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A Guide to the Classical Education You Never Had 


1. Books and reading. 2. Best books. 3. Reading. 4. Literature—History and criticism. 5. Self-culture. 6. Education, Humanistic.

The Well-Educated Mind- A Guide to the Classical Education You Never Had
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 2003 by Susan Wise Bauer


The Age of Epics
The earliest Western poetry is that
of the Greeks, and the earliest Greek
poetry is epic poetry—sprawling oral
tales of heroes and battles, finally
written down by Homer around
8oo B.C. In the Iliad, the warrior
Achilles falls out with his commander,
Agamemnon, and manages
to turn Zeus against his own army;
in the Odyssey, Odysseus tries to
get home after the Trojan War has
ended. Incident-filled, plot-driven,
centered around the failings and
strengths of men and women: These
epics seem much more like novels
than poems. Why, then, are they
considered the first great poems,
rather than the first great tales? And
where is the "personal presence" of
the poet in these stories of bloodshed
and sea adventure?
Poetry, for the Greeks, was a
term that covered a much broader
territory than it does today.
"Poetry," wrote Aristotle, "is more
philosophical and more worthwhile
than history, for poetry
speaks in general terms, while history
concerns itself with detail." In
other words, poetry was language
that sought to demonstrate univer-
Rage—Goddess, sing the rage of Peleus's
son Achilles,
murderous, doomed, that cost the Achaeans
countless losses,
hurling down to the House of Death so
many sturdy souls,
great fighters' souls, but made their bodies
carrion, feasts for the dogs and birds,...
Begin, Muse, when the two first broke and
clashed, Agamemnon lord of men and brilliant Achilles.
—Homer, The Iliad, translated by Robert
Fagles (NewYork: Penguin, 1990), book
I, Unes 1-7.

In the list that follows, poets are organized in chronological order of their
birth date. When you read a novel, you read a work; when you read a series
of poems, you read a life. So in many cases I have recommended a collected
"greatest works" rather than a particular volume published during the poet's
lifetime. Because poems are meant not to be read once, but returned to again
and again, the list of recommended editions is aimed at helping you build a
poetry library. There are many other editions of most of these poets available;
I have listed some "Be sure to read" poems so that if you wish to use another
edition, you can still experience the poet's most characteristic works.
You can go as far as you please into investigating a poet who seizes your
fancy; for the collected poems, I have suggested a brief list of poems that
you should be certain to read. If you find this hard going, you don't necessarily
need to read on: A poem, like a spice, is not going to suit every taste.
The recommended poems are not necessarily the poet's "best" (an impossible
judgment by any means), but they are that poet's most commonly
referred to, criticized, and quoted poems. Reading them will allow you to
understand the place the poet occupies in the larger world of poetry.
As with fiction, some of these poem collections are available in much
cheaper editions, if you're willing to put up with small print and narrow
margins. For ancient works, I suggest that you use the recommended translations,
rather than the out-of-date or anonymous versions often used in
cheaper paperbacks.

Table of Contents
Acknowledgments 9

Chapter 1
Training Your Own Mind:
The Classical Education You Never Had 13
Chapter 2
Wrestling with Books:
The Act of Reading 24
Chapter 3
Keeping the Journal:
A Written Record of New Ideas 34
Chapter 4
Starting to Read:
Final Preparations 41

Chapter 5
The Story of People:
Reading through History with the Novel 57
Chapter 6
The Story of Me:
Autobiography and Memoir 114
Chapter 7
The Story of the Past:
The Tales of Historians (and Politicians) 163
Chapter 8
The World Stage:
Reading through History with Drama 240
Chapter 9
History Refracted:
The Poets and Their Poems 307
Permissions 405
Index 407

The Well-Educated Mind- A Guide to the Classical Education You Never Had
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Editorial Board
Chinua Achebe
Bard College
Kwame Gyekye
University of Ghana
Maulana Karenga
California State University, Long Beach
Marta Moreno Vega
Caribbean Cultural Center
Isidore Okpewho
Binghamton University,
State University of New York

