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Volume 1: A-Che

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 2016 Elsevier Ltd 

Benjamin Caballero is professor of International Health and of Maternal and Child Health
(Bloomberg School of Public Health), and professor of pediatrics (School of Medicine) at Johns
Hopkins University.
He obtained his MD from the University of Buenos Aires, his MSc in biochemistry from the
University of San Carlos, and his PhD in neuroendocrine regulation from MIT, in Cambridge, MA.
He started his academic career as assistant professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and
director of the Nutrition Unit of Boston Children’s Hospital, and subsequently became the founding
director of the Center for Human Nutrition at Johns Hopkins University, in Baltimore.
Prof. Caballero has focused his research on child nutrition and health in developing countries. In
particular, he has explored the combination of undernutrition and overweight that has become
increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. He was a member of the Food and
Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, USA, and of a number
of expert panels created by the Institute, including the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Committee,
the Expert Panel on Macronutrient Requirements, and the Childhood Obesity Task Force. He was
also a member of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee, of the Scientific
Advisory Board of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and of a number of advisory
committees of the National Institutes of Health (USA).
He is the editor-in-chief of the Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition, a 10-volume work on
food production, consumption and biological effects. He is also editor-in-chief of the Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, which received the Book of the Year Award from the British Medical Association. His Guide to Dietary Supplements summarizes the current scientific basis for the use of mineral and vitamin supplements. His book The Nutrition Transition: Diet and Disease in the Developing World explored the impact of demographic and economic development on diet- and lifestyle-related diseases in developing countries. His book Obesity in China summarizes research conducted in rural and urban China to track the impact of socioeconomic development on health outcomes. He is also coeditor of a widely used textbook on human nutrition, Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease.
He is a member of the Spanish Academy of Nutritional Sciences, and a Fellow of the American Society for Nutrition and of the Royal Society of Medicine (UK). Recent awards include the Donald Medearis Lectureship from the Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, the Mataix Prize for lifetime achievements in nutrition science from the Spanish Academy of Nutritional Sciences, the Ancel
Keys Prize for achievements in international public health, and the Thompson–Beaudette Lectureship from Rutgers University.

Paul Finglas joined the Institute of Food Research in 1981 and is currently head of the Food
Databanks National Platform and Research Leader in Food and Health at the Institute (http://www. He has, for most of his science career, been involved
in a wide range of research in food composition and analysis, and the nutritional effects of
micronutrients in food and health research. Paul has considerable experience of co-coordinating
both national and international projects (e.g., EuroFIR, TDS-EXPOSURE, Bacchus and QualiFY (all
EU FP7), and is currently of the spin-out EuroFIR AISBL, a non-profit international association
based in Belgium, from one of these projects. Paul has a broad range of experience in science
publishing and is currently editor of the journals Food Chemistry and Trends in Food Science and
Technology, and was one of the coeditors for the Encyclopedia of Food Science and Nutrition (2nd Ed.). Paul has a degree in chemistry from Aston University in Birmingham and has published over 150
publications on a wide range of topics in food science and nutrition.

Fidel Toldra´ holds a BSc in chemistry (1980), high degree on food technology
(1981) and PhD in chemistry from the University of Valencia (1984). Professor
Toldra´ was a Fulbright postdoctoral scholar at Purdue University in West Lafayette
(US, 1985–86) and visiting scientist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison
(1991 and 1995), and the Institute of Food Research-Bristol (UK, 1987). Currently,
he is research professor at the Instituto de Agroquı´mica y Tecnologı´a de
Alimentos (CSIC), in Paterna, Valencia (Spain). He is also associate professor of
food technology at the Polytechnical University of Valencia.
Prof. Toldra´ has focused his research on food biochemistry and its relationship
with nutrition, quality and safety. He has filed 12 patents, directed 22 PhD thesis
and published over 245 manuscripts in recognized scientific journals and more
than 115 chapters of books. His h-index is 41. Prof. Toldra´ has authored two
books and edited/co-edited more than 30 books for major publishers like CRC
Press, Wiley-Blackwell, Elsevier and Springer.
Prof. Toldra´ is the European editor of Trends in Food Science and Technology
(2005–) and associate editor of Meat Science (2014–); he was the editor-in-chief of Current Nutrition & Food Science (2005–2012), section editor of the Journal of Muscle Foods (2009–2010) and guest editor of 12 special journals issues. He is a member of the editorial boards of Food Chemistry, Food Analytical Methods, Journal of Food Engineering, Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, The Open Nutrition Journal, The Open Enzyme Inhibition Journal, Recent Patents in Agriculture, Food and Nutrition, Food Science & Nutrition and Current Opinion in Food Science.
He has been a member of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavorings, processing aids and materials in contact with foods (periods 2003–2008) and the Scientific Panel on flavorings, enzymes, processing aids and materials in contact with foods (2008–2015) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) acting as Chairman of the Working groups on Irradiation (2009–2010), Processing Aids
(2011–2014) and Enzymes (2010–2015). He was a member of FAO/WHO group of experts to evaluate chlorine-based disinfectants in the processing of foods (2008–2009). He was a member of the Executive Committee of the European Federation of Food Science and Technology (EFFOST, 2002–2009). He is a Fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology (IAFOST, 2008) and of the
Institute of Food Technologists (IFT, 2009–). He received the Iber Award on Food and Cardiovascular Diseases (1992), the Institute Danone award in Food, Nutrition and Health (2001), the International Prize for Meat Science and Technology from the International Meat Secretariat (2002), GEA award on RþD activity from the Valencian Community (2002), and the Distinguished Research Award (2010)
and Meat Processing Award (2014), both from the American Meat Science Association.

Until a few decades ago, virtually all known health effects of foods were related to their content of essential nutrients. The clinical description of most diet-related illnesses mirrored the signs of essential nutrient deficiencies, such as pellagra, beriberi, and others. Consequently, the key public health concern regarding diet was ensuring that everyone consumed enough food. It was only in the past 50 years that large-scale epidemiological observations began to associate chronic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease with nonessential diet constituents such as saturated fat, fiber, and cholesterol. Taking advantage of the emergence of digital informatics, these studies were able to manipulate increasingly large sets of data and provide, for the first time, a picture of the secular changes in the health of large populations and its association with what they ate regularly. These findings progressively shifted the concern from eating enough to avoiding excessive consumption
of certain foods. Eating enough was replaced by eating well.
