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R. Byron Bird
Warren E. Stewart
Edwin N. Lightfoot
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Wisconsin-Madison

1. Fluid dynamics. 2. Transport theory.

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 ISBN
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 Copyright©   
 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 

Preface
While momentum, heat, and mass transfer developed independently as branches of
classical physics long ago, their unified study has found its place as one of the fundamental
engineering sciences. This development, in turn, less than half a century old, continues
to grow and to find applications in new fields such as biotechnology,
microelectronics, nanotechnology, and polymer science.
Evolution of transport phenomena has been so rapid and extensive that complete
coverage is not possible. While we have included many representative examples, our
main emphasis has, of necessity, been on the fundamental aspects of this field. Moreover,
we have found in discussions with colleagues that transport phenomena is taught
in a variety of ways and at several different levels. Enough material has been included
for two courses, one introductory and one advanced. The elementary course, in turn, can
be divided into one course on momentum transfer, and another on heat and mass transfer,
thus providing more opportunity to demonstrate the utility of this material in practical
applications. Designation of some sections as optional (0) and other as advanced (a)
may be helpful to students and instructors.

Long regarded as a rather mathematical subject, transport phenomena is most important
for its physical significance. The essence of this subject is the careful and compact
statement of the conservation principles, along with the flux expressions, with emphasis
on the similarities and differences among the three transport processes considered. Often,
specialization to the boundary conditions and the physical properties in a specific problem
can provide useful insight with minimal effort. Nevertheless, the language of transport
phenomena is mathematics, and in this textbook we have assumed familiarity with
ordinary differential equations and elementary vector analysis. We introduce the use of
partial differential equations with sufficient explanation that the interested student can
master the material presented. Numerical techniques are deferred, in spite of their obvious
importance, in order to concentrate on fundamental understanding.

Citations to the published literature are emphasized throughout, both to place transport
phenomena in its proper historical context and to lead the reader into further extensions
of fundamentals and to applications. We have been particularly anxious to
introduce the pioneers to whom we owe so much, and from whom we can still draw
useful inspiration. These were human beings not so different from ourselves, and perhaps
some of our readers will be inspired to make similar contributions.
Obviously both the needs of our readers and the tools available to them have
changed greatly since the first edition was written over forty years ago. We have made a
serious effort to bring our text up to date, within the limits of space and our abilities, and
we have tried to anticipate further developments. Major changes from the first edition
include:
-transport properties of two-phase systems
-use of "combined fluxes" to set up shell balances and equations of change
-angular momentum conservation and its consequences
-complete derivation of the mechanical energy balance
-expanded treatment of boundary-layer theory
-Taylor dispersion
-improved discussions of turbulent transport
-Fourier analysis of turbulent transport at high Pr or Sc
-more on heat and mass transfer coefficients
-enlarged discussions of dimensional analysis and scaling
-matrix methods for multicomponent mass transfer
-ionic systems, membrane separations, and porous media
-the relation between the Boltzmann equation and the continuum equations
-use of the "Q+W convention in energy discussions, in conformity with the leading textbooks in physics and physical chemistry

However, it is always the youngest generation of professionals who see the future most
clearly, and who must build on their imperfect inheritance.
Much remains to be done, but the utility of transport phenomena can be expected to
increase rather than diminish. Each of the exciting new technologies blossoming around
us is governed, at the detailed level of interest, by the conservation laws and flux expressions,
together with information on the transport coefficients. Adapting the problem formulations
and solution techniques for these new areas will undoubtedly keep engineers
busy for a long time, and we can only hope that we have provided a useful base from
which to start.

Each new book depends for its success on many more individuals than those whose
names appear on the title page. The most obvious debt is certainly to the hard-working
and gifted students who have collectively taught us much more than we have taught
them. In addition, the professors who reviewed the manuscript deserve special thanks
for their numerous corrections and insightful comments: Yu-Ling Cheng (University of
Toronto), Michael D. Graham (University of Wisconsin), Susan J. Muller (University of
California-Berkeley), William B. Russel (Princeton University), Jay D. Schieber (Illinois
Institute of Technology), and John F. Wendt (Von Kdrm6n Institute for Fluid Dynamics).
However, at a deeper level, we have benefited from the departmental structure and traditions
provided by our elders here in Madison. Foremost among these was Olaf Andreas
Hougen, and it is to his memory that this edition is dedicated.
Madison, Wisconsin
R.B.B
W.E.S
E.N.L