Kofi Asare Opoku
Lafayette College
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About the Editors
Molefi Kete Asante is professor in the Department
of African American Studies at Temple University.
Dr. Asante has published 67 books; among the
most recent are Afrocentric Manifesto (2008);
The History of Africa: The Quest for Eternal
Harmony (2007); Cheikh Anta Diop: An
Intellectual Portrait (2006); Spear Masters: An
Introduction to African Religion (2006), coauthored
with Emeka Nwadiora; Handbook of
Black Studies (2005), coedited with Maulana
Karenga; Encyclopedia of Black Studies (2005),
coedited with Ama Mazama; Race, Rhetoric, and
Identity: The Architecton of Soul (2005); Erasing
Racism: The Survival of the American Nation
(2003); Ancient Egyptian Philosophers (2000);
Scattered to the Wind (2002); Custom and
Culture of Egypt (2002); and 100 Greatest
African Americans (2003).
He has recently been recognized as one of the
most widely cited scholars. In the 1990s, he was
recognized as one of the most influential leaders in
American education. Dr. Asante completed his
MA at Pepperdine and received his PhD from the
University of California, Los Angeles, at the age of
26, and was appointed a full professor at the age
of 30 at the State University of New York at
Buffalo. At Temple University, he created the first
PhD program in African American Studies in
1987. He has directed more than 140 PhD dissertations.
He has written more than 300 articles for
journals and magazines and is the founder of the
theory of Afrocentricity.
Dr. Asante was born in Valdosta, Georgia, in the
United States, of Sudanese and Nigerian heritage,
1 of 16 children. He is a poet, dramatist, and painter.
Hiswork on African language,multiculturalism, and
human culture and philosophy has been cited by
journals such as the Africalogical Perspectives,
Quarterly Journal of Speech, Journal of Black
Studies, Journal of Communication, American
Scholar,Daedalus,Western Journal of Black Studies,
and Africaological Perspectives. The Utne Reader
called him one of the “100 Leading Thinkers” in
America. Dr. Asante has appeared on more than 50
TV programs. In 2002, he received the distinguished
Douglas Ehninger Award for Rhetorical Scholarship
from the National Communication Association. He
regularly consults with the African Union. In 2004,
he was asked to give one of the keynote addresses at
the Conference of Intellectuals of Africa and the
Diaspora in Dakar, Senegal. He was inducted into
the Literary Hall of Fame for Writers of African
Descent at the Gwendolyn Brooks Center at Chicago
State University in 2004, and he is the recipient of
more than 100 national and international awards,
including three honorary degrees.
Dr. Asante is the founding editor of the Journal
of Black Studies (1969) and was the president of
the civil rights organization, the Student Non-
Violent Coordinating Committee chapter at
UCLA, in the 1960s. In 1995, he was made a
traditional king, Nana Okru Asante Peasah,
Kyidomhene of Tafo, Akyem, Ghana.

Ama Mazama is associate professor of African
American Studies at Temple University. She was
born and grew up in Guadeloupe, Eastern
Caribbean. She received her PhD in Linguistics
from the University of La Sorbonne, Paris, at the
age of 26, with Highest Distinction. Before joining
Temple, Dr. Mazama taught at the University of
Texas, Austin, and Penn State, College Park, and
was a visiting professor at Georgetown University
and Howard University.
She has published eight books in French or English,
including The Afrocentric Paradigm (2003),
L’Impératif Afrocentrique (2003), The Encyclopedia
of Black Studies (2005) (coedited with Molefi Kete
Asante), and Africa in the 21st Century: Toward a
New Future (2007), as well as more than 60 articles
in French and English in national and international
journals. Dr. Mazama’s early work was on the
African roots of Caribbean creole languages.
Dr. Mazama is the associate editor of the
Journal of Black Studies, the top scholarly journal
in Black Studies. In 2007, the National Council of
Black Studies presented her with the Ana Julia
Cooper and CLR James Award for her contributions
to the advancement of the discipline of Black Studies.
Dr. Mazama has lectured nationally, throughout
the United States and internationally, in Paris,
Vienna, London, Birmingham, South America,
Benin,West Africa, Canada, and, of course, in the
Caribbean, her place of origin. She is a highly
sought after lecturer and workshop leader in the
field of African and African American infusion in
school curricula. An expert in linguistics and cultural
theory, Dr. Mazama has been cited by
numerous school districts for her work in Pan African culture.
In 2002, she was initiated in Haiti to
become a Mambo, that is, a Vodu priestess.
Thus, Ama Mazama’s knowledge of African
religion is not only academic but also, and
most important, stems from a lived experience.
The mother of three, Dr. Mazama is
committed to recording and transmitting
knowledge of the African cultural traditions
to present and future generations.

