
Pepperdine University
Veronica Benet-Martinez
University of California, Riverside
Kathy R. Berenson
Columbia University
Peter Borkenau
Martin-Luther University
Marc A. Brackett
Yale University
Laura A. Brannon
Kansas State University
Linda Brannon
McNeese State University
Jonathan Brown
University of Washington
Jennifer Bruce
Purdue University
Susan Burns
Morning Side College
Gustavo Carlo
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Dana R. Carney
Harvard University
David W. Carroll
University of Wisconsin – Superior
Jose Centeno
St. John’s University
Edward C. Chang
University of Michigan
Rita Chang
University of Michigan
Shirley Y. Y. Cheng
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Chi Yue Chiu
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Andrew Christopher
Albion College
Austin Timothy Church
Washington State University
Mark Costanzo
Claremont McKenna College
Thomas S. Critchfi eld
Illinois State University
Frances Daniel
University of Illinois, Chicago
Sharon Danoff-Burg
SUNY – Albany
Mark Dechesne
University of Maryland
Filip De Fruyt
Ghent University
Ken DeMarree
Texas Tech University
Nicholas DiFonzo
Rochester Institute of Technology
Kristen A. Diliberto-Macaluso
Berry College
Dale Dinnel
Western Washington University
Stephen Dollinger
Southern Illinois University
G. William Domhoff
University of California, Santa Cruz
Christina A. Downey
University of Michigan
Geraldine Downey
Columbia University
Andrew Elliot
University of Rochester
Robert A. Emmons
University of California, Davis
Erica Fanning
CUNY Graduate Center
Eva M. Fernandez
City University of New York
Steve Franconeri
University of British Columbia
David Gard
San Francisco State University
Michele Gelfand
University of Maryland
Jennifer L. Gianico
SUNY – Albany
Howard Giles
University of California, Santa Barbara
Anna Gladkova
Australian National University
Normaris Gonzalez-Miller
New York Medical College
Donald Graves
SUNY – Albany
William Graziano
Purdue University
Jeffrey Greenberg
University of Arizona
Maria Rosario T. De Guzman
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Curtis Hardin
Brooklyn College
Sam A. Hardy
University of Virginia
Trevor A. Harley
Dundee University
Rachel Hayes
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Marlone D. Henderson
University of Chicago
E. Tory Higgins
Columbia University
Allyson L. Holbrook
University of Illinois – Chicago
Ying-yi Hong
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Tim Johnson
University of Illinois – Chicago
John T. Jost
New York University
Janice M. Juraska
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Lee Jussim
Rutgers University
Todd Kahan
Bates College
Yoshi Kashima
University of Melbourne
Anatoliy V. Kharkhurin
American University of Sharjah
John F. Kihlstrom
University of California, Berkeley
Young-Hoon Kim
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Suzanne Kirschner
College of the Holy Cross
Jason W. Kisling
Sun Lake Shimane Prefecture Youth Center, Japan
Arie Kruglanski
University of Maryland
John Kurtz
Villanova University
Nicole Landi
Haskins Laboratories
Ellen Langer
Harvard University
Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling
University of South Alabama
Heidi Lary
Stony Brook University
Patrick R. Laughlin
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Greg Lehne
Johns Hopkins Medical Center
Hong Li
University of Florida
Elizabeth F. Loftus
University of California, Irvine
Kevin MacDonald
California State University, Long Beach
David MacKinnon
Arizona State University
B. Jean Mandernach
Park University
Viorica Marian
Northwestern University
Todd Jason McCallum
Case Western Reserve University
Michael McCaslin
Ohio State University
Robert R. McCrae
National Institute on Aging
Kathleen C. McCulloch
Idaho State University
Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton
University of California, Berkeley
Tanya Menon
University of Chicago
Felicity Miao
University of Virginia
Joshua Miller
University of Georgia
Arlen C. Moller
University of Rochester
Sik-hung Ng
City University of Hong Kong
Kim Noels
University of Alberta
J. Farley Norman
University of Western Kentucky
Shigehiro Oishi
University of Virginia
Sumie Okazaki
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Margaret R. Ortmann
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Nansook Park
University of Rhode Island
Marc Patry
St. Mary’s University
Sam Paunonen
University of Western Ontario
Chris Peterson
University of Michigan
Tiamoyo Peterson
University of California, Irvine
Richard Petty
Ohio State University
Cynthia L. Pickett
University of California, Davis
Valerie K. Pilling
Kansas State University
Jason Plaks
University of Washington
Gary E. Raney
University of Illinois – Chicago
Neal Roese
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Glenn Roisman
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Jerome Rossier
University of Lausanne
Kelly A. Sauerwein
University of California, Davis
Virginia Saunders
San Francisco State University
Anne R. Schutte
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
William G. Shadel
RAND Corporation
Dikla Shmueli
University of California, San Francisco
Jessica Sim
University of Chicago
Peter Smith
University of Sussex
Emily G. Soltano
Worcester State College
Amy Summerville
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
William B. Swann
University of Texas
Carmit Tamar Tadmor
University of California, Berkeley
Howard Tennen
University of Connecticut Health Center
Philip E. Tetlock
University of California, Berkeley
Abraham Tresser
University of Georgia
Harry Triandis
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Yaacov Trope
New York University
Chi-Shing Tse
SUNY – Albany
Jim Uleman
New York University
Johanneke van der Toorn
New York University
Joseph A. Vandello
University of South Florida
Patrick Vargas
University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Brendan Weekes
University of Sussex
Neil D. Weinstein
Rutgers University
Kipling D. Williams
Purdue University
Jessie Wilson
San Francisco State University
Katie M. Wood
University of South Alabama
Robert S. Wyer
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology


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