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TRADITIONAL APPROACH

Editor by Dr. D.A. PatH M.Sc., Ph.D. (Botany)

Reader
Post-Graduate Department of Botany
S.S.V.P. Sanstha's L.K. Dr. P.R. Ghogrey
Science College, Dhule-424 005 (Maharashtra)

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 Dr. D.A. Patil

About Us
Dr. D.A.Patil did his M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Botany from Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada
University (Aurangabad, M.S.) with Angiosperm as a subject of specialization in 1978 and 1983
respectively. He has about 29 years of research and teaching experience at graduate and postgraduate
classes. His major research interest includes Taxonomy and Anatomy of Angiosperms,
Floristics, Ethnobotany and Etymology. He has authored (i) Key to the Angiospermic Families
of North Maharashtra, (ii)Flora of Dhule and Nandurbar Districts (Maharashtra), (iii) Origins
of Plant Names, and co-authored, (iv) Ethnobotany of Nasik District (Maharashtra), (v)
Ethnobotany of Jalgaon District (Maharashtra) and (vi) Forest Flora of Jalgaon District
(Maharashtra). He has also edited a proceeding, 'Plant Diversity and Biotechnology'. He has
132 research papers to his credit published in national, international journals and journals of
CSIR, India. Apart from his participation in several national and international conferences and
symposia in India and abroad, many students in botany received his guidance for Ph.D. and
M.Phil. degrees. He is member of Editorial Boards of four national journals and acted as
a referee for Ph.D. and M.Phil. degrees for other universities. He has been awarded: (i) Dr. M.s.
Swaminathan Award (1996) by Indian Botanical Society, (ii) Scientist of the Year 2004 by National
Environmental Science Academy, (iii) Jivaka Ayurved Vishwa Sanman (2006) by International
Academy of Indian Medicine and (iv) Life Time Education Achievement Award 2007 by Health
and Education Development Association. He is ex-Dean, Faculty of Science, North Maharashtra
University, Jalgaon, M.S. and also Ex-Chairman, Board of Studies in Botany of the same
university. He is member of many prestigious academic and scientific bodies and societies.
He also contributes for Marathi Daily news papers and creates interest about plants by delivering
talks especially for younger generation.

PREFACE
The science of medicine, whether traditional or folkloric, has undergone a
phenomenal growth with a concomitant increase of interest among the plant scientists,
ethnobotanists, anthropologists, pharmacologists, medicinal chemists and druggists.
Medicine differs materially from other branches of knowledge like algebra, trigonometry,
astronomy and the like. In other branches, independent development of each would
be required before the principles of one be applied to the purposes of the other. But
this is not the case in medicine. Medicine is developed from a desire from within,
and not from any foreign impetus. Ailment! disease is not separate companion of life.
The desire springs with the ailment simultaneously which soon turns into the effort
to heal. It is this effort that has gone by the name of 'medicine' in every society, whether
primitive or advanced. Also the origin of medicine cannot be traced to one man. It
is natural and traditional in origin. The traditional communities living close to the
nature acquired knowledge about the use of plant species. After a long period of
observation and analysis, trial and errors, experimentation, apart from intuitive method,
the innovative individuals of societies select and realize usefulness of the flora in their
ambience. Their plantlore passes over generations. The development of medicine starts
from tapping the traditional/indigenous wisdom after establishing rapport with the
indigenous people. Bioassay-guided fractionation and determination of molecular
structure are necessary. The task does not end with these in recent times. The IPR
and benefit-sharing completes the success story of drug development. 
Thus a synergetic effort is needed involving the scientists from different disciplines, technologists and legal advisers.