Table of Contents
Preface 52.4 Flow through an Annulus 53
52.5 Flow of Two Adjacent Immiscible Fluids 56
Chapter 0 The Subject of Transport 52.6 Creeping Flow around a Sphere 58
Phenomena 1 Ex. 2.6-1 Determination of Viscosity from the
Terminal Velocity of a Falling Sphere 61
Questions for Discussion 61
Part I Momentum Transport
Chapter 1 Viscosity and the Mechanisms of
Momentum Transport 11
51.1 Newton's Law of Viscosity (Molecular Momentum
Transport) 11
Ex. 1.1-1 Calculation of Momentum Flux 15
1 . 2 Generalization of Newton's Law of Viscosity 16
1 . 3 Pressure and Temperature Dependence of
Viscosity 21
Ex. 1.3-1 Estimation of Viscosity from Critical
Properties 23
~1.4' Molecular Theory of the Viscosity of Gases at Low
Density 23
Ex. 1.4-1 Computation of the Viscosity of a Gas
Mixture at Low Density 28
Ex. 1.4-2 Prediction of the Viscosity of a Gas
Mixture at Low Density 28
51.5' Molecular Theory of the Viscosity of Liquids 29
Ex. 1.5-1 Estimation of the Viscosity of a Pure
Liquid 31
51.6' Viscosity of Suspensions and Emulsions 31
1 . 7 Convective Momentum Transport 34
Questions for Discussion 37
Problems 37
Chapter 2 Shell Momentum Balances and Velocity
Distributions in Laminar Flow 40
Problems 62
Chapter 3 The Equations of Change for
Isothermal Systems 75
3 . 1 The Equation of Continuity 77
Ex. 3.1-1 Normal Stresses at Solid Surfaces for
Incompressible Newtonian Fluids 78
53.2 The Equation of Motion 78
g3.3 The Equation of Mechanical Energy 81
53.4' The Equation of Angular Momentum 82
53.5 The Equations of Change in Terms of the
Substantial Derivative 83
Ex. 3.5-1 The Bernoulli Equation for the Steady
Flow of Inviscid Fluids 86
53.6 Use of the Equations of Change to Solve Flow
Problems 86
Ex. 3.6-1 Steady Flow in a Long Circular
Tube 88
Ex. 3.6-2 Falling Film with Variable
Viscosity 89
Ex. 3.6-3 Operation of a Couette Viscometer 89
Ex. 3.6-4 Shape of the Surface of a Rotating
Liquid 93
Ex. 3.6-5 Flow near a Slowly Rotating
Sphere 95
53.7 Dimensional Analysis of the Equations of
Change 97
~xr3.7-1 Transverse Flow around a Circular
Cylinder 98
Ex. 3.7-2 Steady Flow in an Agitated Tank 101
2 . Shell Momentum Balances and Boundary Ex. 3.7-3 Pressure Drop for Creeping Flow in a
Conditions 41 Packed Tube 103
52.2 Flow of a Falling Film 42 Questions for Discussion 104
Ex. 2.2-1 Calculation of Film Velocity 47 Problems 104
Ex. 2.2-2 Falling Film with Variable
Viscosity 47 Chapter 4 Velocity Distributions with More than
52.3 Flow Through a Circular Tube 48 One Independent Variable 114
Ex. 2.3-1 Determination of Viscosity from Capillary - ,
Flow Data 52 1 Time-Dependent Flow of Newtonian Fluids 114
Ex. 2.3-2 Compressible Flow in a Horizontal Ex. 4.1-1 Flow near a Wall Suddenly Set in
Circular Tube 53 Motion 115
vi Contents
Ex. 4.1-2 Unsteady Laminar Flow between Two
Parallel Plates 117
Ex. 4.1-3 Unsteady Laminar Flow near an
Oscillating Plate 120
54.2' Solving Flow Problems Using a Stream
Function 121
Ex. 4.2-1 Creeping Flow around a Sphere 122
54.3' Flow of Inviscid Fluids by Use of the Velocity
Potential 126
Ex. 4.3-1 Potential Flow around a Cylinder 128
Ex. 4.3-2 Flow into a Rectangular Channel 130
Ex. 4.3-3 Flow near a Corner 131
54.4' Flow near Solid Surfaces by Boundary-Layer
Theory 133
Ex. 4.4-1 Laminar Flow along a Flat Plate
(Approximate Solution) 136
Ex. 4.4-2 Laminar Flow along a Flat Plate (Exact
Solution) 137
Ex. 4.4-3 Flow near a Corner 139
Questions for Discussion 140
Problems 141
Chapter 5 Velocity Distributions in
Turbulent Flow 152
Comparisons of Laminar and Turbulent
Flows 154
Time-Smoothed Equations of Change for
Incompressible Fluids 156
The Time-Smoothed Velocity Profile near a
Wall 159
Empirical Expressions for the Turbulent
Momentum Flux 162
Ex. 5.4-1 Development of the Reynolds Stress
Expression in the Vicinity of the Wall 164
Turbulent Flow in Ducts 165
Ex. 5.5-1 Estimation of the Average Velocity in a
Circular Tube 166
Ex. 5.5-2 Application of Prandtl's Mixing Length
Fomula to Turbulent Flow in a Circular
Tube 167
Ex. 5.5-3 Relative Magnitude of Viscosity and Eddy
Viscosity 167
~ 5 . 6Tu~rb ulent Flbw in Jets 168
Ex. 5.6-1 Time-Smoothed Velocity Distribution in a
Circular Wall Jet 168
Questions for Discussion 172
Problems 172
Chapter 6 Interphase Transport in
Isothermal Systems 177
6.1 Definition of Friction Factors 178
56.2 Friction Factors for Flow in Tubes 179
Ex. 6.2-Pressure Drop Required for a Given Flow
Rate 183


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This book was set in Palatino by UG / GGS Information Services, Inc. and printed and bound
by Hamilton Printing. The cover was printed by Phoenix.

John M. deMan
John W. Finley
W. Jeffrey Hurst
Chang Yong Lee

Food Science Text Series


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Book Details
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 ISBN
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 978-3-319-63607-8 (eBook) 
 Copyright©   
 Springer International Publishing AG 1999, 2018

About the Editors
John M. deMan (1926–2010) was a University Professor Emeritus in the
Department of Food Science at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
He was the Chairman of the Department and Past President of the Canadian
Institute of Food Science and Technology. He published over 250 papers and
book chapters on multiple aspects of food science and technology. He
received many professional awards, including the Dairy Research Award of
the American Dairy Science Association, the Institute Award of the Canadian
Institute of Food Science and Technology, the Alton E. Bailey Award of the
American Oil Chemist Society, the Stephen S. Chang Award of the Institute
of Food Technologists, and the Kaufmann Memorial Award of the International
Society of Fat Research. He was a Fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists,
the Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology, and the Malaysian
Oil Science and Technology Association.
John W. Finley received a B.S. in Chemistry from LeMoyne College and a
Ph.D. from Cornell University. Dr. Finley retired from Louisiana State
University where he was head of the Food Science program from 2007 to
2014. His laboratory studied low calorie ingredients, anti-inflammatory compounds
in the diet, modified nutritional lipids, and edible fiber. Previously he
headed Fundamental Science at Nabisco, was a Fellow at Kraft Food, served
as chief technology officer of A.M. Todd Co. and the leader of the Food
Science program at Monsanto, and Research Scientist with the USDA
Regional Research Center.

Dr. Finley is a Fellow of the American Chemical Society, Fellow of
Agricultural and Food Division of the American Chemical Society, Fellow of
the Royal Society of Chemistry, Fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists,
and Certified Food Technologist by Fellow Institute of Food Technologists. He
was recognized as an Outstanding Alumnus of Michigan State University.
Other awards include Harris Distinguished lecturer at the Ohio State University
and a Leadership Award at Nabisco, and his memberships include Sigma Xi at
Michigan State University and Phi Kappa Phi at Cornell University.
Dr. Finley has edited 8 books, holds 70 patents, and 135 publications.
W. Jeffrey Hurst retired from the Hershey Company as Principal Scientist
after being with the corporation for over 39 years. His research focused on
monitoring new developments in measurement technology as they apply to
food systems and the review of new and emerging compounds important to
the food industry. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, the
Institute of Food Technologist. He is a member of the American Society of
Mass Spectrometry and Fellow of the American Institute of Chemists (FAIC).
Furthermore, he was named a Fellow of the AOAC, a Pioneer in Laboratory
Robotics, and is a Diplomate of the American Association Integrated
Medicine. Dr. Hurst was a member of the US Air Force and retired as a Major.
He also serves as a member of the External Advisory Board of the University
of Illinois at Chicago NIH bv Botanical Center. This book will be the tenth
one that he has edited or written. He was founding editor of Lab Robotics
Automation and Seminars in Food Analysis. He has numerous patents with
over 300 papers and presentations.

Chang Yong Lee received a B.S. in Chemistry from Chung-Ang University
in Seoul, Korea, and a Ph.D. from Utah State University. He has been working
as a faculty member at Cornell University since 1969. Professor Lee has
been teaching food chemistry for a number of years in the Department of
Food Science. His research interests have been on biochemical aspects of
plant foods. Recently his laboratory has been working on the bioactivity of
phytochemicals that is related to health benefits. He served as Chair of the
Department of Food Science and Technology and Co-director of Cornell
Institute of Food Science (2002–2008). Dr. Lee has held visiting professor
appointments at several institutions, including Korea Institute of Science and
Technology; Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Science at EMBRAPA,
Brazil; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Avignon, France;
Beijing Vegetable Research Center, China; Ecole Nationale Superieure
des Industries Agricoles et Alimentaire, France; Graduate School of
Biotechnology, Korea University; and Kyung Hee University, Korea.
Professor Lee has authored more than 300 research articles. He was a
recipient of Platinum Award on his edited books on polyphenols from the
American Chemical Society’s Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry and the Institute for Scientific
Information (ISI) acknowledged Professor Lee as one of the Highly Cited
Researchers (HCR) in 2004. Thomson Reuters selected him as one of 112
scientists in the world in the field of Agricultural Science during 2002–2012
who published the greatest number of highly cited papers ranked in the top
1% by citations. Again in 2015, Thomson Reuters listed Lee as one of the
World’s Most Influential Scientific Minds in Agricultural Science. Professor
Lee was awarded USDA Secretary’s Honor Award for Excellence in Research
in 2001 and 2004, and Babcock-Hart Award from the International Life
Science Institute and the Institute of Food Technologists in 2003. He is
elected Fellow of the American Chemical Society’s Division of Agriculture
and Food Chemistry (1991), the Institute of Food Technologists (1996), the
Korean Academy of Science and Technology (1998), and International
Academy of Food Science and Technology (2006). He was appointed as
International Scholar (2011–2014) at Kyung Hee University in Korea and
recently (2014–present) he has been serving as Adjunct Distinguished
Professor at King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

