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A Guide to Reclaiming the Wisdom of the Ancients

Diana Cooper with Shaaron Hutton

FINDHORN Press


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 Copyright©   
 Diana Cooper & Shaaron Hutton 2005

The Aim of the Book
In Golden Atlantis, for 1,500 years, the spiritual energy on our planet
was the highest it has ever been. It was a time of heaven on Earth
when everyone had incredible spiritual power. Now we have the
opportunity to bring the energy of pure Atlantis back.Diana Cooper
and Shaaron Hutton were asked by their guide, Kumeka, to explain
the extraordinary gifts, qualities and powers that existed in the
Golden Age. They were also asked to include special exercises in this
book that will allow you to develop these skills for yourselves.
....

About the Authors
Diana’s Story
Shaaron and I spent the evening of December 31, 1994 together,
intending to meditate and write our New Year’s resolutions. When
we meditated together, the most extraordinary occurrence took
place. A huge energy entered the room and both of us were given
the same message. We were told that this presence was Kumeka,
Lord of Light. He came from a different universe and explained
that Earth had now earned the right to have his guidance. He was
the Master of the Eighth Ray, which was due to enter this planet
bringing clarity and deep transmutation. He said that he had
watched us both for many years and had brought us together to
work with him. I had been living in the West Indies when he first
noticed my energy and for the next fifteen years he acted to ensure we met.

The energy of Kumeka was so overpowering that I still remember
it as one of the most exciting and life-changing events of my entire
life. At first, Shaaron and I had to be together to connect with him.
Since then Shaaron has become incredibly psychic and clairvoyant.
She can see Kumeka and has a direct communication with him,
receiving very specific information and answers to questions. I
work differently; he downloads chunks of spiritual knowledge to
me, often when I am sitting at the computer or out walking.He also
makes sure I read or come across any other information I need.
Occasionally he writes information across my third eye.
Now, for the first time, he has asked us to write this book on
Atlantis together so that people can help to bring back the energy of
pure Atlantis. This has been a fascinating and awe-inspiring project
and our thanks, love and gratitude go to Kumeka and the angels.

AN ANGEL VISITATION
With the guidance of my angels and spiritual masters I have written
thirteen books and produced many CDs, crystal CD packs,
angel cards and oracles. I spend much of my time traveling round
the world with the intention of inspiring people with higher spiritual
understandings. But it was not always so. Just over twenty
years ago I was in the depths of despair over my impending
divorce. I had no psychic, religious or spiritual background and
more important, I had no self-worth or confidence. I could see no
future ahead. One day I cried out in anguish for help and an angel
appeared. It was a golden being of light about six feet tall. This
wonderful being took me on a journey and showed me my future.
When I returned, I understood cosmic concepts that I had never
previously considered. Slowly my life mission started.
At that time my greatest desire was to be a healer and to help
people. I trained to be a hypnotherapist, counselor and healer, and
soon learned that this is a fast track to personal and spiritual
growth; every client I saw was a mirror of something within me. If
three clients presented with the same problem, I would look very
hard at myself and gradually I became wiser.
For years I worked with my guides and was occasionally aware of
angels around.With guidance I wrote my first four spiritual books
and then, suddenly and dramatically, my life changed again.While
I was lying in the bath, an angelic voice told me that they wanted
me to introduce people to angels. I argued that I did not know
anything about angels and did not want to do that. I really thought
the world would think I was crazy. Eventually, I agreed and three
angels appeared in front of me and gave me much information,
which later became my first angel book, A Little Light on Angels.
From that time I have worked closely with the angels and then
with the archangels, masters and eventually Kumeka,my guide and master.

However, the angels are sometimes hard taskmasters. Because
they have never experienced a physical body they do not understand
physical limitations. I was working really hard to finish my
first spiritual novel, The Silent Stones, before I left for a six-month
trip to Australia. The angels woke me up in the middle of the night
and surrounded my bed. I felt as if I was levitating and was filled
with a sense of awe and love. The angels told me I was to write a
book called Angel Inspiration and they wanted me to start immediately.
Then they cocooned me back to sleep. In the morning I knew
I had no alternative but to set aside The Silent Stones and start on
Angel Inspiration. I could feel the angels enfolding me as I sat at the
computer writing for fourteen hours a day, until it was finished.
Then I just had time to complete the novel before I set off on my travels.