The present book 'Herbal Cures : Traditional Approach' includes total 22 articles
on traditional plant uses in family welfare, wound care, diabetes and skin afflictions,
ethnobotanical or ethnomedicinal plants from West Rarrh (West Bengal). Jharkhand,
North Gujarat and Western Orissa, ethnotherapeutic leads from tribals of Orissa,
ethnomedicinalleads from modern drug development programmes, parasitic angiosperms
from mythology to medicine, graphic review of ethnbotany in Chhatisgarh and
veterinary medicines of Gond tribals (Madhya Pradesh). It also covers topics on
development and standardization of herbal medicine, methods of tribal drug purification,
ethnomedicinal uses of Neem plant and traditional knowledge with particular emphasis
on ethnomedicines/traditional medicines. Articles on recent approaches in phytochemical
and biological importance of Calendula officinalis, in vitro regeneration and phytochemical
screening, antibacterial activity and hypoglycaemic effects of Ocimum sanctum.

This book is the outcome of efforts of the experts. Their ideas, experience,
thoughts and opinions shaped the book significantly and would be valuable immensely
to its users. It will help popularize the subject of traditional medicine and provide
instructions for the learners. I thank heartly to all honourable experts/ authors for
contributing in such a scientific pursuit. The opinions and text contained herein are
those of the contributors. The book will cater to the immediate needs of students,
teachers and research workers. I would appreciate to pass on comments and suggestions
from the users of this book which will help improve the future edition or print.
Throughout its preparation, well wishers and colleagues freely gave their help
and advice. It is thankfully acknowledged. I particularly appreciate and acknowledge
the painstaking effort of Mr. Akshay Jain of Aavishkar Publishers, Distributors aaipur,
Rajasthan) for publishing this book with full zeal and zest.
Dhule (Maharashtra)
Dr. D. A. Patil



Table of Contents
Preface v
Contributors ix
Lit of Colour Plates xiii
1. Traditional Use of Plants in India in Family Welfare 1
- Priyadarshan Sensarma
2 Development and Standardization of Herbal Medicines :
An Overview of Current Status 41
- c.P. Malik, Bhavneet Kaur, Aman Verma and Chitra Wadhwani
3. Plants Used in Wound Care 76
- Richa Deo and Usha Mukundan
4. Traditional Knowledge : Views, Necessity and Prospects 105
-D.A. Patil
5. Ethnomedical Leads and Good Raw Drug Handling Practices
for Modern Drug Development Programme 115
-M. Brahmam
6. Ethnotherapeutic Leads from the Tribals of Orissa (India) to Control
Diabetes mellitus 129
-M. Brahmam
7. In vitro Regeneration, Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial
Activity and Hypoglycemic Effect of Ocimum sanctum L.
- N. Chandrakala, E. Jennifer Nancy Rani, M. Prabakaran and M. Ayyavoo
8. Ethnomedicinal Plants of North Gujarat Part-I
- N.K. Patel, I.c. Patel, A. R. Seliya and D.N. Parmar
145
158
viii
9. Ethnomedicinal Plants of North Gujarat Part-II 197
- N.K. Patel, I.C Patel, A. R. Seliya and D.N. Parmar
10. Folk Remedies against Skin Afflictions in Maharashtra 218
- Shubhangi Pawar, M. V. Patil and D.A. Patil
11. Ethnomedicinal Plants of Jharkhand, India 248
- Harish Singh
12. The Parasitic Angiosperms: From Mythology to Medicine 264
- R.B. ladhav, S.P. Bhatnagar and 5.1. Surana
13. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Some Medicinal
Plants of Genus Buhinia Linn. 285
- Ravindra G. Mali, Shailaja G. Mahajan and Anita A. Mehta
14. Medicinal Uses of Plants as Revealed from Tribal Communities
in Purulia District, West Bengal 295
- Sujit Kumar MandaI and Ambarish Mukherjee
15. Indigenous Knowledge of Veterinary Medicines among Gond
Tribals of Noradehi Wildlife Sanctuary (M.P.) 302
- Anjali Rawat, Arti Gupta and T.R. Sahu
16. Ethnobotany of Western Orissa, India 316
-L.M. Behera and S. K. Sen
17. Ethnobotanical Survey in West Rarrh for Natural Health
Care and Green Belt Movement 332
- Ashis Ghosh
18. Ethnobotany in Chhattisgarh (India) : A Graphic Review
and Future Directions 340
- Amia Tirkey
19. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) : A Panacea 348
- M. V. Patil, Shubhangi Pawar and D.A. Patil
20. Phytochemical and Biological Importance of Calendula officinalis L. 368
- Madhurima, S.H. Ansari, Md. Sohail Akhtar and Prawez Alam
21. Methods of Purification of Tribal Drugs in India 387
-D.C Pal and CR. Paul
22. Ethnobotanical Heritage on Traditional Drug Practices Relating to
Diabetes in Magadh Region (Bihar) 390
- R.K. Goel, Rajul Goel, B.K. Prasad and D.K. Yadav