But it turned out that defining how to eat well is far more complex than defining minimum needs of
essential nutrients. First, there is no single paradigm to study those relationships, given the wide variety of biological mechanisms and the long exposures involved. Second, many of the experimental models used to define essential nutrient needs are not applicable to the study of long-term effects of diets in free-living populations. And it is now clear that experiments with isolated dietary compounds do not reflect the actual effects of the complex food matrix we consume daily. Finally, while the discovery of essential nutrients and their role in health was the domain of a few specialties speaking a common language (primarily biochemists and physiologists), the study of the long-term effects of whole diets in humans must of necessity involve epidemiologists, social and behavioral scientists, food scientists, clinicians, policy experts, etc., making far more difficult the development of consensus and foundational concepts.
It is thus not surprising that today we have still not achieved a stable consensus on how to eat ‘well.’
Furthermore, while few nonscientists would care about the minimum requirement of a vitamin to sustain life, there are plenty of opinions among nonscientists on how to eat ‘well.’
Our goal in preparing this encyclopedia has been to contribute to the understanding of that complex
diet–health relationship by providing a multidisciplinary, integrative and accurate source of information. We aim to serve the needs not only of established and in-training scientists, but also of the increasingly important group of professionals who are key to disseminate and sustain the practice of science: journalists, science writers, science administrators, fund raisers, donors, and policymakers. In preparing this work, we had the enormous advantage of working with one of the publishers with the most extensive expertise in major reference works, Elsevier. This first edition builds on the impressive breadth of knowledge of over 922 authors and on the
tireless work of our editorial advisory board. We are very grateful to all of them.
Benjamin Caballero
Paul Finglas
Fidel Toldra´

Editors-in-Chief v
Editorial Advisory Board vii
How to use the Encyclopedia xvii
Introduction xix
A 1
Acesulfame-K 1
S Yalamanchi, R Srinath, and A Dobs
Acidophilus Milk 6
JM Kongo and FX Malcata
Acids: Natural Acids and Acidulants 15
JD Dziezak
Acids: Properties and Determination 19
JD Dziezak
Acrylamide 24
E Capuano and V Fogliano
Adipose Tissue: Structure and Function of Brown Adipose Tissue 30
KA Virtanen
Adipose Tissue: White Adipose Tissue Structure and Function 35
N Torres, AE Vargas-Castillo, and AR Tovar
Adolescent Nutrition 43
K Schroeder and K Sonneville
Aerated Foods 51
GM Campbell
Aeromonas 61
ME Martino, L Fasolato, and B Cardazzo
Aflatoxin: A Global Public Health Problem 68
JD Groopman and GN Wogan
Agglomeration 73
A Bu¨ck and E Tsotsas
Alcohol: Metabolism and Health Effects 82
CH Halsted and V Medici
Alcohol: Properties and Determination 88
A Bekatorou
Alkaloids: Properties and Determination 97
M Wink
Alkaloids: Toxicology and Health Effects 106
M Wink
Allergies: Public Health 115
ENC Mills
Aluminum: The Toxicology of 122
RA Yokel
Aluminum: Properties, Presence in Food and Beverages, Fate in Humans, and Determination 128
RA Yokel
Amaranth 135
AJA Gomes, C-MAC Cardoso Correˆa, and SRA Mano´lio
Amino Acids: Determination 141
M-C Aristoy and F Toldra´
Amino Acids: Metabolism 149
V Otasevic and B Korac
Anemia: Causes and Prevalence 156
T Shamah Levy, V De la Cruz Go´ngora, and S Villalpando
Anemia: Prevention and Dietary Strategies 164
KL Beck
Annonaceous Fruits 169
P Padmanabhan and G Paliyath
Antibiotics and Drugs: Drug–Nutrient Interactions 174
KM Gura
Antibiotics and Drugs: Residue Determination 192
A Gentili, L Mainero Rocca, F Caretti, and S Bellante
Antinutritional Factors in Legume Seeds: Characteristics and Determination 211
VR Mohan, PS Tresina, and ED Daffodil
Antioxidants: Characterization and Analysis 221
HR Griffiths
Antioxidants: Role on Health and Prevention 227
T Srdic´-Rajic´ and A Konic´ Ristic´
Appetite Control in Humans: A Psychobiological Approach 234
M Dalton, C Gibbons, S Hollingworth, G Finlayson, and JE Blundell
Apples 239
R Tsao
Arsenic: Properties and Determination 249
RW Kapp Jr.
Arsenic: Toxicology and Health Effects 256
RW Kapp Jr.