In Australia, I talked to many Aborigine elders and learned
about their sacred wisdom and connections with Lemuria. I wove
their ancient wisdom, with esoteric secrets of Atlantis and
Lemuria, into a second novel, The Codes of Power. Then, most
exciting of all, I was introduced to the angels of Atlantis, who are
returning with a message for us now. This became the start of the
third novel, The Web of Light, which was set in Africa and was
fascinating to conceive and write.
Now our guide, Kumeka, Master of the Eighth Ray, has expanded
on the information revealed in the novels, as it is becoming
more urgent to reclaim the energy of Atlantis. You will find more
information than this book will allow about the twelve rays, the
Illumined Ones and the new spiritual hierarchy, as well as the colors
and purposes of the higher chakras, in my book A New Light
on Ascension (see Further Reading).
For twenty years I have been on my own journey of personal
development and spiritual growth, traveling to all the places
described in my books and many others. At the same time, I have
been privileged to share my experiences and understandings in
talks and workshops around the world. And now I offer you this
book that Shaaron and I have written together. It has been a fascinating
project and writing it has changed my life. I believe it can
change your life too – and the world.

Shaaron’s story
I was born ‘knowing’. Even as a small child I was the person that my
friends came to for guidance and support. My creative energy was
utilized by making up stories and writing plays, which I directed
and starred in. Like so many people, when I left school and went
into the adult world this energy dissolved into the rigors of survival.
In my adult years, I developed migraines until they made life
unbearable. My doctor sent me to Diana, who was at that time a
hypnotherapist. We soon realized that the headaches were a manifestation
of the blocking of my third eye, and as we worked together
using hypnosis, my clairvoyant abilities became stronger, clearer
and more sharply honed, while the original symptoms disappeared.
We also realized much later that this was how our spirit guide,
Kumeka, brought us together so that we could connect directly with him.

Kumeka has come from another universe and is here now to help
Earth and all of us on our journey to ascension. His energy is
anchoring more and more powerfully into the planet as his ray, the
Eighth Ray of Transmutation, enters Earth. My experience with
Kumeka is grounded and fun. I consider him a beloved friend and
have a very special relationship with him, which I value and enjoy.
Although Kumeka has never incarnated on Earth, and so has never
had a human body, my projection of him is a very tall, broad,
bearded and strong man who exudes a very beautiful, gentle and
often playful energy. At first Diana and I had to be together to connect
with him, but very quickly I could sense what he was imparting
and I could see him clearly. Now he is as visible as a physical
human being. When I am making a decision I can literally feel a
hand on my shoulder, holding me back or encouraging me forward
as appropriate.When we were working on this book, if I was unable
to grasp a concept he would write or draw the information on a
blackboard in my third eye.

Originally he communicated only with Diana and me, but now
he can work through millions of people at a time. In order for peo-
ple to get to know about him and connect with his energy, he asked
me to commission someone to write music that would express all
of his qualities, from his strength and incisiveness to his power and
glory. Diana and I asked Andrew Brel to compose what is now the
Music for Kumeka CD. Later Kumeka said that it was important for
a new wave of light to go out across the planet. In order for this to
happen, he requested that we put together a set of crystal meditation
CD packs. Under his direction we produced a set of six, using
crystals, color, music and a guided meditation to enable people to
make higher connections with angels and archangels.

From palmistry and other psychic sources I have always understood
that I would not find my true spiritual path until I reached
my fifties, and so this has proved to be. The first thing Kumeka initiated
was my doing soul readings to help other people understand
their pathway in this lifetime. Now he has guided Diana and me to
work together on this important book. I hope you gain as much
value from reading it as we have from writing it.
....