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Aromas, Herbs, Essences and Other Secrets of the Fairies

by Judy Griffin, Ph.D.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2002104651


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 2002 Judy Griffin, Ph.D 

Preface
I remember the time when I was a child: the whole world was alive and
glowing. Trees, plants and their flowers were my friends who danced with me
in the moonlight and sparkled with dew in the sunlight. The flowers bloomed
just for me and communicated special messages that made me giggle with
delight. Plants were as real to me as people. I called them each by a special name
and told them all my troubles as I reached over to sniff their beautiful fragrances
and gaze at their dazzling colors.

I instinctively knew that flowers could “see” us and understand how I felt and
what I was thinking about. Every flower was infinitely compassionate and
loving, for flowers know nothing of destruction, brutality, or even judgment.
They are part of a unique communication exuded throughout creation that
sounds like a very high-pitched hum. Their song has rhythm that is pleasantly
warm and jolly. I can remember dancing to their music and feeling as light as a fairy.

Then, my time with the flowers grew shorter. I hardly had time to stop and
talk to anyone. I was always in a hurry, and the flowers had little to say. Then
came a time when the flowers grew silent and without emotion. I would often
wonder if the flowers still sang.
I began to rediscover the world of Mother Nature’s flower essences, herbs,
and essential oils while suffering from Crohn’s disease. I had recently been
diagnosed with cancer. I was scared, in pain, and in need of support. My answer
to prayer was an inner message to work with flowers. All I really wanted was to
get out of pain, but I made a promise to share everything I learned with others.
Immediately afterwards, every time I walked near a plant, I received the
information that I now share with you in the following pages. For more than
eighteen years, much of this information has been researched and proven in
clinics and private medical practices worldwide.

For every impossible or incurable situation, there is a flower essence to help
us bloom. Flowers not only correct the imbalance in the personality’s needs and
expectations, but they also support us by opening our hearts.
When I work in my gardens, I enter a world where flowers talk and nature
sings. I choose flowers that bloom even under stress from an inner joy, which
expresses the wonders of Nature.
Each flower has a unique message and healing quality that can be captured
into an essence at the peak time of its bloom. The energy of the flowers becomes
available as the bloom opens fully. The best essences are made from flowers that
are disease free, perfectly shaped, and that emit the most auric light from the
center. They should be organically grown in seasons, nurtured, and chosen from
an abundance of full blooms. Most of the blooms should be left untouched,
attracting beneficial insects such as bees, wasps, and butterflies. The balance of
Nature should be left undisturbed.

I have discovered that the experience of gardening is well worth the time and
effort. Flowering plants are wonderful teachers and have taught me many songs
and tunes I have heard only in gardens. The flowers also speak from the heart of
all creation. They communicate the sadness they see in our eyes and catalyze the
potential of what we are yet to be. They heal wounds from the deepest part of the
psyche, reminding us with their beauty that all true healing comes from the heart.

During the past twenty years, I have worked therapeutically with flower
essences, essential oils, herbs, and nutrition as a clinical herbalist, aromatherapist,
teacher, counselor, and international lecturer. Certified in Texas as a
horticulturist, I organically grow and produce quality products. I have learned
that plants grown in the adverse climatic conditions of my environment enhance
the immune response of the flowers, forcing them to bloom under stress just as
we who thrive to achieve self-actualization do. As we search within for
understanding and wisdom, Mother Nature will nurture us with the healing
quality of homegrown plants and flowers.