Table of Contents
1 Water  1
Yrjo H. Roos, John W. Finley, and John M. deMan
Water in Foods   1
Physical Properties of Water and Ice   1
Structure of the Water Molecule   4
Structure of Ice   6
Growth of Ice Crystals  7
Latent Heat of Fusion  7
Solidification Without Crystallization   8
Surface Tension of Water  10
Examples of Surface Tension   11
Colligative Properties of Aqueous Solutions  11
Freezing Point Depression  11
Boiling Point Elevation  12
Osmotic Pressure   12
Vapor Pressure Lowering   12
Ionic Interactions Are Attractions Between Oppositely
Charged Ions   13
Properties of Hydrogen Bonds   15
Hydrophobic Interactions   16
Water Activity and Sorption Phenomena  17
Types of Water  24
Phase Diagram   26
The Glass Transition  27
Water Activity and Reaction Rate  30
Water Activity and Food Spoilage  30
Water Activity and Packaging   33
Water Activity and Food Processing   34
References  35
2 Lipids   39
John W. Finley and John M. deMan
Shorthand Description of Fatty Acids and Glycerides  40
Fatty Acids  43
Lipid Nomenclature  43
Cis and trans Fatty Acids  44
Triglycerides  48
Component Glycerides  53
Waxes   58
Phospholipids  60
Unsaponifiables   63
Terpenes   63
Steroids  63
Phytosterols  66
Lipid Reactions   68
Fatty Acid Salts   68
Hydrolysis  68
Interesterification   68
Hydrogenation  72
Lipid Oxidation  78
Initiation   79
Propagation  79
Termination  79
Photooxidation   88
Heated Fats: Frying   90
Flavor Reversion  93
Physical Properties   95
Fractionation  105
Emulsions and Emulsifiers  106
Fat Replacers  110
References  113
3 Amino Acids and Proteins  117
Michael Appell, W. Jeffrey Hurst, John W. Finley,
and John M. deMan
Introduction   117
Amino Acids  117
Peptides and Proteins  118
Protein Classification  120
Simple Proteins  120
Conjugated Proteins  123
Derived Proteins   123
Protein Structure    123
Denaturation  125
Non-enzymic Browning   127
Chemical Changes  136
Functional Properties   139
Surface Activity of Proteins   140
Gel Formation   142
Animal Proteins   142
Milk Proteins  142
Meat Proteins   147
Meromysin  147
Collagen  149
Fish Proteins   152
Egg Proteins  153
Plant Proteins   154
Wheat Proteins   154
Maize Proteins   156
Rice Proteins  157
Soybean Proteins   158
Gluten Sensitivity   161
Test Methods   161
References   162
4 Carbohydrates  165
Gillian Eggleston, John W. Finley, and John M. deMan
Introduction   165
Monosaccharides   166
Related Compounds to Monosaccharides   171
Amino Sugars   171
Glycosides  172
Sugar Alcohols   172
Oligosaccharides   175
Disaccharides   175
Chemical Reactions of Sugars   179
Compounds Related to Sugars  191
Polysaccharides   191
Starch  192
Starch Degrading Enzymes  200
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)   201
Starch Hydrolyzates: Corn Sweeteners   202
Modified Starches   202
Glycogen   207
Cellulose   209
Pentosans/Hemicelluloses  210
Lignin  211
Cyclodextrins  212
Polydextrose   214
Pectins   215
Gums    216
Dietary Fiber  222
References   226
5 Minerals   231
John W. Finley and John M. deMan
Introduction  231
Interactions with Other Food Components   236
Major Minerals   237
Sodium   237
Potassium  237
Magnesium  
Calcium   238
Phosphates  238
Minerals in Milk   239
Minerals in Meat  241
Minerals in Plant Products  242
Chloride  243
Trace Elements  244
Iron   244
Cobalt   245
Copper   245
Zinc  245
Manganese  245
Molybdenum   246
Selenium   246
Fluorine  246
Iodine   246
Chromium  246
Additional Information on Trace Elements   247
Metal Uptake in Canned Foods  247
References  250
6 Color and Food Colorants  253
John W. Finley, John M. deMan, and Chang Yong Lee
Introduction   253
CIE System   253
Munsell System   258
Hunter System  260
Lovibond System   261
Gloss   262
Food Colorants    263
Tetrapyrrole Pigments  266
Myoglobins   266
Chlorophylls  268
Isoprenoid Derivative Pigments  270
Carotenoids   270
Benzopyran Derivative Pigments  276
Anthocyanins and Flavonoids  276
Other Pigments  281
Betalains  281
References   283
7 Flavor  285
Han-Seok Seo, John W. Finley, and John M. deMan
Taste Sensations  290
Chemical Structure and Taste   290
Sweet Taste   293
Sour Taste   294
Salty Taste   295
Bitter Taste  298
Other Aspects of Taste  301
Taste Inhibition and Modification   303
Flavor Enhancement—Umami   304
Odor   306
Odor and Molecular Structure  310
Description of Food and Beverage Flavors   314
Astringency   316
Flavor and Off-Flavor  317
Flavor of Some Foods  319
Meat   320
Fish  320
Milk  321
Cheese   321
Fruits  322
Vegetables  322
Tea   322
Coffee  323
Alcoholic Beverages  324
References  325
8 Texture   329
Harry Levine and John W. Finley
Introduction   329
Fluids  330
Texture of Solids   333
Texture Profile   334
Measurement of Texture  335
Force and Stress   336
Deformation and Strain   336
Principles of Measurement   337
Different Types of Bodies  337
The Elastic Body   337
The Retarded Elastic Body  338 
The Viscoelastic Body   338
The Plastic Body  339
The Thixotropic Body   341
Dynamic Behavior   341
Rheology Applications in Foods   342
Textural Properties of some Foods   348
Meat Texture  348
Wheat Flour Dough   349
Fats  350
Fruits and Vegetables   353
Starch   353
Microstructure  355
Water Activity and Texture   359
References   361
9 Vitamins   365
John W. Finley and John M. deMan
Introduction   365
Fat-Soluble Vitamins  367
Vitamin A (Retinol)  367
Vitamin D  372
Tocopherols (Vitamin E)  372
Vitamin K  378
Water-Soluble Vitamins   378
Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic Acid)   378
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)  382
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)  383
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)  385
Niacin   386
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamine)   388
Folic Acid (Folacin)   389
Pantothenic Acid  391
Biotin   391
Vitamins as Food Ingredients  392
References  394
10 Enzymes   397
John M. deMan and Chang Yong Lee
Introduction   397
Nature and Kinetics of Enzymes   400
Nature of Enzymes  400
Kinetics of Enzymes  400
Specificity  404
Classification  405
Enzyme Production  405
Hydrolases  405
Esterases   405
Amylases   411
Pectic Enzymes   413
Proteases   415
Protein Hydrolysates  419
Oxidoreductases   421
Phenolases  421
Glucose Oxidase (β-d-Glucose: Oxygen Oxidoreductase)  423
Catalase (Hydrogen Peroxide: Hydrogen Peroxide
Oxidoreductase)   423
Peroxidase (Donor: Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidoreductase) 424
Lipoxygenase (Linoleate: Oxygen Oxidoreductase)  426
Xanthine Oxidase (Xanthine: Oxygen Oxidoreductase)   427
Immobilized Enzymes   429
References   432
11 Fruits and Vegetables  435
Chang Yong Lee
Major and Minor Components   435
Water   435
Carbohydrates   436
Proteins and Nitrogenous Compounds   438
Lipids   438
Minor Composition   438
Organic Acids   438
Phenolic Compounds  441
Minerals   443
Pigments  444
Postharvest Deterioration   445
Cellular Components and Physiology of Fruits
and Vegetables   446
Respiration   447
Environmental Factors that Influence Deterioration  448
Effects of Processing on Fruits and Vegetables  448
Carbohydrate Reactions   449
Protein Reactions   449
Lipid Reactions   450
Color Change  450
Flavor Change  451
Texture Change   452
Nutrient Loss  452
Dehydration of Fruits and Vegetables   453
Canning of Fruits and Vegetables  454
Freezing of Fruits and Vegetables  454
Lactic Acid Fermentation  454
References   455
12 Herbs and Spices   457
Zhuohong Xie and John W. Finley
Black Pepper  463
Vanilla  464
Cardamom   468
Ginger  469
Turmeric  471
Cinnamon   473
Ginseng  477
Ginkgo  478
Food Fraud Risks   478
References   478
13 Beer and Wine   483
John W. Finley
Alcoholic Fermentation  484
Beer   486
Raw Materials  488
Hops   489
Yeast   493
Wine   495
Wine Grape Production   496
Wine Production  498
References   506
14 Genetically Modified Crops   511
W. Jeffrey Hurst and John W. Finley
Applications of Genetically Modified Crops  518
Testing  521
Regulation  522
Future Challenges   522
GMO Dictionary  523
Flour  525
References   526
15 Additives and Contaminants   527
W. Jeffrey Hurst, John W. Finley and John M. deMan
Introduction  527
Food Toxins   527
Food Additives  531
Benzoic Acid  533
Parabens   533
Sorbic Acid  536
Sulfites  536
Nitrates and Nitrites   538
Hydrogen Peroxide  539
Sodium Chloride   539
Bacteriocins  540
Antioxidants  540
Emulsifiers  542
Bread Improvers  543
Incidental Additives or Contaminants  549
Pesticides  549
Dioxin   551
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)  552
Antibiotics  555
Trace Metals   556
Mercury  556
Lead and Tin  559
Cadmium  560
Arsenic   560
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)  560
Caffeine  562
References  563
Appendix A: Moisture Analysis  567
Appendix B: Units and Conversion Factors  573
Appendix C: Greek Alphabet  575
Index  577