Table of Contents
The Aim of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1 The Establishment of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 The Early Days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3 Birth, Marriage and Death in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4 Animals in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5 Homes and Leisure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6 Farming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7 Life After the Second Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
8 Evolution of Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
9 Spirituality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
10 The Energy Dome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
11 The Temples of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
12 The Priesthood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
13 The High Priests and Priestesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
14 Atlantean Energies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
15 Genetic Healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
16 The Chakras of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
17 The Psychic Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
18 The Power of the Mind in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
19 Using and Changing Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
20 Opening the Third Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
21 Astrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
22 Numerology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
23 Healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
24 Working with Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
25 Crystals in Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
26 The Year 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
27 Crystal Remedies and Essences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
28 Master Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
29 The Fall of Atlantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
30 The Twelve Tribes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
31 Preparing for the Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
List of Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263


Screenbook
Discover Atlantis.Diana Cooper
....
This US edition prepared by Shari Mueller
Cover and interior design by Damian Keenan
Printed and bound in the USA

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 12 11 10 09 08 07
Published by
Findhorn Press
305a The Park, Findhorn
Forres IV36 3TE
Scotland, UK

Telephone
011-44-1309-690582
Fax
011-44-1309-690036

Sarah Iles Johnston
general editor


The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London, England 2007


1. Religions. 2. Civilization, Ancient.


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 Copyright©   
 2004, 2007
 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College 

Introduction
When Croesus, the king of Lydia, was debating about whether to
attack the Persian Empire, he decided to seek advice from the gods. Being a
cautious man, however, he decided first to determine which source of divine
advice was the most reliable. He sent envoys to each of the famous oracles in
the ancient world (which happened to be in Greece and Libya) and instructed
them to ask the gods what he was doing in faraway Lydia one hundred days after
the envoys had left his court. He then devised an activity that he was confident
no one could guess: he boiled the meat of a tortoise and the flesh of a
rabbit together in a bronze cauldron, covered by a bronze lid. When the envoys
returned with written records of what each oracle’s god had said, Croesus discovered
that only two of them—Delphic Apollo and Amphiaraus—had correctly
described his strange culinary experiment. He proceeded to make enormously
rich offerings to Apollo (and lesser offerings to Amphiaraus, whose
oracle was not as prestigious) and then asked Apollo’s advice. Upon receiving
it, Croesus attacked Persia (Herodotus 1.46ff).

Croesus’s experiment serves as an apt parable for this volume because it is
one of the earliest examples of what might be called religious comparison
shopping: rather than simply asking his own experts to obtain the gods’ advice,
Croesus checked out all the divine resources within his reach and staked his future
on the one that looked best. The general concept should be familiar
enough to readers who live in America or western Europe, where religious plurality
offers a spectrum of deities, practices, and beliefs to which one might
pledge allegiance. Our immediate environments (in sad contrast to more distant
parts of our world, including some where Croesus once walked) offer us
easy access to numerous variations of Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism,
and Buddhism, as well as a plethora of newer religions such as Wicca and Scientology.
Some of these are imports from other cultures; others are combinations
of previously existing religions.

Only relatively recently, however, have scholars recognized the extent to
which ancient peoples, as well, were exposed to a diversity of religions, both
indigenous and imported—or even, indeed, acknowledged that ancient peoples
were exposed to a diversity of cultural influences of any kind. The historical
reasons for this failure are political and ideological, as well as intellectual,
among which three are especially interesting, as Walter Burkert and other
scholars have shown (see esp. Burkert, The Orientalizing Revolution). First, in
the late 18th and early 19th centuries, following a long period during which
scholars of the Bible and of classical antiquity had taken cultural interaction
in the ancient Mediterranean for granted, the boundaries between academic
fields were redrawn in universities, and what we now call classics and theology
strove to assert themselves as independent entities. As they did so, each
one naturally stressed the grandeur and achievements of the cultures it represented—
respectively, ancient Greece and Rome, and the ancient Near East.
Second, at about the same time, Romantic nationalism developed. In their desire
to show that particular myths, literatures, and forms of religion could be
tied to particular ancient cultures that served as models for contemporary nation-
states, Romantic nationalists not only discouraged any assumption of
cross-cultural influences within the ancient Mediterranean, but also brought
new energy to the old quest of tracking the specific, discrete origins of each culture’s
practices and ideas. Finally, and also at about the same time, notions
about a lost “pre-language,” shared by the Greeks, Romans, Germans, and
other “Aryan” peoples—but not by the Semites—crystallized into the proposal
for the language we now call “Indo-European.” Linguistics provided another
reason for separating the (Indo-European) western Mediterranean from the
(non–Indo-European) eastern regions.