Flower essences and essential oils have been an integral part of traditional
healing since ancient times and are making their way into modern medicine as
an adjunct to pharmaceuticals.
What is most important in healing from the heart is that we take responsibility
for individual health and seek support on every level. Health includes taking
responsibility for our own emotions, feelings, creativity, and expression. An
integrated personality will then receive illumination from the spirit to express the
heart’s desire and to share all the treasures of the heart.

Introduction
Mother Nature’s Flower Fairies invite you to enter a world in miniature
where flowers heal and fairies rule. Since the beginning of the Land of
Thyme, fairies have learned to use flowers for every type of healing: for people,
pets, knights in shining armor, and yes, even for fairies. Flowers have a universal
charm that opens the heart of those who grow, receive, and admire them. Their
aroma, color, shape, and texture integrate all the senses into a rainbow of
emotional splendor known to every fairy as “healing from the heart.”
Healing from the heart comes from a place deep within composed of allembracing
love. It shines like a light reflecting eternal peace and illumination of
the spirit. This unconditional love is nurtured by good deeds and developed
through compassion. There are no limitations, and every living being will be
blessed through participation.

Mother Nature’s Flower Fairies live their lives wrapped in the security of
loving acceptance. They experience every moment of life knowing and
experiencing the love that continually creates through Nature. By stepping into
their world we can learn how to bring love into ours. We’ll find fairies of every
nature, size, and shape, each developing their character by utilizing their talents
and learning to create new ones. They live in the Land of Thyme, a community
where every being is accepted just the way they are: big, little, overweight, or
hyperactive. Fairies, beneficial insects, gods, and Mother Nature herself are
appreciated as equals. Creative change sprouts from this type of love, as the
community evolves and develops to a higher level. The fairies change and blend
into a community integrated by work, play, and self-development.
What do Flower Fairies possibly need to learn? They already understand how
flowers grow and make every garden magical, but they are still learning how to
take care of their health through relaxation techniques, “aromafairapy,” herbs,
color and chakra balancing, diet, exercise, and making the world ever more
beautiful with the artistic, healing uses of flowers. Everyone living in the Land
of Thyme will experience healing from the heart.
As you read this fairy tale, healing from the heart will begin for you as it did
for me twenty years ago. As a result, you will experience the healing power of
flowers as Mother Nature sings a lullaby to awaken your heart’s desires.


Table of Contents
Preface
Introduction
CHAPTER 1:THE BEGINNING
The World According To Fairies and Flowers
CHAPTER 2:A FAIRY FEAST
Nutritious Recipes for Health-Conscious Fairies
CHAPTER 3: OPERATION FAIRY STORM
Physical and Mental Stress Reducers
CHAPTER 4:AROMAFAIRAPY
Blending Essential Oils
CHAPTER 5: PET SCENTS
Aromatherapy and Herbs for Animals
CHAPTER 6:THE AESTHETIC GARDEN
Flower Arranging and Tea Ceremonies
CHAPTER 7: PREPARATION TIME
Teas, Tonics, and Fairy Food
CHAPTER 8:A FAIRY WEDDING
A Celebration of Love
CHAPTER 9: FLORA’S DREAM
Empowering the Chakras
CHAPTER 10:THE VISIT
Discovering the Subtle Body
CHAPTER 11:THE JOURNEY
Into the Garden of Beauty
CHAPTER 12: FREEING THE PERSONALITY
Herbs and Flowers For Different Personality Types
CHAPTER 13: SUBTLE BODY HEALING
Flower Essences and Herbal Tonics
CHAPTER 14: FAIRY POTIONS
Combining Herbs, Essential Oils, and Flower Essences for Optimal Health
CHAPTER 15:THE WAY HOME
History, Legend, and Lore
CHAPTER 16: MYSTERIOUS ORIGINS
Healing with Antique Roses
Epilogue
Supplier List
Bibliography
Acknowledgements