comprehensive work to assemble ideas, concepts,
discourses, and extensive essays on African religion.
Over the years, there have been numerous
encyclopedias on religion from other parts of the
world, but African religion has often been relegated
to “primitive religions,” “African mythologies,”
or “tribal religions” sections of such works
on religion. It is as if African religion is an afterthought
in the eyes of the authors and editors of
such volumes. Of course, these designations are
clearly based on outmoded and problematic
Western notions of Africa, and we have created
this encyclopedia as a monument to the memory
of those Africans who left us enough information
from which to rediscover for the world the original
beauty and majesty of African culture.

There were two objectives in advancing this
work to the public. First, we wanted to provide
the primary material necessary for further
research, analysis, and exposition of the concrete
beliefs of African people. Second, we sought to
elevate the discourse around African religion, suggesting
by the presentation of nearly 500 entries
that there was still much we did not know about
African culture. Africa is the second largest continent
in the world. Yet its intellectual and cultural
contributions remain among the least understood
if we take the written records about the continent
and its people as sources of knowledge about the
continent. There are still those whose knowledge
of Africa is grounded in the perceptions and attitudes
of missionaries, merchants, and marines
who have occupied the continent through foreign
religions, trade, or guns. The enormity of African
contribution to ideas of religion, spirituality, and
ethics has gone unappreciated by religious scholars,
although at the beginning of human history,
Africa makes its case for the origin of religion in
an official, formal manner. It is our hope that the
reflection on African religion occasioned by these
entries will enhance our understanding of the
African world and provide a new adventure for
comparative studies.

Unquestionably, a work as innovative and comprehensive
as this encyclopedia makes its mark in
the area of intellectual inquiry by staking out new
areas of knowledge. It provides the reader with
new metaphors, tropes, figures of speech, modes
of reasoning, etymologies, analogies, and cosmogonies
to satiate the intellect. Only in such an
encyclopedia as this can one truly grasp the enormity
of Africa’s contribution to religious ideas.
Thus, this work presents richly textured ideas of
spirituality, ritual, and initiation while advancing
new theological categories, cosmological narratives,
and ways to conceptualize ethical behavior.

Given that we viewed African religion as one
religion and the African continent as a whole, we
were inclined to introduce classical African religious
ideas, from the beginning of Kemet to the
arrival of Christianity and later Islam in Africa, as
significant forerunners of much of continental
African thought. The same appeal to ethics, based
on righteous character; the same search for eternal
life, found in living a life where good outweighs
evil; and the same openness to ancestral spirits,
kas, as remaining among the community of the living,
creates an appreciation of the recurring cycle
of humanity. Correspondences of language and
concept as with Amen, Amani, and Imani, which
are transgenerational and transcontinental, remain
vibrant parts of the African legacy of religion.
When the Akan use the words Kwame, Asare, and
Nkwa, they recall the more ancient Amen, Ausar,
and Ankh. Several books, starting with the older
works of Eva Meyerowitz, have examined these
correspondences. Of course, in more recent times,
Afrocentric authors such as Mubabinge Bilolo,
Chinweizu Chinweizu, and Theophile Obenga
have identified other correspondences in the religious
and philosophical traditions of Africa.

The fact that Western or Islamic categories,
which come much later than African religion, have
often been employed in the discourse on African
religion means that we have not yet established
enough concrete data for asserting the African religion.
Because of this reality, much of African religious
thought has been distorted and confused as
authors have tried to force newly discovered or
uncovered or different concepts into old and familiar
classes. Therefore, as editors, we have avoided
ironclad classificatory schemes and sought entries
that revealed as closely as possible the actualities of
African societies. What we wanted the entries to
reveal was the thinking of African people about
religion from the earliest of times.