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Library of Congress Control Number: 2017956195
1st edition: © AVI 1980
2nd edition: © AVI 1989

This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature
The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG
The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland

Dr. K. Singh

( With Solutions ) for IIT JEE Main and Advanced 


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 Copyright©   
 2015 by Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.,
 4435-36/7, Ansari Road, Daryaganj,
 New Delhi-110002.

About the Author
Dr K. Singh has done his post-graduation in Chemistry with special
paper in Organic Chemistry and his PhD in Water Pollution from Veer
Kunwar Singh University, Ara, Bihar. He is an accomplished faculty in
Chemistry, imparting quality education to JEE aspirants across north
India. He has a vast teaching experience of more than 19 years and has
taught more than 60,000 students. He has churned out thousands of
successful students in JEE, many of whom attained top hundred ranks
and studied in institutes of their choice. Many of these students are
doing exceedingly well in the fi eld of research and in corporate sector.
He is one of the very few faculties from Bihar who had the privilege
of teaching at Kota in early days. He then went on to establish the fi rst
Coaching Institute at Patna, Bihar, which is based on Kota teaching
pattern. As a leading educationist of Patna, he very successfully stopped
the migration of the students from Bihar to Kota.
Dr K. Singh is a member of American Chemical Society and has
been conferred with many awards. Some of which are: “Bharat Gaurav Award” by World Economic Progress Society; Rashtriya Siksha Ratna Award” by I.E.D.R.A. and “Bhojpuri Academy
Samman” by Govt. of Bihar. He has also participated in the “National Conference on Excellence in Higher Education”. His name is counted among the most successful and respected faculty in the world of JEE coaching.

Preface
Organic Chemistry is understood by reading the textbook, listening to lectures and memorizing name reactions with reagents. But perhaps most importantly, it is learnt by doing, that is, solving problems. It is not uncommon for students who have performed below expectation in JEE to explain that they honestly thought they understood the text and lectures.
The diffi culty, however, lies in applying, generalizing, and extending the specifi c reactions and mechanisms they have “memorized” to the solution of a very broad array of related problems. In doing so, students will begin to “internalize”
Organic Chemistry to develop an intuitive feel for, and appreciation of, the underlying logic of the subject. Acquiring that level of skill requires but goes far beyond rote learning. It is the ultimate process by which one learns to manipulate the myriad of reactions and, in time, gains a predictive power that will facilitate solving new problems.
Mastering Organic Chemistry is challenging. It demands memorization, but then requires application of those facts to solve real problems. It features a highly logical structural hierarchy and builds upon a cumulative learning process. The requisite investment in time and effort, however, can lead to the development of a sense of self-confi dence in the subject, an intellectually satisfying experience, indeed. Many excellent textbooks are available to explain the theory of Organic Chemistry; all provide extensive exercises. Better performing students, however, consistently ask for additional exercises. It is the purpose of this book, then, to provide supplementary problems and their solutions that reinforce and extend those textbook exercises.
This book has reached its destination in fi ve years; three years used in collection of problems chapter-wise and two years for correction/eliminating errors. I have designed this book in such a manner that it will be useful for JEE aspiring students. If you go through previous years’ JEE problems, you will fi nd that objective type questions have subjective nature, that is why it was decided to write an objective pattern book in a subjective way. The beauty of this book is in the
solutions, which are at par with international level treatment. Each and every question has detailed solution with reaction sequence, bond cleavage and formation of products. The book has separate chapters for Substitution and Elimination reaction and Carbonyl alpha-Substitution and Carbonyl Condensation reactions, because JEE has always been framing problems from these chapters.
Arrangement is according to classical functional group organization, with each group typically divided into Reactions, Conversions and Mechanisms. To emphasize the vertical integration of the subject, problems in later chapters heavily draw upon and integrate reactions learned in earlier chapters.
It is desirable, but impossible, to write a problem book that is completely text-independent. Most problems will follow a similar developmental sequence, progressing from alkane/alkene/alkyne to aromatic to aldehyde/ketone to carboxylic acid to enol/enolate to amine chemistry. But within the earlier domains, placement of the basics, stereochemistry, SN/E mechanisms, and other functional groups varies considerably. The sequence is important because it establishes the
concepts and reactions that can be utilized in subsequent problems. It is the intent of this problem book to follow a consensus sequence that complements a broad array of Organic Chemistry textbooks. Consequently, instructors utilizing a specifi c textbook may on some occasion offer their students guidance on the corresponding problem book chapter and select problems for practice.
I acknowledge the blessings and support of my mother Smt. Tileshwari Devi, father Shri Triveni Singh, wife Mrs. Sarika Singh and sons, Aayushman and Shauryaman.
I would like to thank Dr. Sarika Mehta Jain for her unconditional support to make this an error-free book. She spent a lot of time on this book, and solved each and every problem to ensure authentic and error free solutions. I can say without any hesitation that she is the mother of this book, without her support this book would have never reached to my students, readers and teachers. I also sincerely thank all the members of Wiley India team and especially Paras Bansal, Anjali Chadha and Seema Sajwan in bringing out this book in such a nice form. It is all made possible by the grace of
God Almighty. I devote this book to the feet of God.
At the end, constructive criticism and valuable suggestions from the readers are most welcome to make the book more useful.
Dr. K. Singh