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 A Witch’s Guide to Herbal Folklore and Enchantments 

by Gerina Dunwich

1. Witchcraft. 2. Herbs—Miscellanea.


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 Copyright©   
 2002 by Gerina Dunwich 

About the Author
Gerina Dunwich (whose first name is pronounced
“Jereena”) is a practicing Witch, an ordained minister (Universal
Life Church), and a respected spokesperson for the Pagan
community. She considers herself to be a lifelong student
of the occult arts and is the author of numerous books on the
spellcasting arts and the earth-oriented religion of Wicca. Her
most popular titles include Exploring Spellcraft, The Wicca
Spellbook, Wicca Craft, The Pagan Book of Halloween, Wicca
Candle Magick, Everyday Wicca, Wicca Love Spells, and Your Magickal Cat.

Born under the sign of Capricorn with an Aries rising and
her moon in Sagittarius, Gerina is also a professional astrologer
and Tarot reader whose diverse clientele include a number
of Hollywood celebrities and fellow occult authors. She is the
High Priestess of the Coven of the Dark Shadows (formerly
Coven Mandragora), and is the founder of the Bast-Wicca tradition,
the Pagan Poets Society, and the Wheel of Wisdom
School. Gerina is also a poet and a cat-lover. She writes and
plays music and has lived in various parts of world, including
a 300-year-old Colonial house near Salem, Massachusetts, and
a haunted Victorian mansion in upstate New York. Her interests
include herbal folklore, mythology, spiritualism, divination,
dreamwork, hypnotism, and past-life regression. Gerina
currently lives in Southern California with her Gemini soul
mate and their feline familiars.

Introduction
Throughout history and throughout the world, herbs have
played a major role in magick, religion, superstition, and divination,
as well as in the development of humankind.
Witches and Pagan folk the world over have held a special
relationship with herbs since the days of antiquity. Developing
various methods to harness the magickal energies contained within
flowers, leaves, roots, and bark, they have used them as tools for
healing, divination, spellcrafting, and connecting with Deity.
The ancients believed that all herbs possessed a spirit, or,
as in the case of many poisonous or mind-altering plants, a
demon. Nearly every culture has recognized the occult vibrations
of herbs, and attributed certain magickal properties to
their native plants and trees.

It is said in the Magic and Medicine of Plants (Reader’s
Digest), “Our distant ancestors did not need to be trained
botanists to observe and appreciate the remarkable energy and
diversity of the plant world.”
Early civilizations sought to harness and direct the magickal
powers of plants for curing diseases, warding off misfortune,
divining the future, and appeasing the gods. In ancient Egypt,
a land that has been described as “an ideal breeding ground”
for magickal herbalism, plants such as the lotus, the papyrus
reed, and the onion (which was often presented as a sacrificial
offering to the gods) were greatly revered and believed to possess
spiritual virtues.

Despite the fact that myrrh trees were not native to Egypt,
myrrh played a vital role in the religious and magickal ceremonies
of the ancient Egyptians. The fragrant aroma produced
by the burning of myrrh was believed to be pleasing to
the gods. Myrrh was burned every day at the midday hour as
an offering to the sun god Ra, and was also fumed in the temples
where the goddess Isis was worshipped.

The people of ancient Greece and Rome linked their native
trees and plants to the gods and goddesses of their pantheons.
In the old Greek and Roman religions, plant myths
figured predominantly. Tales of mortals and gods alike being
transformed into trees were common, and nearly every deity
was known to have held one or more tree and/or plant as a sacred symbol.

Historically, belief in the magickal properties of plants was
by no means restricted only to Pagans and pre-Christian religions.
Numerous references to herbal magick and botanomancy
(the art and practice of divination by plants) can be found
throughout the Bible, from the burning bush oracle of Moses,
to Rachel’s use of mandrake roots to magickally increase her
fertility, to Jacob’s magickal use of striped poplar, almond, and
plane-tree rods to bring forth striped, speckled, and spotted
livestock offspring.