Table of Contents
List of Entries vii
Reader’s Guide xi
About the Editors xv
Contributors xvii
Introduction xxi
A 1 N 439
B 85 O 469
C 149 P 517
D 191 Q 555
E 229 R 557
F 257 S 583
G 279 T 645
H 303
I 325
J 353
K 359
L 375
M 397
U 679
V 685
W 703
X 729
Y 731
Z 741
Appendix: African Names of God 747
Bibliography: African Religious Sources 751
Index 797

Encyclopedia of African Religion
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Legend, History and the Ancient Cityre

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 2014 Michael Seymour 

About the Author
Michael Seymour is Research Associate in the Department of Ancient Near
Eastern Art at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Prior to joining the
Metropolitan Museum he worked for the Department of the Middle East at the
British Museum, where he was co-curator of the special exhibition Babylon:
Myth and Reality. He is a consultant to the World Monuments Fund on the site
of Babylon, and an editor of the journal Iraq. He is co-author (with I. L. Finkel)
of Babylon: Myth and Reality (2008).

‘The city of Babylon and the idea of Babylon have co-existed as intertwined
threads of intellectual and historical engagement for centuries. In the recent past
Babylon was an emblem for Saddam Hussein’s control over Iraq’s past (ancient
Babylon), present (reconstructed Babylon), and future (eternal Babylon). Since
at least the sixth century BC, and up to modern times, Babylon has been
entangled in discourses that transgress the boundaries between history, myth,
fantasy and bias, while over the past century scientific archaeology has
contributed to the mix. Michael Seymour teases apart the golden threads of
Babylon’s discourses, tracing each one in meticulous detail before reweaving
them into a new and brilliant tapestry, presenting us in this adroit and learned
book with a Babylon fit for the scrutiny of our age.’

– Roger Matthews, Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology, University of
Reading ‘In this ambitious and all encompassing account of how the ancient city
of Babylon has been studied, interpreted and received throughout history,
Michael Seymour offers an exemplary study in the reception of the ancient
world. Multiple manifestations of the notion of Babylon are explored, revealing
the extent to which ancient civilisations have been appropriated according to
different cultural contexts and priorities. The book presents an intoxicating mix
of mythology, interpretation and fact from a wide variety of sources: both textual
and visual. Through each of the chapters we see the exciting and complex
journey that antiquities undertake once retrieved from the earth in which they
were buried. One of the most important findings of the work is the extent to
which ancient Mesopotamian culture is shown to have “lived on” in a range of
conflicting and successive contexts. In this thoughtful and probing analysis,
Seymour unravels the very idea of Babylon, revealing it to be a complex bundle
of meanings and significances. He does a great service to archaeology, ancient
history and cultural studies in telling this story of entanglement.’
– Stephanie Moser, Professor of Archaeology, 
University of Southampton

‘This is a brilliant first book by a rising star in Ancient Near Eastern studies. It
comes at a critical moment when the ancient city of Babylon is under the
spotlight as never before. After the coalition invasion of 2003 Babylon was
turned into a military camp to universal international condemnation. Now the
World Monuments Fund is helping with the conservation of the site and
application has been made for Babylon to become a World Heritage Site. There
have also been three major exhibitions about Babylon in the last few years, in
Paris, Berlin and London, all with sumptuous catalogues, and the famous Cyrus
Cylinder, found at Babylon in 1879, is currently the subject of a touring
exhibition. Yet until now there existed no book that traced the exploration and
excavation of Babylon against the wider backdrop of developments in European
intellectual thinking and understanding. Michael Seymour does this with great
skill and clarity, and has produced a book that not only examines the importance
and significance of Babylon in the western and eastern traditions, but also
provides a readable account of the history and excavation of the city. This will be
an indispensable book both for scholars in a number of different fields and for
laymen interested in the Ancient Near East.’
– John Curtis, OBE, 
Keeper of Special Middle Eastern Projects, The British Museum

Table of Contents
List of illustrations
1. A city and its ghosts
2. Ancient Babylon
3. Tyrants and wonders: The biblical and classical sources
4. The Earthly City: Medieval and Renaissance approaches
5. Discoveries and fantasies: Enlightenment and modern approaches
6. The German experience: Excavation and reception
7. The Library of Babel: Babylon and its representation after the excavations
8. Culture and knowledge
Postscript: The Babylon exhibitions
Plate Section


This publication is supported by the AHRC.