Table of Contents
1 THE BASICS 1
PROBLEMS 1
1.1 Hybridization, Molecular Formula and Physical Properties 1
1.2 Acids and Bases 4
1.3 Resonance 7
1.4 Reaction Basics 8
SOLUTIONS 9

2 STEREOCHEMISTRY 31
PROBLEMS 31
General 31
2.1 Elements of Symmetry 31
2.2 Chiral Molecules 36
2.3 Number and Types of Stereoisomers 37
2.4 Nomenclature 41
2.5 R- and S- Confi guration 42
2.6 Optical Activity 43
2.7 Miscellaneous 44
Reactions 44
2.8 Stereochemistry of Reactions 44
SOLUTIONS 46
General 46
Reactions 67

3 ALKANES AND CYCLOALKANES 73
PROBLEMS 73
Alkanes 73
3.1 General 73
3.2 Nomenclature 73
3.3 Conformational Analysis 74
Cycloalkanes 74
3.4 General 74
3.5 Nomenclature 75
3.6 Conformational Analysis 76
SOLUTIONS 78
Alkanes 78
Cycloalkanes 84

4 ALKENES AND CARBOCATIONS 99
PROBLEMS 99
4.1 General 99
4.2 Reactions 100
4.3 Conversions 105
4.4 Mechanisms 107
SOLUTIONS 109

5 ALKYNES 141
PROBLEMS 141
5.1 Reactions 141
5.2 Conversions 142
5.3 Mechanisms 143
SOLUTIONS 145

6 SUBSTITUTION AND ELIMINATION REACTIONS 159
PROBLEMS 159
6.1 General 159
6.2 Reactions 161
6.3 Conversions 163
6.4 Mechanisms 164
SOLUTIONS 167

7 ALKYL HALIDES AND RADICALS 195
PROBLEMS 195
7.1 Reactions 195
7.2 Conversions 195
7.3 Mechanisms 196
SOLUTIONS 197

8 ALCOHOLS AND ETHERS 205
PROBLEMS 205
Alcohols 205
8.1 Reactions 205
8.2 Conversions 207
8.3 Mechanisms 208
Ethers 209
8.4 Reactions 209
8.5 Conversions 210
8.6 Mechanisms 210
SOLUTIONS 212
Alcohols 212
Ethers 225

9 CONJUGATED SYSTEMS 233
PROBLEMS 233
9.1 Reactions 233
9.2 Conversions 234
9.3 Mechanisms 235
SOLUTIONS 237

10 AROMATIC COMPOUNDS 245
PROBLEMS 245
10.1 General 245
10.2 Reactions 247
10.3 Conversions 252
10.4 Mechanisms 254
SOLUTIONS 257

11 ALDEHYDES AND KETONES 299
PROBLEMS 299
11.1 General 299
11.2 Reactions 299
11.3 Conversions 306
11.4 Mechanisms 309
SOLUTIONS 316

12 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES 371
PROBLEMS 371
Carboxylic Acids 371
12.1 General 371
12.2 Reactions 371
12.3 Conversions 373
12.4 Mechanisms 374
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives 375
12.5 Reactions 375
12.6 Conversions 378
12.7 Mechanisms 380
SOLUTIONS 383
Carboxylic Acids 383
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives 399

13 CARBONYL SUBSTITUTION AND CONDENSATION REACTIONS 423
PROBLEMS 423
Carbonyl α-Substitution and Enolates 423
13.1 Reactions 423
13.2 Conversions 424
13.3 Mechanisms 425
Carbonyl Condensation 426
13.4 Reactions 426
13.5 Conversions 427
13.6 Mechanisms 427
SOLUTIONS 430
Carbonyl α-Substitution and Enolates 430
Carbonyl Condensation 439

14 AMINES 453
PROBLEMS 453
14.1 Reactions 453
14.2 Conversions 454
14.3 Mechanisms 456
SOLUTIONS 459

15 BIOMOLECULES AND POLYMERS 475
PROBLEMS 475
Carbohydrates 475
15.1 General 475
15.2 Reactions 475
15.3 Mechanisms 476
Amino Acids 477
15.4 General 477
15.5 Mechanism 478
Polymers 478
15.6 General 478
15.7 Mechanisms 480
SOLUTIONS 481
Carbohydrates 481
Amino Acids 493
Polymers 497


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An In-Dept Exploration Of Essential Concepts And Processes From Around The World

Sandor Ellix Katz

Foreword by Michael Pollan


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 2012 by Sandor Ellix Katz 

Introduction
Little could I have imagined, as a New York City kid who
loved pickles, that those delicious, crunchy, garlicky
sour pickles would lead me on such an extraordinary
journey of discovery and exploration. In fact, products of
fermentation—not only pickles, but also bread, cheese,
yogurt, sour cream, salami, vinegar, soy sauce, chocolate,
and coffee, as well as beer and wine—were prominent in
my family’s diet (as they are in many, if not most,
people’s), though we never talked about them as such.
Yet, as my path through life led me to various nutritional
ideas and dietary experiments, I did learn about the
digestive benefits of bacteria present in living fermented
foods and began to experience their restorative powers.
And when I found myself with a garden, faced with a
surplus of cabbages and radishes, sauerkraut beckoned
me. Our love affair endures.

The first time I taught a sauerkraut-making workshop, at the
Sequatchie Valley Institute in 1999, I learned that there is a
tremendous fear in our culture of aging food outside of
refrigeration. In our time, most people are raised to view bacteria
as dangerous enemies and refrigeration as a household necessity.
The idea of leaving food outside of refrigeration in order to
encourage bacterial growth triggers fears of danger, disease, and
even death. “How will I know whether the right bacteria are
growing?” is a common question. People largely assume that for
microbial transformations to be safe, they require extensive
knowledge and control and are therefore a specialized domain best
left to experts.
Most food and beverage fermentation processes are ancient
rituals that humans have been performing since before the dawn of
history, yet we have largely relegated them to factory production.
Fermentation has mostly disappeared from our households and
communities. Techniques evolved by disparate human cultures
over millennia, through observation of natural phenomena and
manipulating conditions with trial and error, have become obscure
and are in danger of being lost.