One might have expected the scholarly barrier between east and west to
erode during the later 19th and early 20th centuries, which brought such advancements
as the deciphering of hieroglyphs and cuneiform writing and of the
Hittite language (an Indo-European language attached to an “oriental” culture),
along with the discovery of Mycenaean civilizations and of orientalizing
elements in Greek art. Some erosion did in fact begin to occur, especially in
the fields of art history, ancient history, and the study of ancient magic (a field
that was itself only in its infancy). Yet during the period between World War I
and World War II, scholars, particularly in Germany, once again sought to assert
the unique character of each Mediterranean culture. In 1946, publication
of the Hittite creation myth, which offered significant thematic parallels to
Hesiod’s Theogony, reopened consideration of the question of cultural exchange
in the ancient world. Slowly but surely, a new consensus emerged: the
Mediterranean Sea had been not a barrier between disparate cultures after all,
but rather a conduit, through which both material goods and ideas were easily
transported. No ancient culture was left untouched by its neighbors. In the
mid-1960s, scholarly publications based on this now widely accepted understanding
began to appear, and have continued ever since.

Religious beliefs and practices, which permeated all aspects of human life in
antiquity, were inevitably transmitted throughout the Mediterranean along
with everything else: itinerant charismatic practitioners journeyed from place
to place, selling their skills as healers, purifiers, cursers, and initiators; vessels
decorated with illustrations of myths traveled along with the goods they contained;
new gods were encountered in foreign lands by merchants and conquerors
and, when useful, were taken home to be adapted and adopted.
The essays in this volume are drawn from Religions of the Ancient World, a
larger reference work that both collected information about religions in the ancient
world and organized it in such a way as to encourage readers to investigate
those religions within the comparative framework that is now considered
essential for their comprehension. By presenting material from the ten cultures
and traditions that it investigated side-by-side, Religions of the Ancient World
strove to inform its readers and generate comparative thought in complementary ways.

The first part of that work reprinted here, “Encountering Ancient Religions,”
consists of eleven essays whose topics cut across cultural boundaries,
such as Cosmology, Myth, and Law and Ethics. The authors of these essays
were charged with stepping back from the particular cultures on which their
own scholarship usually focuses and taking a broader look at the given phenomena
as they were found throughout the Mediterranean: What remains consistent
as we cross from one culture or tradition to another? What changes,
and why? What, if anything, can we say about the core functions and expressive
modes that the phenomena manifest across several millennia of ancient
Mediterranean history? The authors also were asked to consider what essential
theoretical or methodological problems confront us as we approach these topics:
How can we define “magic” in contrast to “religion,” for example—or
should we even try to do so? How does the transition from an orally based religious
culture to one that is scripturally based affect not only the practices and
beliefs themselves, but also our approach to the evidence for them? The first essay
in this part asks a question that stands behind all the others: What counts
as “Mediterranean religion” anyway? Or to put it otherwise: In spite of the
long history of Mediterranean cultural interaction that scholars now accept,
what aspects of the disparate religions most closely coalesced to form a sort of
koinÁ, or common language, that could have been understood by anyone traveling
through the ancient landscape?
The second part, “Histories,” includes essays that trace the histories of religions
in each of the cultures and traditions between about the 3rd millennium
bce and the 5th century ce, offering accounts of how each of the cultures
and its political, social, artistic, and religious institutions changed over time.
Here readers will find, for example, a description of the Greek polis system and
its effect on civic religion, a discussion of the centrality of maÚat (justice, order)
within Egyptian thought, a description of how Zoroastrianism developed
within earlier Iranian religions, and a discussion of literary sources for Ugaritic
religion. The Epilogue is an important complement to the entire volume. It
poses and begins to answer questions that earlier essays, which focused on disix
crete topics, were unable to tackle. By asking what the phrase “ancient world”
signifies, for example, the Epilogue compels us to recognize another aspect of
the concern with definitions that first was broached in “What Is Ancient Mediterranean
Religion?”: once we have arrived at a working definition of Mediterranean
religions and have investigated them as fully as possible, what can we
then say about the way they differed from religions of later periods? Are the
common assumptions that we make about ancient religions serviceable or misleading
in understanding the transition? And was there a definitive transition
at all—can we even identify behaviors that are more characteristic of ancient
religions than post-ancient?

Some hundred and forty scholars contributed to Religions of the Ancient
World, nineteen of whom are represented in this volume. Each brought his or
her own methodology, style, and interests to the topics assigned. Rather than
attempt to impose an artificial consistency on their contributions, the book’s
editors left them alone as much as possible. Thus, some essays concentrate primarily
on conveying facts, whereas others produce a synoptic view of the topic
at hand, adducing facts only as necessary.