Ascorbic Acid: Physiology and Health Effects 266
ZAM Daud, A Ismail, and B Sarmadi
Ascorbic Acid: Properties, Determination and Uses 275
SK Chang, A Ismail, and ZAM Daud
xxii Volume 1 Table of Contents
Authenticity of Food 285
R Consonni, K Astraka, LR Cagliani, N Nenadis, E Petrakis, and M Polissiou
Avocado 294
AK Cowan and BN Wolstenholme
B 301
Bacillus Cereus and Other Bacillus sp. Causing Foodborne Poisonings, Detection of 301
F Carlin
Bacillus: Occurrence 307
L Delbrassinne and J Mahillon
Bacteriocins 312
TM Karpin´ski and AK Szkaradkiewicz
Bananas and Plantains 320
K Soorianathasundaram, CK Narayana, and G Paliyath
Barley 328
A Aldughpassi, TMS Wolever, and ESM Abdel-Aal
Beef 332
KS Ojha, BK Tiwari, JP Kerry, and D Troy
Beer: Fermentation 339
S Livens
Beer: History and Types 345
IS Hornsey
Beer: Raw Materials and Wort Production 355
GG Stewart
Berries and Related Fruits 364
P Padmanabhan, J Correa-Betanzo, and G Paliyath
Beverage: Health Effects 372
BM Popkin, V Malik, and FB Hu
Beverage: Patterns of Consumption 381
A Drewnowski and CD Rehm
Bifidobacteria in Foods: Health Effects 388
Y Sanz
Bioactive Peptides in Foods 395
L Mora, M-C Aristoy, and F Toldra´
Bioavailability of Nutrients 401
HC Scho¨nfeldt, B Pretorius, and N Hall
Biofilms 407
SC Chew and L Yang
Biogenic Amines 416
M Nun˜ez, A del Olmo, and J Calzada
Biogenic Amines: Toxicology and Health Effect 424
R Tofalo, G Perpetuini, M Schirone, and G Suzzi
Biosensors 430
K Santoro and C Ricciardi
Volume 1 Table of Contents xxiii
Biscuits, Cookies, and Crackers: Chemistry and Manufacture 437
RS Chavan, K Sandeep, S Basu, and S Bhatt
Biscuits, Cookies and Crackers: Nature of the Products 445
R Miller
Boron 451
FH Nielsen
Brandy and Cognac: Consumption, Sensory and Health Effects 456
M Lambrechts, D van Velden, L Louw, and P van Rensburg
Brandy and Cognac: Manufacture and Chemical Composition 462
A Tsakiris, S Kallithraka, and Y Kourkoutas
Brassica: Characteristics and Properties 469
JW Fahey
Bread: Breadmaking Processes 478
SP Cauvain
Bread: Chemistry of Baking 484
CM Rosell
Bread: Dough Mixing and Testing Operations 490
S To¨mo¨sko¨zi and F Be´ke´s
Bread: Types of Bread 500
C Collar
Browning: Enzymatic Browning 508
Y Jiang, X Duan, H Qu, and S Zheng
Browning: Non-enzymatic Browning 515
JA Rufia´n-Henares and S Pastoriza
Buffalo Milk 522
CD Khedkar, SD Kalyankar, and SS Deosarkar
Butter: Manufacture 529
SS Deosarkar, CD Khedkar, and SD Kalyankar
Butter: Properties and Analysis 535
P Buldo and L Wiking
C 543
Cadmium: Properties and Determination 543
V Devesa and D Ve´lez
Cadmium: Toxicology 550
Y Zang
Caffeine: Characterization and Properties 556
S Oestreich-Janzen
Caffeine: Consumption and Health Effects 573
S Gaspar and F Ramos
Cakes: Types of Cakes 579
R Miller
Calcium: Physiology 583
SM Sacco and MR L’Abbe´
Calcium: Properties and Determination 590
LJ Harvey
xxiv Volume 1 Table of Contents
Campylobacter: Health Effects and Toxicity 596
AE Zautner and WO Masanta
Campylobacter: Properties and Occurrence 602
SLW On and AJ Cornelius
Campylobacter: Species Detection 609
K Rantsiou and LS Cocolin
Cancer: Diet in Cancer Prevention 614
PA Tsuji, SE Galinn, and J Hartman
Candies and Sweets: Sugar and Chocolate Confectionery 621
MA Godshall
Canning: Process of Canning 628
FT Vergara-Balderas
Caramel: Methods of Manufacture 633
P Tomasik
Caramel: Properties and Analysis 636
N Kuhnert
Carbohydrate: Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism 643
LM Sanders
Carcinogenic: Carcinogenic Substances in Food 651
D Anderson and TC Marrs
Carcinogens: Identification of Carcinogens 658
C Scoccianti
Carotenoids: Occurrence, Properties and Determination 663
J Lerfall
Carotenoids: Physiology 670
SL Ellison
Casein and Caseinate: Methods of Manufacture 676
AR Sarode, PD Sawale, CD Khedkar, SD Kalyankar, and RD Pawshe
Cashew Nuts 683
AM Kluczkovski and M Martins
Cassava: The Nature and Uses 687
T Shigaki
Cellulose 694
R Ergun, J Guo, and B Huebner-Keese
Cereals: Dietary Importance 703
SO Serna Saldivar
Cereals: Storage 712
SO Serna Saldivar and S Garcı´a-Lara
Cereals: Types and Composition 718
SO Serna Saldivar
Chapatis and Related Products 724
A Kumar
Cheese: Chemistry and Microbiology 735
JM Kongo and FX Malcata
Cheese: Composition and Health Effects 741
E Jero´nimo and FX Malcata
Volume 1 Table of Contents xxv
Cheese: Processing and Sensory Properties 748
JM Kongo and FX Malcata
Cheese: Types of Cheese – Medium 755
JM Kongo and FX Malcata
Cheese: Types of Cheeses – Hard 763
JM Kongo and FX Malcata
Cheese: Types of Cheeses – Soft 768
JM Kongo and FX Malcata

Editors-in-Chief v
Editorial Advisory Board vii
How to use the Encyclopedia xvii
Introduction xix
Chemometrics 1
F Marini
Cherries (Prunus Spp.): The Fruit and Its Importance 10
W Loescher
Chilled Foods: Effects on Shelf-life and Sensory Quality 14
D Bermu´dez-Aguirre and J Welti-Chanes
Chilled Foods: Modified Atmosphere Packaging 19
LM Cunha and SC Fonseca
Chilled Foods: Packaging Under Vacuum 23
M Rossi
Chilled Foods: Principles 28
GG Amador-Espejo and ME Ba´rcenas Pozos
Chlorophyll 37