Each year the AHRC provides funding from the Government to support research
and postgraduate study in the arts and humanities. Only applications of the
highest quality are funded and the range of research supported by this investment
of public funds not only provides social and cultural benefits but also contributes
to the economic success of the UK. For further information on the AHRC, please

Published in 2014 by I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd 6 Salem Road, London W2 4BU
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Distributed in the United States and Canada
Exclusively by Palgrave Macmillan
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Rhianna C. Rogers, PhD, RPA
Assistant Professor of Cultural Studies
SUNY—Empire State College

1. Aztecs--Juvenile literature. 2. Aztecs--Social life and customs--Juvenile literature. 3. Aztecs--History--Juvenile literature. 4. Indians of Mexico--Juvenile literature.
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About the Author
Karen Latchana Kenney is a Minneapolis author and editor who has written
more than 90 books. She loves learning about different cultures and
civilizations, especially those that flourished long ago. Some of her favorite
foods—chocolate and guacamole—were gifts to the world from the ancient
Aztecs. When not researching and writing her latest book, Kenney loves
watching sci-fi movies, trying new recipes, and hanging out with her son and husband.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 A Fateful Meeting 6
CHAPTER 2 From Mesoamerica to Aztec Empire 16
CHAPTER 3 Ruling from Tenochtitlán 28
CHAPTER 4 Aztec Society and Family 38
CHAPTER 5 Trades, Goods, and Architecture 50
CHAPTER 6 Worshiping the Gods 60
CHAPTER 7 Aztec Technology 72
CHAPTER 8 Fierce Warriors 82
CHAPTER 9 Lasting Influence 90


Cover Photos: Fuse/Thinkstock, background;, foreground
Interior Photos: Fuse/Thinkstock, 2; Spanish School/Private Collection/Peter Newark American
Pictures/Bridgeman Images, 6–7;, 9, 47, 59, 66; North Wind Picture Archives,
13, 36, 70, 82–83; Red Line Editorial, 15 (inset), 22, 31; iStock/Thinkstock, 15 (background), 28–29,
60–61, 63, 90–91; Thinkstock, 16–17; Charles Rex Arbogast/AP Images, 20; Universal History
Archive/UIG/Bridgeman Images, 32; Dorling Kindersley/Thinkstock, 38–39, 84; Public Domain, 43;
iStockphoto, 50–51, 78; Library of Congress, 53; Werner Forman/Corbis, 55; Shutterstock Images,
68, 81, 96; De Agostini Picture Library/G. Dagli Orti/Bridgeman Images, 72–73; Biblioteca Medicea-
Laurenziana, Florence, Italy/Bridgeman Images, 75; EPA/Mario Guzman/Corbis, 85; SuperStock/Glow
Images, 94

Editor: Kari Cornell
Series Designer: Jake Nordby

Bunson, Margaret R.

1. Egypt—Civilization—To 332 B.C.—Dictionaries. 2. Egypt—Antiquities—Dictionaries.
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 2002, 1991 Margaret R. Bunson

This revised Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt has been
designed to increase historical information about the civilization
of the Nile Valley from the predynastic period
until the annexation of Egypt by the Romans around 30
B.C.E. During the 1,000 years following the collapse of the
Ramessids and the New Kingdom in 1070 B.C.E. and the
Roman occupation of the Nile Valley, Egypt experienced
the invasion of several foreign armies and the clash of
new people and ideas. The Libyans, Nubians, Assyrians,
and Persians ruled the nation, and Alexander the Great
bequeathed the lands and a new capital, Alexandria, to
the Greeks, who remained in power during the Ptolemaic
Period (304–30 B.C.E.).
Individuals from these cultures are included in this
book, as well as the military, social, and religious aspects
of their presence on the Nile. Each culture arrived in
Egypt seeking its own purpose, eventually losing its grip
on the land. The native Egyptians, meanwhile, maintained
their own cultural imperatives and survived the
changes in their world. Their temples, courts, monuments,
and deities continued to serve the land as foreigners
arrived and disappeared. The Chronology will provide
an overview of these historical eras.
Specific topics are keyed to historical eras or designed
to provide details about particular customs, practices,
or traditions. Major subjects, such as agriculture,
gods and goddesses, mortuary rituals, the military, pharaohs,
queens, and religion, span the different dynasties
in order to offer an overview of the evolution of such matters.