To some degree, these variations reflect differences in the state of research
among the fields: most of the texts and many of the archeological remains of
Greece and Rome have been available for two millennia; the texts of biblical
religion have been around for about the same length of time, while its monuments
have come to light more slowly; both the texts and the monuments of
other Near Eastern cultures were almost completely hidden until recently.
Egypt stands somewhere in the middle: its monuments have always loomed on
the landscape, but the languages of Pharaonic Egypt were unreadable until
about two hundred years ago. Fashions in scholarship and ideological agendas
also helped to condemn some cultures and their religions to near-obscurity for
most of the modern era. Some fields have been more eager than others, too, to
embrace new theoretical methods of study—to their benefit or sometimes their
detriment. Although the editors have worked to ensure that each essay presents
the basic facts that are salient to its topic, we have left the overall design and
approach of discussions to individual authors. We have even allowed occasional
disagreements between authors to stand, as indications of ongoing debate
within the larger scholarly community.

When Croesus asked Apollo whether he should attack Persia, the god answered
that if he did, “a great empire would fall.” Assuming this meant the
Persian Empire, Croesus attacked. But Apollo really meant the Lydian Empire,
and so Croesus eventually found himself standing on a pyre in front of Cyrus,
the Persian king, condemned to be burned alive.
Interpreting what someone else says is always a risky business, even if the
speaker is not a god famous for enigmatic pronouncements. Comparative work
is particularly fraught with risks because, try as we might, those of us who are
not trained in the languages and history of a given culture can never quite understand
its complexities or catch its nuances.We are apt to make innocent but
grievous errors, assuming, for instance, that the sacrificial act in Egypt had the
same resonance as it did in Greece, or that the professional priesthoods found
in many ancient Mediterranean cultures had correlates in the rest. To carry off
a project such as this volume requires a team of people who are not only excellent
scholars but also excellent communicators.

Throughout Religions of the Ancient World’s development, the exchange of
ideas was vital, and I could not have asked for better colleagues in this respect
than the members of the Editorial Board. Members of the Board of Advisors—
Elizabeth Clark, David Frankfurter, Albert Henrichs, Gregory Nagy,
John Scheid, and Claus Wilcke—were crucial to this process as well; all of
them have contributed their expertise to the project and some of them were
called on frequently. The contributors, some of whom wrote more than one essay,
are to be thanked both for their scholarly efforts and for their patience.
I cannot leave Croesus on his pyre. Just as the flames were licking at its edges,
Cyrus engaged Croesus in a debate about the meaning of happiness. Impressed
with his captive’s answer—Croesus held to a dictum he had learned from the
Greek statesman Solon, according to which no human life could be counted as
happy until one saw how it ended—Cyrus ordered that the pyre be extinguished.
It was too late, however, for human intervention to quench the flames;
only through Croesus’s earnest prayers to Apollo did help arrive, in the form of
a sudden rain shower. Stepping down from the pyre, Croesus went on to become
Cyrus’s staunch friend and advisor. And so ended Croesus’s experiment
in religious comparison shopping. Led astray through his misinterpretation of
a Greek god’s advice, saved when he adduced the words of a Greek sage and
prayed once again to the Greek god, Croesus the Lydian finished out his life
helping Cyrus (who was himself half Mede and half Persian) carry Persian rule
throughout much of the ancient world: Croesus became a true Mediterranean
cosmopolite. May the present experiment in religious comparison prove to be
just as inclusive in its embrace and just as fortunate in its fate.


Table of Contents
Introduction • Sarah Iles Johnston vii
Note on Translation and Transliteration xiii
Abbreviations xv
Maps xvi
encountering ancient religions
What Is Ancient Mediterranean Religion? • Fritz Graf 3
Monotheism and Polytheism • Jan Assmann 17
Ritual • Jan Bremmer 32
Myth • Fritz Graf 45
Cosmology: Time and History • John J. Collins 59
Pollution, Sin, Atonement, Salvation • Harold W. Attridge 71
Law and Ethics • Eckart Otto 84
Mysteries • Sarah Iles Johnston 98
Religions in Contact • John Scheid 112
Writing and Religion • Mary Beard 127
Magic • Sarah Iles Johnston 139
histories
Egypt • Jan Assmann and David Frankfurter 155
Mesopotamia • Paul-Alain Beaulieu 165
Syria and Canaan • David P. Wright 173
Israel • John J. Collins 181
Anatolia: Hittites • David P. Wright 189
Iran • William Malandra and Michael Stausberg 197
Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations • Nanno Marinatos 206
Greece • Jon Mikalson 210
Etruria • Olivier de Cazanove 220
Rome • John North 225
Early Christianity • Harold W. Attridge 233
Epilogue • Bruce Lincoln 241
Contributors 253
Index 255