C Yilmaz and V Go¨kmen
Cholecalciferol: Properties and Determination 42
AK Hewavitharana and FP Gomes
Cholesterol: Absorption, Function and Metabolism 47
V Vucˇic´ and Z Cvetkovic´
Cholesterol: Factors Determining Blood Cholesterol Levels 53
Z Rasic-Milutinovic, G Perunicic-Pekovic, D Jovanovic, N Simovic, Z Gluvic, D Ristic-Medic, and M Glibetic
Cholesterol: Properties, Processing Effects, and Determination 60
T Dinh and L Thompson
Choline: Physiology 70
SH Zeisel
Choline: Properties and Determination 73
MM Phillips
Chromatography: Combined Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry 79
Z Zhang, X Hu, and P Li
Chromatography: Focus on Multidimensional GC 85
C Cordero, C Cagliero, E Liberto, B Sgorbini, P Rubiolo, and C Bicchi
Chromatography: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 93
H Gika, G Kaklamanos, P Manesiotis, and G Theodoridis
Chromatography: Supercritical Fluid Chromatography 100
C Galea, D Mangelings, and YV Heyden
Chromium: Physiology 108
JB Vincent
Chromium: Properties and Determination 114
JB Vincent
Cider (Cyder; Hard Cider): The Product and Its Manufacture 119
E Coton, M Coton, and H Guichard
Cirrhosis 129
S Honigbaum, J Lucas, and KB Schwarz
Citrus Fruits 136
AC Matheyambath, P Padmanabhan, and G Paliyath
Clostridium botulinum 141
A Harris
Clostridium: Occurrence and Detection of Clostridium perfringens 146
R Labbe´ and V Juneja
Clostridium: Food Poisoning by Clostridium perfringens 149
K Miyamoto and M Nagahama
Clostridium: Occurrence and Detection of Clostridium botulinum and Botulinum Neurotoxin 155
JW Austin
Cobalamin (Vitamin B12): Metabolism and Disorders 160
E Andre`s and N Dali-Youcef
Cobalt: Properties and Determination 166
F Ca´mara-Martos and R Moreno-Rojas
Cobalt: Toxicology 172
F Ca´mara-Martos and R Moreno-Rojas
Cocoa: Composition and Health Effects 179
DD Mellor
Cocoa: Production, Chemistry, and Use 185
A Caligiani, A Marseglia, and G Palla
Codex Alimentarius 191
I Stankovic
Codex Alimentarius Commission: Role in International Food Standards Setting 197
V Kotwal
Coenzymes and Cofactors 206
RB Rucker and W Chowanadisai
Coffee: Analysis and Composition 225
MC Cid and M-P de Pen˜a
Coffee: Decaffeination 232
AS Franca
Coffee: Health Effects 237
R Tofalo, G Renda, R De Caterina, and G Suzzi
Coffee: Types and Production 244
LR Batista, SM Chalfoun de Souza, CF Silva e Batista, and RF Schwan
Colon: Diseases and Disorders 252
R Arbizu and S Nurko
Colon: Structure and Function 259
R Arbizu and S Nurko
xxii Volume 2 Table of Contents
Colors: Health Effects 265
D Villan˜o, C Garcı´a-Viguera, and P Mena
Colors: Properties and Determination of Natural Pigments 273
A Giuliani, L Cerretani, and A Cichelli
Colors: Properties and Determination of Synthetic Pigments 284
E Diacu
Condensed Milk 291
SD Kalyankar, MA Deshmukh, CD Khedkar, SS Deosarkar, and AR Sarode
Consumer Protection Legislation 296
K Purnhagen and B van der Meulen
Controlled Atmosphere Storage: Applications for Bulk Storage of Foodstuffs 301
Z Escobedo-Avellaneda and J Welti-Chanes
Controlled Atmosphere Storage: Effect on Fruit and Vegetables 308
A Valdez Fragoso and H Mu´jica-Paz
Convenience Food 312
TA Brunner
Cooking: Domestic Techniques 316
AJ Rosenthal
Copper: Physiology 321
J Bertinato
Cream: Clotted Cream 327
RS Chavan, A Kumar, and S Bhatt
Cream: Types of Cream 331
SS Deosarkar, CD Khedkar, SD Kalyankar, and AR Sarode
Cured Foods: Health Effects 338
J Ruiz-Carrascal
Cystic Fibrosis, Nutrition in 343
S Sabharwal
D 345
Dahi 345
CD Khedkar, SD Kalyankar, SS Deosarkar, and AM Patil
Dairy Products: Dietary and Medical Importance 352
F Visioli
Date Palm: A Wealth of Healthy Food 356
KM Farag
Diarrheal Diseases 361
Z Bhutta and S Syed
Dietary Exposure Assessment 373
D Arcella, F He´raud, and M Gilsenan
Dietary Fiber: Bran 378
A Kamal-Eldin
Dietary Fiber: Determination 383
R Mongeau and SPJ Brooks
Dietary Fiber: Energy Value 392
SPJ Brooks and R Mongeau
Dietary Fiber: Physiological Effects 400
IT Johnson
Volume 2 Table of Contents xxiii
Dietary Fiber: Properties and Sources 404
R Mongeau and SPJ Brooks
Dietary Practices 413
AFG Cicero and T Stallone
Dietary References: US 418
J Dwyer and NJ Armstrong
Dietary Surveys: National Food Intake 432
MC Ocke´, CTM van Rossum, and EJ de Boer
Drying: Effect on Nutrients, Composition and Health 439
SV Crowley and JA O’Mahony
Drying: Physical and Structural Changes 446
SV Jangam, AS Mujumdar, and B Adhikari
Drying: Principles and Types 456
JM Barat and R Grau
E 463
Eating Disorders 463
CC Schreyer, S Makhzoumi, JW Coughlin, and AS Guarda
Eggs: Composition and Health Effects 470
ML Fernandez and CJ Andersen
Eggs: Use in the Food Industry 476
CG Belyavin
Elderly: Nutrition Requirements 480
R Chernoff
Emerging Foodborne Enteric Bacterial Pathogens 487
SJ Forsythe
Emulsifiers: Types and Uses 498
R Miller
Energy Metabolism 503
JA Coss-Bu and NM Mehta
Energy: Intake and Energy Requirements 511
DJ Millward
Enteral Feeding 519
DL Waitzberg and RS Torrinhas
Enzymes: Analysis and Food Processing 524
T Haertle´
Enzymes: Functions and Characteristics 532