I have spent nearly two decades exploring the realm of
fermentation. I do not have a background in microbiology or food
science; I am just a food-loving back-to-the-land generalist who
became obsessed with fermentation, spurred by a voracious
appetite, a practical desire for food not to go to waste, and a willful
desire to maintain good health. I have experimented widely, talked
to many, many people about the subject, and done a lot of reading
on it. The more I experiment and the more I learn, the more I
realize how little of an expert I remain. People grow up in
households in which some of these traditional ferments are the
daily context, and their knowledge is far more intimate. Others
become commercial manufacturers and develop technical mastery
in order to produce and market consistent and profitable products;
countless such people know much more than I about brewing beer,
making cheese, baking bread, curing salamis, or brewing saké.
Microbiologists or other scientists who study very specific facets of
the genetics, metabolism, kinetics, community dynamics, or other
mechanisms of fermentations understand it all in terms I can only
barely comprehend.

Nor do I possess anything approaching encyclopedic knowledge of
fermentation. The infinite variation that exists in how people on
every continent ferment all the various foods they eat is too vast for
any individual to have comprehensive knowledge. However, I have
had the privilege to hear a lot of wonderful stories, and taste many
homemade and artisan-fermented concoctions. Many readers of
my books, visitors to my website, and participants in my workshops
have recounted tales of their grandparents’ fermentation practices;
immigrants have excitedly told me about ferments from the old
country, often lost to them through migration; travelers have
reported on ferments they have encountered; people have divulged
their quirky family variations; and other experimentalists such as
myself have shared their adventures. I have also fielded thousands
of troubleshooting questions, causing me to research and think
about many more aspects of the inevitable variations that occur in
home fermentations.

This book is a compendium of the fermentation wisdom I have
collected. I have included many other people’s voices throughout.
Though I have made an attempt to be thorough, this book is far
from encyclopedic. My intention with it is to identify patterns and
convey concepts to empower you with tools so you can explore and
reclaim fermentation into your life. I am on a mission of sharing
skills, resources, and information related to this important art, in the
hope that these long-standing coevolutionary relationships,
embedded in cultural practices, are not lost but rather spread,
cross-pollinated, and adapted.

One word that repeatedly comes to the fore in my exploration and
thinking about fermentation is culture. Fermentation relates to
culture in many different ways, corresponding with the many layers
of meaning embedded in this important word, from its literal and
specific meanings in the context of microbiology to its broadest
connotations. We call the starters that we add to milk to make
yogurt, or to initiate any fermentation, cultures. Simultaneously,
culture constitutes the totality of all that humans seek to pass from
generation to generation, including language, music, art, literature,
scientific knowledge, and belief systems, as well as agriculture and
culinary techniques (in both of which fermentation occupies a central role).

In fact, the word culture comes from Latin cultura, a form of
colere, “to cultivate.” Our cultivation of the land and its creatures—
plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria—is essential to culture.
Reclaiming our food and our participation in cultivation is a means
of cultural revival, taking action to break out of the confining and
infantilizing dependency of the role of consumer (user), and taking
back our dignity and power by becoming producers and creators.
This is not just about fermentation (even if, as a biological force
upon our food, that is inevitable), but about food more broadly.
Every living creature on this Earth interacts intimately with its
environment via its food. Humans in our developed technological
society, however, have largely severed this connection, and with
disastrous results. Though affluent people have more food choices
than people of the past could ever have dreamed of, and though
one person’s labor can produce more food today than ever before,
the large-scale, commercial methods and systems that enable
these phenomena are destroying our Earth, destroying our health,
and depriving us of dignity. With respect to food, the vast majority
of people are completely dependent for survival upon a fragile
global infrastructure of monocultures, synthetic chemicals,
biotechnology, and transportation.

Moving toward a more harmonious way of life and greater
resilience requires our active participation. This means finding ways
to become more aware of and connected to the other forms of life
that are around us and that constitute our food—plants and
animals, as well as bacteria and fungi—and to the resources, such
as water, fuel, materials, tools, and transportation, upon which we
depend. It means taking responsibility for our shit, both literally and
figuratively. We can become creators of a better world, of better
and more sustainable food choices, of greater awareness of
resources, and of community based upon sharing. For culture to be
strong and resilient, it must be a creative realm in which skills,
information, and values are engaged and transmitted; culture
cannot thrive as a consumer paradise or a spectator sport. Daily life
offers constant opportunities for participatory action. Seize them.
Just as the microbial cultures exist only as communities, so too do
our broader human cultures. Food is the greatest community
builder there is. It invites people to sit and stay awhile, and families
to gather together. It welcomes new neighbors and weary travelers
and beloved old friends. And it takes a village to produce food.
Many hands make light work, and food production often gives rise
to specialization and exchange. And even more than food in
general, fermented foods—especially beverages—play a significant
role in community building. Not only are many feasts, rituals, and
celebrations organized around products of fermentation (such as
bread and wine), ferments are also among the oldest and most
important of the foods that add both value and stability to the raw
products of agriculture, essential to the economic underpinnings of
all communities. The brewer and the baker are central participants
in any grain-based economy; and wine transforms perishable
grapes into a stable and coveted commodity, as does cheese for milk.

Reclaiming our food means reclaiming community, engaging its
economic interconnectivity of specialization and divisions of labor,
but at a human scale, promoting awareness of resources and local
exchange. Transporting goods around the globe takes a huge
amount of resources and wreaks environmental havoc. And while
exotic foods can be thrilling treats, it’s inappropriate and destructive
to organize our lives primarily around them; most globalized food
commodities are grown in vast monocultures, at the expense of
forests and diverse subsistence crops. And by being totally
dependent on an infrastructure of global trade, we make ourselves
exceedingly vulnerable to disruptions for any number of reasons,
from natural disasters (floods, earthquakes, tsunamis) and
resource depletion (peak oil), to political violence (war, terrorism,
organized crime).

Fermentation can be a centerpiece of economic revival.
Relocalizing food means a renewal not only of agriculture but also
of the processes used to transform and preserve the products of
agriculture into the things that people eat and drink every day,
including ferments such as bread, cheese, and beer. By
participating in local food production—agriculture and beyond—we
actually create important resources that can help fill our most basic
daily needs. By supporting this local food revival, we recycle our
dollars into our communities, where they may repeatedly circulate,
supporting people in productive endeavors and creating incentives
for people to acquire important skills, as well as feeding us fresher,
healthier food with less fuel and pollution embedded in it. As our
communities feed ourselves more and thereby reclaim power and
dignity, we also decrease our collective dependency on the fragile
infrastructure of global trade. Cultural revival means economic revival.

Everywhere I go I meet people who are making the choice to be
part of this culture of revival. Perhaps this is exemplified best by the
growing number of young people who are choosing to take up
farming. The second half of the 20th century saw the near
extinction of the tradition of regional food self-sufficiency in the
United States and many other places. Today that tradition is in
revival. Let us support and become part of it. Productive local food
systems are better than globalized food for many reasons: They
yield fresher and more nutritious food; local jobs and productivity;
less dependence on fuel and infrastructure; and greater food
security. We must become more closely connected to the land via
our food, and we must have people willing to do the hard physical
work of agriculture. Value and reward that work. And get involved with it.