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Note on Translation and Transliteration
Personal, divine, and geographical names are given throughout in familiar or
simplified forms, using no diacritical marks or special characters (Astarte,
Nike, Zarathustra). Transliteration of special terms follows standard scholarly
practice for the discipline involved (nawrÄz, eschatiÁ, pesaÉ).
Greek names are given in their Latinate form, except for those that are best
known in their Greek forms (such as Knossos) and cultic terms or epithets
(such as Hekatombaia and Zeus Ktesios).
Quotations from the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament follow the Revised
Standard Version.
Translations of passages from other works, unless credited to a published
source, may be assumed to be by the article’s author.

BY KAREN LATCHANA KENNEY

CONTENT CONSULTANT

Rhianna C. Rogers, PhD, RPA
Assistant Professor of Cultural Studies
SUNY—Empire State College

1. Aztecs--Juvenile literature. 2. Aztecs--Social life and customs--Juvenile literature. 3. Aztecs--History--Juvenile literature. 4. Indians of Mexico--Juvenile literature.


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 2.00
 Pages
 115 p
 File Size 
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 ISBN
 978-1-62403-535-7 (lib. bdg.)     
 Copyright©   
 2015 by Abdo Consulting Group, Inc 

About the Author
Karen Latchana Kenney is a Minneapolis author and editor who has written
more than 90 books. She loves learning about different cultures and
civilizations, especially those that flourished long ago. Some of her favorite
foods—chocolate and guacamole—were gifts to the world from the ancient
Aztecs. When not researching and writing her latest book, Kenney loves
watching sci-fi movies, trying new recipes, and hanging out with her son and husband.


Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 A Fateful Meeting 6
CHAPTER 2 From Mesoamerica to Aztec Empire 16
CHAPTER 3 Ruling from Tenochtitlán 28
CHAPTER 4 Aztec Society and Family 38
CHAPTER 5 Trades, Goods, and Architecture 50
CHAPTER 6 Worshiping the Gods 60
CHAPTER 7 Aztec Technology 72
CHAPTER 8 Fierce Warriors 82
CHAPTER 9 Lasting Influence 90
TIMELINE 98
ANCIENT HISTORY 100
GLOSSARY 102
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 104
SOURCE NOTES 106
INDEX 110
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 112


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Cover Photos: Fuse/Thinkstock, background; Photos.com/Thinkstock, foreground
Interior Photos: Fuse/Thinkstock, 2; Spanish School/Private Collection/Peter Newark American
Pictures/Bridgeman Images, 6–7; Photos.com/Thinkstock, 9, 47, 59, 66; North Wind Picture Archives,
13, 36, 70, 82–83; Red Line Editorial, 15 (inset), 22, 31; iStock/Thinkstock, 15 (background), 28–29,
60–61, 63, 90–91; Thinkstock, 16–17; Charles Rex Arbogast/AP Images, 20; Universal History
Archive/UIG/Bridgeman Images, 32; Dorling Kindersley/Thinkstock, 38–39, 84; Public Domain, 43;
iStockphoto, 50–51, 78; Library of Congress, 53; Werner Forman/Corbis, 55; Shutterstock Images,
68, 81, 96; De Agostini Picture Library/G. Dagli Orti/Bridgeman Images, 72–73; Biblioteca Medicea-
Laurenziana, Florence, Italy/Bridgeman Images, 75; EPA/Mario Guzman/Corbis, 85; SuperStock/Glow
Images, 94

Editor: Kari Cornell
Series Designer: Jake Nordby

Theory and Practice

Markham J. Geller

Ancient Cultures
These enjoyable, straightforward surveys of key themes in ancient culture are ideal for anyone new to the study of the ancient world. Each book reveals the excitement of discovering the diverse lifestyles, ideals, and beliefs of ancient peoples.