D Talens-Perales, J Marı´n-Navarro, and J Polaina
Escherichia coli and Other Enterobacteriaceae: Food Poisoning and Health Effects 539
JL Smith and PM Fratamico
Escherichia coli and Other Enterobacteriaceae: Occurrence and Detection 545
S Fanning, L Rogers, K Power, and PO´ Gaora
Essential Oils: Isolation, Production and Uses 552
CM Cook and T Lanaras
Essential Oils: Properties, Composition and Health Effects 558
G Buchbauer and IM Wallner
Ethnic Foods 563
OI Bermudez
xxiv Volume 2 Table of Contents
Extrusion Cooking: Chemical and Nutritional Changes 569
JAG Areˆas, CM Rocha-Olivieri, and MR Marques
Extrusion Cooking: Principles and Practice 576
L Moscicki
F 581
Famine, Hunger, and Undernourishment 581
R Mila`-Villarroel, C Homs, J Ngo, J Martı´n, and M Vidal
Fat Replacer 589
RS Chavan, CD Khedkar, and S Bhatt
Fats: Classification and Analysis 596
M Narva´ez-Rivas and M Leo´n-Camacho
Fats: Production and Uses of Animal Fats 604
SB Smith and DR Smith
Fatty Acids: Determination and Requirements 609
M Narva´ez-Rivas and M Leo´n-Camacho
Fatty Acids: Essential Fatty Acids 615
B Lands
Fatty Acids: Fatty Acids 623
S Petrovic and A Arsic
Fatty Acids: Metabolism 632
PC Calder
Fatty Acids: Trans Fatty Acids 645
AH Lichtenstein
Fermented Foods: Composition and Health effects 649
D Ansorena and I Astiasara´n
Fermented Foods: Fermented Meat Products 656
F Leroy and L De Vuyst
Fermented Foods: Fermented Milks 661
CD Khedkar, SD Kalyankar, and SS Deosarkar
Fermented Foods: Fermented Vegetables and Other Products 668
R Di Cagno, P Filannino, and M Gobbetti
Fermented Foods: Origins and Applications 675
A Bevilacqua, M Sinigaglia, and MR Corbo
Fermented Foods: Use of Starter Cultures 681
PM Malo and EA Urquhart
Fish Oils: Composition and Health Effects 686
C Jacobsen
Fish Oils: Production and Properties 693
AK Carvajal and R Mozuraityte
Fish: Dietary Importance and Health Effects 699
HK Mæhre, I-J Jensen, and K-E Eilertsen
Fish: Fish in the Human Diet 706
B Blakistone, R Kleiner, and J McGuire
Fish: Processing 710
SP Aubourg
Flavor Enhancers: Characteristics and Uses 716
D Baines and M Brown
Volume 2 Table of Contents xxv
Folic acid and Folates: Physiology and Health Effects 724
C Wittho¨ft and M Hefni
Food Additives: Classification, Uses and Regulation 731
GA Blekas
Food Allergies 737
SL Taylor and JL Baumert
Food Allergies: Occurrence and Analysis 743
S Sforza and B Prandi
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 749
E Casadei and J Albert

Editors-in-Chief v
Editorial Advisory Board vii
How to use the Encyclopedia xvii
Introduction xix
Food Classification and Description 1
JD Ireland and A Møller
Food Colloids and Emulsions 7
A Sullo and IT Norton
Food Composition Databases 16
PR Pehrsson and DB Haytowitz
Food Environment 22
M Franco, U Bilal, and J Dı´ez
Food Fortification: Rationale and Methods 27
MG Venkatesh Mannar and NA Khan
Food Fraud 35
MZ Tsimidou, SA Ordoudi, N Nenadis, and I Mourtzinos
Food Intolerance: Lactose Intolerance 43
VK Lule, S Garg, SK Tomar, CD Khedkar, and DN Nalage
Food Labeling: Applications 49
KA Roche
Food Poisoning: Classification 56
E Eymar, C Garcia-Delgado, and RM Esteban
Food Poisoning: Epidemiology 67
C Rius Gibert
Food Poisoning: Tracing Origins and Testing 72
AC Baird-Parker
Food Systems: Food Miles 77
P Mundler and G Criner
Foodborne Pathogens 83
M D’Agostino and N Cook
Foodborne Viruses of Human Health Concern 87
DH D’Souza and SS Joshi
Food–Herbal Medicine Interface 94
M Heinrich
Freeze Drying: Effects on Sensory and Nutritional Properties 99
AS Mujumdar, CL Law, and MW Woo
Freeze-drying: The Basic Process 104
LE Garcia-Amezquita, J Welti-Chanes, F Vergara-Balderas, and D Bermu´dez-Aguirre
Freezing Theory 110
QT Pham
Fructose and High-Fructose Corn Syrup 119
NL Keim, KL Stanhope, and PJ Havel
Fructose: Sources, Metabolism, and Health 125
DM Klurfeld
Fruit Juices 130
PR Ashurst
Fruits of Tropical Climates: Biodiversity and Dietary Importance 138
R Bhat and G Paliyath
Fruits of Tropical Climates: Dietary Importance and Health Benefits 144
R Bhat and G Paliyath
Fumigants 150
EM Thoms and JD Busacca
Functional Foods 157
JA Tur and MM Bibiloni
Fungi 162
A Moretti and S Sarrocco
Fungicides 169
M Correia, M Rodrigues, P Paı´ga, and C Delerue-Matos
G 177
Game: Types and Composition 177
H Costa, I Mafra, MBPP Oliveira, and JS Amaral
Garlic 184
CS Charron, JA Milner, and JA Novotny
Gelatin 191
ZA Nur Hanani
Genetically Modified Foods 196
A Moglia and E Portis
Genetically Modified Foods: Risk Assessment, Legislation, Consumer Behavior, and Ethics 204
T Varzakas and T Tzanidis
Genetically Modified Microorganisms 211
SO Ka¨renlampi and AJ von Wright
Ghee 217
SS Deosarkar, CD Khedkar, and SD Kalyankar
Gin 222
M Riu-Aumatell
Glucose: Glucose Intolerance 227
E Zoidis and V Papamikos
Glucose: Metabolism and Regulation 233
E Zoidis and V Papamikos
Glucose: Properties and Analysis 239
AM Shendurse and CD Khedkar
xxii Volume 3 Table of Contents
Glucosinolates from the Brassica Vegetables and Their Health Effects 248
TL Johnson, AT Dinkova-Kostova, and JW Fahey
Goat: Milk 256