I don’t want to give the impression that this culture of revival is
brand new. There always have been holdouts who resist new
technologies, such as farmers who never adopted chemical
methods, or never stopped using and saving the legacy of seed
resources they inherited, or still use horses in lieu of tractors, or
families who have unceasingly maintained fermentation practices.
There have always been seekers looking to reconnect to old ways,
or unwilling to accept the “conveniences” of modern culture. As
much as culture is always reinventing itself in unprecedented ways,
culture is continuity. There are always roots.

Cultural revival certainly does not require abandoning cities and
suburbs for some remote rural ideal. We must create more
harmonious ways of life where people and infrastructures are, and
that is mostly cities and suburbs. “Sustainability” or “resilience”
cannot be remote ideals you have to go somewhere else to fully
realize. They are ethics we can and must build into our lives
however we are able to and wherever we find ourselves.
Nearly 20 years ago, I moved from a lifetime in Manhattan to an
off-the-grid rural commune in Tennessee, and I’m so glad I did.
Sometimes a dramatic change is exactly what you need. I was 30
years old, had recently tested HIV+, and was searching for a big
change I could not yet imagine, when a chance encounter led me to
a communal homestead of queers in the woods. I can personally
testify that rural resettlement can be a rewarding path. But rural
living is certainly not intrinsically better or more sustainable than city
life. In fact, rural dwelling, as most of us (myself included) are
practicing it, involves driving frequently to get around. In the city I
grew up in, most people do not have cars and get around using mass transit.

Cities are where most people are, and much incredibly creative
and transformative work is being done in urban and suburban
areas. Urban farming and homesteading are on the rise, flourishing
especially in cities with large expanses of abandoned properties.
The revival of artisan fermentation enterprises is centered around
cities, mainly because they hold the major markets, no matter
where production may occur.

The late, great urbanist Jane Jacobs put forth an intriguing theory
that agriculture developed and spread from cities rather than rural
outposts. In her book The Economy of Cities, Jacobs rejects the
prevailing assumption that “cities are built upon a rural economic
base,” which she calls the “dogma of agricultural primacy.”1 Instead
she argues that the inherent creativity of urbanism fostered the
innovations that spawned (and continually reinvent) agriculture.
“The first spread of the new grains and animals is from city to city. .
. . The cultivation of plants and animals is, as yet, only city work.”2
Her basic idea is that a trading settlement that is a crossroads for
people migrating from different areas provides a dynamic
environment for incidental seed crossing and selective breeding, as
well as greater opportunities for specialization and the development
and spread of techniques.

If Jacobs’s theory is correct, then fermentation practices must
also have urban roots. Rural dwellers may frequently be guardians
of inherited legacies such as seeds, cultures, and know-how;
however, it is primarily urbanites who are spurring agricultural
change in the countryside by creating demand—starting farmer’s
markets and providing the bulk of the community support for what
is known as community supported agriculture (CSA). Urbanites can
grow gardens and ferment, just as rural dwellers can. They can
also tap into the deep currents of creativity that exist in cities, and
the inevitable cross-pollination that occurs there, to foster change.

That change can incorporate ancient wisdom that is in danger of
disappearing, just as much as it can foster innovation. In any case,
cultural revival is not exclusively or even primarily a rural endeavor.
Much of the 20th-century literature of fermentation promoted
moving production away from small-scale community-based
cottage industry into factories and replacing traditional starter
cultures passed down from generation to generation with
laboratory-bred improved strains, in the name of improved hygiene,
safety, nutrition, and efficiency. “When an attempt was made to
introduce Western-type beverages such as beer, Coca-Cola, and
other soft drinks to the Bantu people, they were rejected,” Clifford
W. Hesseltine and Hwa L. Wang, of the US Department of
Agriculture Fermentation Laboratory, reported in 1977, “so the
Bantu beer process, as practiced in the native villages, was
investigated. When the native process was understood and the
yeast and bacteria occurring in the process had been isolated, an
industrial fermentation process was developed using modern
malting and fermentation equipment. The Bantu beer made in these
modern fermentation plants was readily accepted. . . . The product,
produced under sanitary conditions, is of uniform quality and sells
at a low price.”3 A cheap and uniform product, mass-produced
under sanitary conditions, is taken as unequivocally superior to the
traditional village-produced product, regardless of the cultural and
economic importance of the practice in the village context.
Meanwhile, Paul Barker, from South Africa, writes: “Traditional
fermentation along with many other practices are dying out in our
African cultures and need to be recorded before lost to the likes of
KFC, Coca Cola and Levi’s.”

My objective with this book is to encourage a reclaiming of
fermentation in our homes and in our communities, as a means of
reclaiming food, and with it a broad web of connections. Rather
than fermenting just grapes, barley, and soybeans, let’s ferment
acorns, turnips, sorghum, or whatever food surpluses we can
access or create. The great global monoculture ferments are
wonderful, indeed, but the practical thrust of localism must be
learning to make the most of surpluses that make themselves, such
as acorns, or are so well adapted that they practically grow
themselves with only a minimum of intervention, such as turnips or
radishes in Tennessee gardens.

This book is organized around types of ferments, and specifically
how to make them. The first three chapters are broad overviews,
contextualizing fermentation in terms of evolution, practical
benefits, and basic operational concepts. Most of the rest is
organized by substrates—what foods are fermenting—and whether
or not the products are primarily alcoholic. The end chapters
address considerations for people
thinking about turning their
passion for fermentation into a commercial enterprise, non-food
applications of fermentation, and finally a cultural revivalist manifesto.

In the processes-focused core of the book, I have abandoned the
recipe format (aside from a few sidebars with recipes contributed
by others). Rather than specific recipes, I wish to communicate
concepts with broad applicability. I offer general proportions, or
ranges of proportions, and process parameters, and sometimes
even seasoning suggestions. I have attempted to explain what to
do in each ferment, and why. Fermentation is more dynamic and
variable than cooking, for we are collaborating with other living
beings. The hows and whys of these sometimes complex
relationships are more important than the specific quantities and
combinations of ingredients, which inevitably vary among recipes
and traditions. I want to help you understand the hows and whys of
fermentation. With that understanding, recipes are everywhere, and
you can creatively explore.