During the Middle Ages, Witches (or, perhaps more accurately,
women and men who were accused of being Witches)
were believed to have employed a wide variety of plants to
bring about evil, as well as to do good if they so desired. Those
who made use of poisonous plants such as hemlock and henbane
to lay curses or cause mischief were labeled “Black
Witches.” Those who applied their herbal wisdom for the benefit
of others (such as for healing or working love magick) earned
for themselves the reputation of a “White Witch” (which was
equated to being a good Witch.) Those who were “White
Witches” were far more respected in most circles than their
“Black” counterparts. But of course not all Witches were exclusively
“White” or “Black.” Those who practiced a little bit
of both were said to be “Gray.
However, as a charge of Witchcraft (regardless of its “color”)
oftentimes resulted in a death sentence preceded by the most
heinous acts of torture, wise Witches of old needed to carefully
practice their craft veiled behind the shadows of secrecy.
A great deal of what little botanical witch lore remains from
centuries past is contained in the transcripts of the Witchcraft
trials that took place during the Burning Times. “From such
sources,” observe the editors of Magic and Medicine of Plants,
“we gather that witches were heirs to ancient lessons about the
medicinal properties of many substances found in nature. The
Witches preserved and continued to use plant lore that the
Christian church had suppressed as ‘heathen’ mysteries.”
In the United States, magickal herbalism is largely rooted
in European botanical lore brought across the Atlantic by immigrants
from distant lands, and influenced to varying degrees
by Native American herb lore and the plant magick
practiced by African slaves.

In contemporary times, as it has been in the past, herbal
magick remains an essential part of the Witches’ craft. It can
be used to assist an individual in attracting a compatible lover,
landing the right job, changing bad luck into good, and even
increasing one’s wealth! Empowered by the energies of Goddess
Earth and her elementals, herbs have long been used as
amulets to protect against evil, dried and burned as magickal
incense during rituals, and added to flying ointments and cauldron brews.

Herbs can be used to cure or to curse, as well as to conjure
or to banish supernatural entities. They can enchant our gardens
and our homes, and guide us on the path to transformation
and self-improvement. But, most importantly, herbal
magick can open the door to spiritual realms and other worlds,
and serve to connect a human being with Mother Nature and the Divine.

There probably exists no plant or tree that hasn’t at one
time, in some part of the world, been used in a spell or potion,
or utilized as an amulet. And it is said that all parts of a plant,
whether they be roots, buds, flowers, stems, or bark, are magickally significant.
Herbs are Mother Nature’s gifts to all of humankind, regardless
of spiritual beliefs, magickal tradition, or culture. And
whether you pride yourself as a country Witch or an urban
Pagan, herbs can reward you with a wealth of enchantment, divination, and folklore.
Blessed be!


Table of Contents
Foreword.......................................................................9
Introduction................................................................13
Chapter 1 Pagan Herb Lore.........................................................17
Chapter 2 Herbal Superstitions A to Z.........................................35
Chapter 3 Herbal Divination.......................................................49
Chapter 4 Tasseography...............................................................61
Chapter 5 Healing by Root and Flower........................................69
Chapter 6 Herbs of the Ancient Sorcerers.....................................79
Chapter 7 Hoodoo Herbs............................................................85
Chapter 8 Gypsy Herb Magick....................................................91
Chapter 9 Magick in Bloom........................................................99
Chapter 10 A Garden of Dreams...................................................115
Chapter 11 Herbal Correspondences.............................................139
Chapter 12 Where to Buy Magickal Herbs...................................187
Chapter 13 Gods and Goddesses...................................................195
Appendix
A Calendar of Magickal Herb Lore..............................213
“Elemental Magick”.................................................227
Bibliography..............................................................229
Index...........................................................................233
About the Author.....................................................239

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