SD Kalyankar, CD Khedkar, and AM Patil
Grapes 261
SA Dhekney
Growth Promoters: Characteristics and Determination 266
F Toldra´ and M Reig
Guavas 270
KS Gill
Gums: Dietary Importance 278
CA Edwards
Gums: Properties and Uses 283
PA Williams
Gut Hormones 290
REJ Clarke, SR Bloom, and T Tan
H 295
HACCP and ISO22000: Risk Assessment in Conjunction with Other Food Safety Tools
Such as FMEA, Ishikawa Diagrams and Pareto 295
T Varzakas
Ham: Cooked Ham 303
F Toldra´ and M Reig
Ham: Dry-cured Ham 307
F Toldra´
Heat Treatment: Effect on Microbiological Changes and Shelf Life 311
D Rodrigo, W Tejedor, and A Martı´nez
Heat Treatment: Principles and Techniques 316
OH Campanella
Heavy Metal Toxicology 328
WR Snodgrass
Herbs: Composition and Dietary Importance 332
V Kumar, T Markovic´, M Emerald, and A Dey
Histidine-containing Dipeptides: Properties and Occurrence in Foods 338
M-C Aristoy, L Mora, and F Toldra´
HIV Disease and Nutrition 343
TL Miller, P Graham, J Nebhrajani, G Somarriba, SC Tapia, and D Neri
Horse Meat 353
MD Pawshe, SR Badhe, CD Khedkar, RD Pawshe, and AY Pundkar
Human Milk: Composition and Nutritional Value 357
MH Monaco, J Kim, and SM Donovan
Hunger 363
J Pickering and J Halford
Hypertension and Diet 369
E Alexander, A Selwyn, D Yach, C Calitz, and YC Wang
Hypovitaminosis A 377
NW Solomons
Volume 3 Table of Contents xxiii
I 385
Ice Cream: Composition and Health Effects 385
SS Deosarkar, SD Kalyankar, RD Pawshe, and CD Khedkar
Ice Cream: Uses and Method of Manufacture 391
SS Deosarkar, CD Khedkar, SD Kalyankar, and AR Sarode
Immunoassays: Principles 398
RD Smiley, CN Stam, and HP Dwivedi
Infants: Feeding Problems 404
EME Poskitt
Infants: Nutritional Requirements 410
E Grammatikaki and I Huybrechts
Infants: Weaning 418
A MacDonald
Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications 424
E Capuano and SM van Ruth
Insect Pests 432
S Garcı´a-Lara and SO Serna Saldivar
Iodine: Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) 437
K Menon and S Skeaff
Iodine: Physiology 444
D Ristic-Medic and M Glibetic
Iron: Biosynthesis and Significance of Heme 452
GO Latunde-Dada
Iron: Physiology of Iron 461
J Coad, R Stewart, and K Pedley
Iron: Properties and Determination 468
RJ Ward and RR Crichton
Irradiation of Foods: Processing Technology and Effects on Nutrients: Effect of Ionizing Radiation
on Food Components 476
MNC Harder, V Arthur, and PB Arthur
K 483
Ketone Bodies 483
PAC McPherson
Kiwifruit 490
P Padmanabhan and G Paliyath
L 495
Laboratory Management: Microbiological Safety 495
A Kurdziel
Lactic Acid Bacteria 501
F Mozzi
Lactose 509
AM Shendurse and CD Khedkar
Lauric Oils 517
AJ Dijkstra
xxiv Volume 3 Table of Contents
Leavening Agents 523
R Miller
Legal Requirements for Food Hygiene 529
RH Dwinger and K De Smet
Legumes in the Diet 539
JA Gutie´rrez-Uribe, D Guajardo-Flores, and L Lo´pez-Barrios
Lipoproteins 544
R Zamora and FJ Hidalgo
Liqueurs: Cream Liqueurs 550
SP Heffernan, DM Mulvihill, and AL Kelly
Listeria: Detection 556
LS Cocolin and K Rantisou
Listeria: Listeriosis 561
D Schoder
Listeria: Properties and Occurrences 567
RO Azizoglu and S Kathariou
Low-fat Foods: Types and Manufacture 571
MG O’Sullivan
Low-salt Foods: Types and Manufacture 576
F Toldra´ and JM Barat
Lupine 579
S Islam and W Ma
M 587
Magnesium 587
A Mazur and JAM Maier
Maillard Reaction 593
JA Rufia´n-Henares and S Pastoriza
Maize 601
SO Serna Saldivar and E Perez-Carrillo
Malnutrition: Concept, Classification and Magnitude 610
J Ngo, A Ortiz-Andrellucchi, and L Serra-Majem
Malnutrition: Prevention and Management 631
NW Solomons
Manganese 637
DS Avila, P Gubert, DH Roos, R Puntel, and M Aschner
Mangoes 641
AC Matheyambath, J Subramanian, and G Paliyath
Margarine: Composition and Analysis 646
MD Guille´n, ML Ibargoitia, and P Sopelana
Mass Spectrometry: Applications 654
P Ferranti and G Picariello
Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Instrumentation 661
G Kaklamanos, E Aprea, and G Theodoridis
Mayonnaise 669
WG Morley
Volume 3 Table of Contents xxv
Meat: Conversion of Muscle into Meat 677
R Warner
Meat: Eating Quality and Preservation 685
F Jime´nez-Colmenero, AM Herrero, S Cofrades, and C Ruiz-Capillas
Meat: Role in the Diet 693
SH McNeill and ME Van Elswyk
Meat: Structure 701
R Hamill and C Botines¸tean
Mediterranean Diet 711
A Trichopoulou and E Vasilopoulou
Microscopy: Light Microscopy and Histochemical Methods 715
E Jean-Marie
Milk Powder 724
SD Kalyankar, MA Deshmukh, SS Chopde, CD Khedkar, VK Lule, and SS Deosarkar
Milk: Processing of Milk 729
RS Chavan, R Sehrawat, V Mishra, and S Bhatt
Milk: Role in the Diet 736
AR Sarode, SD Kalyankar, SS Deosarkar, CD Khedkar, and RD Pawshe
Milk: Sources and Composition 741
SD Kalyankar, CD Khedkar, AM Patil, and SS Deosarkar
Millets 748
JRN Taylor and J Kruger
Mineral Water: Sources and Storage 758
A Astel
Mineral Water: Types of Mineral Water 763
A Astel
Minimally Processed Foods 767
SM Alzamora, A Lo´pez-Malo, MS Tapia, and J Welti-Chanes

Editors-in-Chief v
Editorial Advisory Board vii
How to use the Encyclopedia xvii
Introduction xix
Mushrooms and Truffles: Role in the Diet 1