Table of Contents
Praise for The Art of Fermentation
Contents
Foreword by Michael Pollan
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Chapter 1. Fermentation as a Coevolutionary Force
Bacteria: Our Ancestors and Coevolutionary Partners
Fermentation and Culture
Fermentation and Coevolution
Fermentation as a Natural Phenomenon
The War on Bacteria
Cultivating a Biophilic Consciousness
Chapter 2. Practical Benefits of Fermentation
The Preservation Benefits of Fermentation, and Their Limits
The Health Benefits of Fermented Foods
Fermentation as a Strategy for Energy Efficiency
The Extraordinary Flavors of Fermentation
Chapter 3. Basic Concepts and Equipment
Substrates and Microbial Communities
Wild Fermentation Versus Culturing
Selective Environments
Community Evolution and Succession
Cleanliness and Sterilization
Cross-Contamination
Water
Salt
Darkness and Sunlight
Fermentation Vessels
Jar Method
Crock Method
Crock Lids
Different Crock Designs
Metal Vessels
Plastic Vessels
Wooden Vessels
Canoa
Gourds and Other Fruits as Fermentation Vessels
Baskets
Pit Fermentation
Pickle Presses
Vegetable Shredding Devices
Pounding Tools
Alcohol-Making Vessels and Air Locks
Siphons and Racking
Bottles and Bottling
Hydrometers
Thermometers
Cider and Grape Presses
Grain mills
Steamers
Incubation Chambers
Curing Chambers
Temperature Controllers
Masking Tape and Markers
Chapter 4. Fermenting Sugars into Alcohol: Meads, Wines, and
Ciders
Yeast
Simple Mead
Botanical Enhancements to Mead: T’ej and BaŠlche
Fruit and Flower Meads
Simple and Short Versus Dry and Aged
Continuous Starter Method
Herbal Elixir Meads
Wine from Grapes
Cider and Perry
Sugar-Based Country Wines
Alcoholic Beverages from Other Concentrated Sweeteners
Fermented Fruit Salads
Plant Sap Ferments
Carbonating Alcoholic Beverages
Mixed Source Legacy
Troubleshooting
Chapter 5. Fermenting Vegetables (and Some Fruits Too)
Lactic Acid Bacteria
Vitamin C and Fermented Vegetables
Kraut-Chi Basics
Chop
Salt: Dry-Salting Versus Brining
Pounding or Squeezing Vegetables (or Soaking in a Brine)
Pack
How Long to Ferment?
Surface Molds and Yeasts
Which Vegetables Can Be Fermented?
Spicing
Sauerkraut
Kimchi
Chinese Pickling
Indian Pickling
Fermenting Hot Sauce, Relishes, Salsas, Chutneys, and Other
Condiments
Himalayan Gundruk and Sinki
Considerations for Salt-Free Vegetable Ferments
Brining
Sour Pickles
Brining Mushrooms
Brining Olives
Dilly Beans
Lactic Acid Fermentations of Fruit
Kawal
Adding Starters to Vegetable Ferments
Liquid Forms of Vegetable Ferments: Beet and Lettuce Kvass,
Cultured Cabbage Juice, Kaanji, and Şalgam Suyu
Tsukemono: Japanese Pickling Styles
Cooking with Fermented Vegetables
Laphet (Fermented Tea Leaves)
Troubleshooting
Chapter 6. Fermenting Sour Tonic Beverages
Carbonation
Ginger Beer with Ginger Bug
Kvass
Tepache and Aluá
Mabí/Mauby
Water Kefir (aka Tibicos)
Whey as a Starter
Roots Beer
Pru
Sweet Potato Fly
Inventive Soda Flavors
Smreka
Noni
Kombucha: Panacea or Peril?
Making Kombucha
Kombucha Candy: Nata
Jun
Vinegar
Shrub
Troubleshooting
Chapter 7. Fermenting Milk
Raw Milk: Microbiology and Politics
Simple Clabbering
Yogurt
Kefir
Viili
Other Milk Cultures
Plant Origins of Milk Cultures
Crème Fraîche, Butter, and Buttermilk
Whey
Cheese
Factory Versus Farmstead Cheesemaking
Non-Dairy Milks, Yogurts, and Cheeses
Troubleshooting
Chapter 8. Fermenting Grains and Starchy Tubers
Engrained Patterns
Soaking Grains
Sprouting
Rejuvelac
Porridges
Fermenting Oatmeal
Grits/Polenta
Atole Agrio
Millet Porridge
Sorghum Porridge
Rice Congee
Old Bread Porridge
Potato Porridge
Poi
Cassava
South American Cassava Breads
Fermenting Potatoes
Sourdough: Starting One and Maintaining It
Flatbreads/Pancakes
Sourdough Bread
Sour Rye Porridge Soup (Zur)
Sierra Rice
Hoppers/Appam
Kishk and Keckek el Fouqara
Fermenting Grains with Other Kinds of Foods
Fermenting Leftover Grains (and Starchy Tubers)
Troubleshooting
Chapter 9. Fermenting Beers and Other Grain-Based Alcoholic
Beverages
Wild Yeast Beers
Tesgüino
Sorghum Beer
Merissa (Sudanese Toasted Sorghum Beer)
Asian Rice Brews
Basic Rice Beer
Sweet Potato Makgeolli
Millet Tongba
Saké
Malting Barley
Simple Opaque Barley Beer
Cassava and Potato Beers
Beyond Hops: Beers with Other Herbs and Botanical Additives
Distillation
Chapter 10. Growing Mold Cultures
Incubation Chambers for Growing Molds
Making Tempeh
Cooking with Tempeh
Propagating Tempeh Spores
Making Koji
Amazaké
Plant Sources of Mold Cultures
Troubleshooting
Chapter 11. Fermenting Beans, Seeds, and Nuts
Cultured Seed and/or Nut Cheeses, Pâtés, and Milks
Acorns
Coconut Oil
Cacao, Coffee, and Vanilla Fermentation
Spontaneous Fermentation of Beans
Idli/Dosa/Dhokla/Khaman
Acarajé (Afro-Brazilian Fritters of Fermented Black-Eyed Peas)
Soybeans
Miso
Using Miso
Soy Sauce
Fermented Black Beans: Hamanatto and Douchi
Natto
Dawadawa and Related West African Fermented Seed Condiments
Fermenting Tofu
Troubleshooting
Chapter 12. Fermenting Meat, Fish, and Eggs
Drying, Salting, Smoking, and Curing
Dry-Curing Basics
Brining: Corned Beef and Tongue
Dry-Cured Sausages
Fish Sauce
Pickled Fish
Fermenting Fish with Grains
Filipino Burong Isda and Balao-Balao
Japanese Nare Zushi
Fermenting Fish and Meat in Whey, Sauerkraut, and Kimchi
Fermenting Eggs
Cod Liver Oil
Burying Fish and Meat
High Meat
Meat and Fish Ethics
Chapter 13. Considerations for Commercial Enterprises
Consistency
First Steps
Scaling Up
Codes, Regulations, and Licensing
Different Business Models: Farm-Based Operations, Diversification,
and Specialization
Chapter 14. Non-Food Applications of Fermentation
Agriculture
Bioremediation
Waste Management
Disposal of Human Bodies
Fiber and Building Arts
Energy Production
Medicinal Applications of Fermentation
Fermentation for Skin Care and Aromatherapy
Fermentation Art
Epilogue: A Cultural Revivalist Manifesto
Resources
Glossary
A Note on References
Books Cited
Endnotes
Color Gallery


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Printed in the United States of America
First printing April, 2012
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 12 13 14 15 16

Project Manager: Patricia Stone
Developmental Editor: Makenna Goodman
Copy Editor: Laura Jorstad
Proofreader: Eileen M. Clawson
Indexer: Margaret Holloway
Bacteria Border Illustration: Caroline Paquita
Chapter Illustrations: Elara Tanguy
Designer: Maureen Forys, Happenstance Type-O-Rama
All photographs by Sandor Ellix Katz, unless otherwise credited.
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