1. Medicine, Assyro-Babylonian. 2. Medicine, Assyro-Babylonian–Philosophy. 3. Medicine, Assyro-Babylonian–Methodology. 4. Magic, Assyro-Babylonian.

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 (hardcover : alk. paper) 
 Copyright©   
 2010 Markham J. Geller 

Introduction to Babylonian
Medicine and Magic
If a man has pain in his kidney, his groin constantly hurts him, and his
urine is white like donkey-urine, and later on his urine shows blood, that
man suffers from “discharge” (mus.û-disease). You boil 2 shekels of myrrh,
2 shekels of baluhhu-resin, (and) 2 sila-measures of vinegar together in a
jug; cool it and mix it in equal measure in pressed oil. You pour half into
his urethra via a copper tube, half mix in premium beer, you leave it out
overnight and he drinks it on an empty stomach and he will get better.
Babylonian recipe for disease of the kidneys, BAM 7 35
[If a] man has intestinal colic, he constantly scratches himself, he retains
wind in his anus, food and fluids are regurgitated (and) he suffers from
constipation of the rectum – its “redness” is raised and troubles him [without]
giving him relief – you desiccate a lion skin and mix it with lion fat,
you dry (it) a second time, crush and mix it in cedar oil, make a pessary
and insert it into his anus.
Babylonian recipe for disease of the anus, BAM 7 151

Medicine today is technological and scientific, often making it difficult
to cast our minds back to earlier ages when medicine was less understood
and less successful. Actually, we need not go back very far in
time, since any physician trained in medicine before the discovery of
penicillin would attest to how relatively unsophisticated medicine still
was, even by the middle of the twentieth century. As one physician
recalls, After the discovery of modern life-saving drugs, therapy dramatically
improved in most aspects of medicine, to the extent that medicine has
made more rapid and successful progress during the past 60 years than
in the entire cumulative previous history of Western medicine, from
Galen to the twentieth century.
Nevertheless, we do not yet have the answers to all medical questions,
and in some significant areas we are hardly better informed about human
behavior and medical practice than were ancient and medieval practitioners.
Medicine remains an art, and tracing back the history of this art can
help us better understand the processes of discovery and treatment.
Let us take one example, the problem of diet and health. Obesity has
recently been recognized as one of the scourges of modern times, with
little overall consensus as to how one should understand and act upon the
issues involved. According to one expert, our modern ideas of diet were
developed and promoted after the Second World War by the American
Heart Association, based upon studies comparing cholesterol and heart
attack rates in countries around the world. The research concluded that
high levels of fat in modern diets were specifically responsible for obesity
and heart disease, and recommended a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet.1
After a low-fat diet did not have the anticipated effect, new diets were
introduced to improve health and reduce obesity, one requiring total fat
restriction while another recommended exactly the opposite, a high-fat
low-carbohydrate diet. Subsequent studies embraced contradictory
advice, advocating diets based upon a theory of “good” and “bad” fats as
well as “good” and “bad” carbohydrates (Agatston 2003: 16–21).
Our modern scientific world dispenses a great deal of confusing information
about health and prevention of disease, which is a trait modern
medicine shares with its ancient counterpart. Moreover, diets and trendy
medications tend to be the obsessions of wealthier classes in society, and
this situation hardly differs from antiquity, when the best medical advice
was only on offer to those patients who could afford the costly services.
When we turn to ancient Babylonian medicine, one question often
asked is whether any part of Babylonian medicine was actually effective.
Did it work? We have hundreds of drugs cited in Babylonian medical
recipes, in addition to long lists of plants and minerals used for medicinal
purposes, often with descriptions of the drugs and of the diseases for
which they could be used. We have no idea, however, how such data was
compiled, since there were no clinical trials. How would ancient physicians
know which plants were effective against which diseases? We can
surmise that plants were identified over a very long period, perhaps
going back to Neolithic times, and the use of such plants was determined
by a hit-or-miss means of trying something to see what happens, and
then keeping careful records of the results. The crucial point was to
remember, later on, if the drug seemed to work.
One redeeming feature of Babylonian medicine is the lack of surgery,
because of the substantial risks involved. Almost all Babylonian
medical texts are limited to pharmacological preparations administered
mostly as potions, salves, ointments, fumigations, or suppositories.
Surgery would have been dangerous without either proper
antiseptics or anesthesia, nor is there any firm evidence from Babylonia
of bloodletting. For this reason, the Babylonian physician probably
caused less harm to his patient than his later colleagues in medieval