KV Saritha, B Prakash, VC Khilare, GD Khedkar, Y Mohan Reddy, and CD Khedkar
Mustard 9
M Divakaran and KN Babu
Mutagens 20
TJ Schrader
Mycotoxins: Classification 29
M Mostrom
Mycotoxins: Occurrence and Determination 35
Y Pico´
Mycotoxins: Toxicology 43
M Mostrom
N 49
Nanotechnology in Food Processing 49
IJ Joye, G Davidov-Pardo, and DJ McClements
Natamycin 56
VK Lule, S Garg, SC Gosewade, and CD Khedkar
Niacin 63
VK Lule, S Garg, SC Gosewade, SK Tomar, and CD Khedkar
Nitrites and Nitrates 73
NS Bryan
Novel Foods 79
S Hendrich
Nucleic Acids 84
GD Khedkar, B Prakash, CD Khedkar, and BA Chopade
Nutrition and Health Claims for Food: Regulatory Controls, Consumer Perception,
and Nutrition Labeling 93
MJ Ruffell
Nutrition and Infection 98
AJ Rodriguez-Morales, A Bolivar-Mejı´a, C Alarco´n-Olave, and LS Calvo-Betancourt
Nutritional Epidemiology 104
K Thornton and E Villamor
Nuts: Brazil Nuts 108
AM Kluczkovski and M Martins
Nuts: Health Effects 111
E Ros
O 119
Oats 119
SM Tosh and SS Miller
Obesity Management 126
LJ Cheskin, RA Frutchey, L Bunyard, and S Glascoe
Obesity: Causes and Prevalence 132
E Alexander, A Selwyn, C Calitz, D Yach, and YC Wang
Obesity: Epidemiology of 139
M Lazo and U Bilal
Obesity: The Role of Diet 145
LE Matarese
Offal: Types and Composition 152
AM Mullen and C A´lvarez
Olive Oil: Its Role in the Diet 158
C Pe´rez-Rodrigo and J Aranceta
Olives: Types and Consumption 167
FN Arroyo-Lo´pez, P Garcı´a-Garcı´a, F Rodrı´guez-Go´mez, and A Garrido-Ferna´ndez
Organic Food: Effect on Nutrient Composition 171
E Rembiałkowska
Organic Food: Production and Control 178
LM Vieira and A Hoppe
Osteoporosis 181
NK Nayak, CC Khedkar, GD Khedkar, and CD Khedkar
Oxidation of Food Components 186
R Mozuraityte, V Kristinova, and T Rustad
P 191
Packaging: Aseptic Filling 191
RS Chavan, MdIA Ansari, and S Bhatt
Palm Oil 199
AJ Dijkstra
Pantothenic Acid 205
RB Rucker
Papayas 209
IGN Hewajulige and SA Dhekney
Parasites in Food: Illness and Treatment 213
AJ Rodriguez-Morales, A Bolivar-Mejı´a, C Alarco´n-Olave, and LS Calvo-Betancourt
Parasites in Food: Occurrence and Detection 219
LJ Robertson
xxii Volume 4 Table of Contents
Parenteral Nutrition 225
RS Torrinhas and DL Waitzberg
Passion Fruit 230
SW Wijeratnam
Pasta: Manufacture and Composition 235
B De Cindio and N Baldino
Pasta: Role in Diet 242
R Giacco, M Vitale, and G Riccardi
Pasteurization: Effect on Sensory Quality and Nutrient Composition 246
RP Lopes, MJ Mota, I Delgadillo, and JA Saraiva
Pasteurization: Principles and Applications 264
G Tucker
Peaches and Nectarines 270
HT Elsadr (Abu Eesa) and S Sherif
Peanuts 277
JB Jones, NA Barkley, CE Simpson, and RD Mattes
Peas and Lentils 283
AM Ramı´rez Ojeda
Pectin and Health 289
L Wicker and Y Kim
Pectin: Properties Determination and Uses 294
B De Cindio, D Gabriele, and FR Lupi
Peppers and Chilies 301
AAO Xavier and A Pe´rez-Ga´lvez
Pesticides and Herbicides 307
S Ensley
Pesticides and Herbicides: Residue Determination 311
Y Pico´
Pesticides and Herbicides: Types of Pesticide 319
H Karasali and N Maragou
Pesticides and Herbicides: Types, Uses, and Determination of Herbicides 326
AV Herrera-Herrera, M Asensio-Ramos, J Herna´ndez-Borges, and MA´ Rodrı´guez-Delgado
pH: Principles and Measurement 333
S Karastogianni, S Girousi, and S Sotiropoulos
Phenolic Compounds: Bioavailability and Health Effects 339
A Gioxari, DAA Kogiannou, N Kalogeropoulos, and AC Kaliora
Phenolic Compounds: Occurrence, Classes, and Analysis 346
M Murkovic
Phospholipids: Physiology 352
T El-Bacha and AG Torres
Phospholipids: Properties and Occurrence 360
BF Szuhaj
Phytic Acid: Properties, Uses, and Determination 365
A-S Sandberg and N Scheers
Pickling 369
A Montan˜o, AH Sa´nchez, VM Beato, A Lo´pez-Lo´pez, and A de Castro
Volume 4 Table of Contents xxiii
Pine Kernels 375
P Pamanabhan and G Paliyath
Pineapple 380
S Wilson Wijeratnam
Pitaya (Stenocereus spp.) 385
C Chuck-Herna´ndez, R Parra-Saldı´var, and L Sandate-Flores
Pituitary Gland: Pituitary Hormones 392
M Emerald
Plums and Related Fruits 401
S Jayasankar, C Dowling, and DK Selvaraj
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 406
G Purcaro, S Moret, and LS Conte
Pork Meat Quality, Production and Processing on 419
DF Keenan
Potassium: Physiology 432
MP Navarro and MP Vaquero
Potassium: Properties and Determination 439
R Moreno Rojas, F Ca´mara Martos, and MA´ Amaro Lo´pez
Potatoes and Related Crops 446
P Padmanabhan, JA Sullivan, and G Paliyath
Potatoes and Related Crops: Role in the Diet 452
S Turner
Poultry: Processing 458
S Barbut
Prebiotics 464
PS Panesar and V Bali
Pregnancy: Dietary Guidance for Pregnancy 472
M Blumfield
Pregnancy: Metabolic Adaptations and Nutritional Requirements 484
CM Donangelo and FF Bezerra
Preservation of Foods 491
EF Torres, D Rodrigo, and A Martı´nez
Preservatives: Classifications and Analysis 497
E Mani-Lo´pez, E Palou, and A Lo´pez-Malo
Preservatives: Food Use 505
R Garcı´a-Garcı´a and SS Searle
Probiotics 510
H Kumar and S Salminen
Protein Quality and Amino Acids in Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health 516