Sites and personalities from the various eras are
included, with reference to their importance or their role
in the development of the nation. The dates of these individuals
are provided, and their Greek name is included in
many cases. In all instances the kings are recorded with
their prenomens (“first cartouche” or throne names)
given in parentheses.
Anyone wishing to begin learning about this period
of ancient Egyptian history should read EGYPT, an entry
that provides geographical and historical material about
the nation. The chronology provided at the front of the
book also gives information concerning Egypt’s development
and relationship to other lands. If interested in a
particular subject, begin with that entry and then read
the cross-referenced entries concerning the same subject
matter. For instance, if the reader is interested in the
Eighteenth Dynasty and Tut’ankhamun, the section on
historical periods under the entry on EGYPT will place
that royal line and that king in the proper chronological
and political setting. Tut’ankhamun is listed separately,
and in the entry concerning his life one will discover
other relatives or issues of significance to his reign.
If interested in the religious life of the ancient
Egyptians, the reader can start with the entry on religion
and then read the cross-references to the gods and goddesses,
temples, priests, mortuary rituals, cosmogony, and
eternity. Additional entries on the Per Ankh (House of
Life), solar cult, barks of the gods, and cult centers will
offer further details and new avenues of exploration on the subject.

If the reader is interested in pyramids, the entry on
that subject will lead to others, such as mastabas, sarcophagus,
cartonnage (coffins), liturgy, the Judgment
Halls of Osiris, valley temples, and mummies (which are
discussed in detail in the entry on mortuary rituals).
Once the book has become familiar to the reader, he
or she can begin to explore unique aspects of Egyptian
life that have survived over the centuries in the various
art forms and in the stunning architecture found along
the Nile. Individuals are included alongside customs or
traditions so that the spirit of the various eras can come
to life. Other entries on literature, art and architecture,
astronomy, and women’s role will add details about the
various aspects of day-to-day existence so many centuries
ago. Photographs and art work (adaptations of reliefs,
paintings, or statues) have been included, and maps provide
clarification of the geographic aspects of Egypt. The
names of some rulers have been altered to follow new
trends in the field.

Writing this encyclopedia and then revising and expanding
the scope of this work has been a genuine pleasure
and privilege. The ancient Egyptians have fascinated centuries
of human beings who have glimpsed or visited
their splendid ruins along the Nile. The words of these
ancients ring with a profound knowledge concerning
human aspirations and ideals. Such wisdom kept the
Egyptians vital and prospering for 3,000 years and
bequeathed remarkable concepts to the generations to follow them.

The history of Egypt provides an overall view of the
nation in good times and in bad. The entries on religion,
social development, temples, the military, and art, among
others, give details about specific eras and accomplish
ments, but the haunting beauty of the Egyptians themselves
can be found especially in the biographical entries
on royal and common individuals who spent their lives
serving the land and the spiritual heritage of the Nile
Valley. These individuals lived and died, laughed and
cried thousands of years ago, but they would prosper if
transplanted into the modern world. They possessed a
profound sense of cooperation in labors, of appreciation
for the beauty of their homeland, and a unique awareness
of the “other,” the presence of the spiritual aspects of
human existence on the Nile. The hours spent researching
the ancient Egyptians have expanded my own horizons,
and I am grateful for the experience.

Table of Contents
List of Illustrations and Maps vi
Acknowledgments ix
Introduction x
How to Use This Book xi
Chronology of Major Events xiii
Entries A to Z 1
Glossary 439
Suggested Readings 442
Index 449