Dissection and Disease Taxonomy
As we go back in time, the relationship between magic and medicine
alters considerably, although not fundamentally. The technological basis
for what we know as modern medicine has a long and tedious history,
which actually made precious little advancement over many centuries.
The major breakthrough leading to a scientific understanding of medicine
came relatively late, in the fifteenth century, with dissection of the
human body providing more precise knowledge of human anatomy.
Meanwhile, autopsies were primarily an academic exercise, carried out
exceptionally by some noted Greek physicians in Alexandria in the third
century BC (von Staden 1998: 52). There are various practical reasons
why the taboo of cutting open the human body was usually observed,
even by Galen. First, before the invention of rubber gloves, dissection
could have been dangerous since the researcher could easily contract a
disease which had been the patient’s cause of death (see Geller 2007:
187f.). Second, religious taboos no doubt played an important role,
since disfiguring the human body was thought to have affected how the
soul might appear in the afterlife. In Homer, for instance, the soldier in
Hades is seen with his battle scars (Bernstein 1993: 30, 65). Apart from
the taboo itself, the most probable reason for the lack of interest in
dissection in ancient and medieval medicine was the fact that knowledge
of internal anatomy did not actually help in healing the patient. Knowing
where the organs were located and how the blood circulated were important
discoveries in themselves, but how did one convert this knowledge
into effective treatment?
It is not particularly easy to classify diseases within Babylonian medicine,
although they fall generally within similar categories in Hippocratic
medicine. Some diseases are simply associated with parts of the body,
such as head disease, tooth disease, eye disease, nose disease, even foot
disease, as well as kidney disease and anus disease. Baldness was treated
as a disease. There are varieties of skin diseases, including rashes and
pocks, as well as leprosy-like conditions affecting the nose and mouth,
but it is impossible to diagnose these conditions according to modern
disease terminology.
A major development in understanding disease only came with the
discovery of morbid anatomy in the eighteenth century in Padua and at
St George’s Hospital, London, where physicians began to realize that
autopsies after diagnosis could provide important clues to diagnosing
disease correctly (Porter 1997: 263f.). It took centuries, however, for this
idea to develop from the days of Egyptian mummification, which was the
last period when dissections were carried out on a regular basis as part
of embalming, or from third-century BC Alexandria, where a few Greek
physicians practiced vivisection on prisoners.
What this effectively means is that ancient and medieval medicine
had much in common, and that the fundamental relationship between
doctor and patient remained fairly constant over the centuries. The relationship
between magic and medicine – the psychological and technical
approaches to healing – was always present and was constantly evolving.
We will see that although real technological advancement in medicine
was slow in developing, knowledge about disease and healing improved
over time, and theories about disease and healing were changing as well.
Not every new idea is an advancement or an improvement on what
came before, but the complex relationship between magic and medicine
is usually affected by new theories of healing, or even by skepticism
towards accepted theories.
Another factor determining how magic and medicine relate to each
other is the complex relationship between doctor and patient, in the
ancient world as in our own society. Within Mesopotamia, there is much
we do not know about this relationship. Was the doctor paid, and how
much? What was his status within society? Would men and women be
treated by the same doctor? Was medical help readily available? How
many doctors were there within a community, or was medicine only
available to the royal household and those closely associated with either
the palace or temple? Although there is much here that we would like to
know but will probably never know, it is possible to make some reasonable
assumptions based upon the data which we have. But first, it is
important to clarify the nature of our sources.


Table of Contents
List of Illustrations viii
List of Abbreviations x
Acknowledgments xii
Introduction to Babylonian Medicine and Magic 1

1 Medicine as Science 11
2 Who Did What to Whom? 43
3 The Politics of Medicine 56
4 Medicine as Literature 89
5 Medicine and Philosophy 118
6 Medical Training: MD or PhD? 130
7 Uruk Medical Commentaries 141
8 Medicine and Magic as Independent Approaches to Healing 161

Appendix: An Edition of a Medical Commentary 168
Notes 177
References 202
Subject Index 211
Selective Index of Akkadian and Greek Words 217
Index of Akkadian Personal Names 220


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