List of Illustrations and Maps
Photographs and Illustrations
The mortuary temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel 5
Reconstruction of the sun temple of Izi (Niuserré) at Abusir 6
Temple remains from Seti I’s cenotaph at Abydos 7
A tomb display of New Kingdom agriculture 11
The ruins of Old Alexandria 22
The warrior pharaoh Amenemhet III 26
Amenhotep, Son of Hapu 32
A statue of the Old Kingdom pyramid builder Khafré 48
The canon of the human figure 49
Monumental figures at Abu Simbel 52
The massive temple columns, supports used at a shrine of Horus 54
A silver denarius struck in honor of Octavian (Augustus) 60
The bark of Amun, from a temple relief in Thebes 65
An illustration of daily life from the Book of the Dead 72
Byssus, the fine linen of Egypt 76
A chariot design from a New Kingdom temple relief 82
A relief depicting Cleopatra VII 84
The Colossi of Memnon 87
The Great Pyramid stands at Giza 88
The crowns of Egypt’s kings 90
Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri 96
A detail of Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri 96
The ruins of Deir el-Medina, the Valley of the Kings 98
The opening to the shrine of Hathor at Dendereh 99
Wall painting using pigments derived from Egypt’s natural resources 128
The deities of the Elephantine and the first cataract of the Nile 131
Wall paintings of Egyptian religious festivals 137
A relief of workers caging wild geese from the Nile marshes 140
The watcher on the horizon, the Great Sphinx 147
Renditions of the god Sobek and other deities 148
A procession of divine beings at Abydos 149
The opening to the temple of Isis at Philae 150
A pantheon of divine beings in the White Chapel at Karnak 151
The mythical creature saget, found on a tomb wall in Beni Hasan 152
Columns honoring the goddess Hathor at Dendereh 159
The Dendereh temple of the goddess Hathor 160
Hatshepsut’s Karnak apartment 161
Heh, the god of eternity 163
Horus, the great deity of Egypt 172
Hypostyle columns displayed in the temple of Luxor 176
Columns leading to an interior chamber in the Isis Temple at Philae 184
A Spirit Boat 188
A nighttime image of the great temple complex at Karnak 193
A section of the great religious complex at Thebes 195
The Great Pyramid at Giza—Khufu’s monument 203
Hieroglyphs, the writing of ancient Egyptians 210
The great temple pylon gates of Luxor 218
Medinet Habu, the migdol complex of Ramesses III at Thebes 232
A relief depicting Ramesses II in battle array 245
Tuthmosis III, one of the greatest warrior kings of Egypt 247
Mummy wigs 254
The golden mortuary mask of King Tut’ankhamun 256
The monument honoring Queen Nefertari Merymut 269
An obelisk of the New Kingdom 285
A cenotaph temple honoring the deity Osiris and eternity 288
An Osiride Pillar, a statue of Ramesses II 289
The Persea Tree on a bas-relief from the Ramesseum 301
A limestone relief of Amenhotep III in his war chariot 305
The temple of Isis at Philae 306
An engraving of Ptolemy I 314
A portrait of Ptolemy II, called Philadelphus 315
A pylon from the temple of Isis at Philae 319
Passageway into the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza 320
The burial complex of Khafré (Chephren) at Giza 322
Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaten 327
Ramesses II depicted in a colossal statue in Luxor temple 335
Ramesseum columns in the funerary monument of Ramesses II 339
The complex at Saqqara of the Step Pyramid of Djoser 353
Rendering of a sarcophagus in a tomb at Thebes 354
A column from the White Chapel, built at Karnak by Senwosret I 363
An oil portrait of Senwosret III 364
The mummified head of Seti I 368
The shabtis in the burial chamber of King Tut’ankhamun 369
A relief depicting life on the Nile in the Middle Kingdom 382
Golden tableware from the Nineteenth Dynasty 383
The Step Pyramid at Saqqara 389
A temple kiosk at Philae in the Ptolemaic Period 398
Columned corridors dating to the New Kingdom 401
Luxor temple at Thebes 403
Tomb paintings depicting Ramesses II 409
A false door in a tomb from the Old Kingdom 410
A papyrus tomb text from the Book of the Dead 410
Tuthmosis III, the “Napoleon of Egypt” 417
Khamerernebty, the consort of Menkauré of the Old Kingdom 433

Land of the Nile: Ancient Egypt ii
Alexandria 23
Plan of the fortress of Buhen 74
Temple complex at Deir el-Bahri 97
Geography of ancient Egypt 116
Egyptian Asiatic Empire under Tuthmosis III, 1450 B.C.E. 124
Natural resources of ancient Egypt 129
Layout of the Giza Plateau 146
Layout of the massive Karnak complex 194
Temple of Sobek and Heroeris (Horus) at Kom Ombo 206
Temple complex at Luxor 219
Egypt under the Ptolemies, c. 250 B.C.E. 314
Sacred sites in Egypt, c. 2600 B.C.E.–300 C.E. 400
Valley of the Kings 423


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