S Ghosh and R Uauy
Protein: Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism 524
PJ Moughan
Protein: Food Sources 530
L Day
Protein: Requirements 538
DJ Millward
xxiv Volume 4 Table of Contents
Proteins: Chemistry, Characterization, and Quality 548
S Sforza, T Tedeschi, and PA Wierenga
Proteomics: Contribution of Proteomics Techniques to Understanding the Interrelationship
between Food and Health 554
M Carrera, H Eguiraun, B Can˜as, I Martinez, and C Pin˜eiro
Pulsed Electric Fields 561
JA´ Guerrero-Beltra´n and J Welti-Chanes
Q 567
Quality Control in Food Processing 567
R Karoui
Quinoa 573
C Collar
R 581
Rapeseed Oil/Canola 581
NAM Eskin
Raspberries and Related Fruits 586
MJ Kim, KL Sutton, and GK Harris
Renal Function and Disorders 592
GPS Shantha and LJ Cheskin
Retinol: Physiology 597
HC Furr
Retinol: Properties and Determination 604
AC Ross
Rheological Properties of Food Materials 610
B de Cindio, N Baldino, D Gabriele, and FR Lupi
Rhum–Ron–Rum: Technology and Tradition 618
JJ Quesada-Granados, C Samaniego-Sa´nchez, and RM Blanca-Herrera
Riboflavin: Physiology 628
HJ Powers
Riboflavin: Properties and Determination 633
I Bitsch and R Bitsch
Rice: Role in Diet 641
BO Juliano
Rice: Types and Composition 646
PS Panesar and S Kaur
Risk Assessment of Foods and Chemicals in Foods 653
SM Barlow
S 659
Saccharin – How Sweet It Is 659
C Fitch
Salad Crops: Dietary Importance 665
MK Rana
Salad Crops: Leaf-Type Crops 673
MK Rana
Volume 4 Table of Contents xxv
Salad Crops: Root, Bulb, and Tuber Crops 679
SM Thompson and KD Hirschi
Salad Crops: Stem-Type Crops 684
MK Rana
Salmonella: Detection 689
GA Dykes
Salmonella: Properties and Occurrence 695
AM Lynne, SL Foley, and J Han
Salmonella: Salmonellosis 701
C Lo¨fstro¨m, T Hansen, S Maurischat, and B Malorny
Sanitization 706
J Rovira
Saponins 714
GP Savage
Satiety 717
MM Hetherington
Sausages and Comminuted Products: Cooked Sausages 722
M Flores
Sausages and Comminuted Products: Dry Fermented Products 728
I Astiasara´n and D Ansorena
Selenium: Properties and Determination 734
M Roman
Sensory Evaluation: Sensory Rating and Scoring Methods 744
TC Pimentel, A Gomes da Cruz, and R Deliza
Sheep: Meat 750
EN Ponnampalam, BWB Holman, and ND Scollan
Sheep: Milk 758
SD Kalyankar, AR Sarode, CD Khedkar, SS Deosarkar, and RD Pawshe
Shellfish: Characteristics of Crustaceans and Mollusks 764
P Anacleto, AL Maulvault, V Barbosa, ML Nunes, and A Marques
Shellfish: Role in the diet 772
AL Maulvault, P Anacleto, V Barbosa, ML Nunes, and A Marques
Sherry Wines: Manufacture, Composition and Analysis 779
MA Pozo-Bayo´n and MV Moreno-Arribas
Shigella 785
C Jenkins
Single Cell Proteins 790
DN Nalage, GD Khedkar, AD Kalyankar, AP Sarkate, SR Ghodke, VB Bedre, and CD Khedkar
Skeletal Muscle 795
NK Nayak, GD Khedkar, CC Khedkar, and CD Khedkar

Editors-in-Chief v
Editorial Advisory Board vii
How to use the Encyclopedia xvii
Introduction xix
Smoked Foods: Principles and Production 1
ZE Sikorski
Snack Foods: Role in Diet 6
JS Tumuluru
Snack Foods: Types and Composition 13
SO Serna Saldivar
Sodium: Properties and Determination 19
R Moreno-Rojas, F Ca´mara-Martos, and MA´ Amaro-Lo´pez
Solanaceous Fruits Including Tomato, Eggplant, and Peppers 24
P Padmanabhan, A Cheema, and G Paliyath
Sorghum: A Novel and Healthy Food 33
P Pontieri and L Del Giudice
Soy Beans: Dietary Importance 43
AM Duncan
Soy Beans: Processing 48
MN Riaz
Soy Beans: Properties and Analysis 54
K Nill
Soy Beans: The Crop 56
K Nill
Soybean Oil 58
AJ Dijkstra
Spectroscopy: Types 64
AK Malik, R Kumar, and Heena
Spices and Flavoring Crops: Fruits and Seeds 73
L Wilson
Spices and Flavoring Crops: Leaf and Floral Structures 84
L Wilson
Spices and Flavoring Crops: Tubers and Roots 93
L Wilson
Spices and Flavoring Crops: Uses and Health Effects 98
K Srinivasan
Spoilage: Bacterial Spoilage 106
X Dousset, E Jaffre`s, and M Zagorec
Spoilage: Yeast Spoilage of Food and Beverages 113
K Howell
Sports Nutrition 118
Z Sˇatalic´
Stabilizers: Types and Function 124
C Rolin
Staphylococcus: Detection 128
E Ortega Morente, A Ga´lvez del Postigo Ruiz, and RP Pulido
Staphylococcus: Food Poisoning 133
A Rajkovic
Staphylococcus: Occurrence and Properties 140
S Leroy, A Vermassen, and R Talon
Starch 146
P Clifton and J Keogh
Starch: Modified Starches 152
L Kaur and J Singh
Starch: Sources and Processing 160
FA Manthey
Starch: Structure, Property, and Determination 165
Y Ai and Jl Jane
Sterilization of Foods 175
V Serment-Moreno and J Welti-Chanes
Storage Stability: Mechanisms of Degradation 181
B Chen
Storage Stability: Shelf Life Testing 188
E Torrieri
Strawberries 193
P Padmanabhan, A Mizran, JA Sullivan, and G Paliyath
Sucrose: Dietary Importance 199
J Plaza-Diaz and A Gil
Sucrose: Properties and Determination 205
M Peris
Sugar Alcohols 211
A Rapaille, J Goosens, and M Heume
Sunflower Oil 217
FJ Sa´nchez-Muniz, S Bastida, and J Benedı´
Supercritical Fluid Extraction 227
E Iba´n˜ez, JA Mendiola, and M Castro-Puyana
Sweeteners: Classification, Sensory and Health Effects 234
A Das and R Chakraborty
xxii Volume 5 Table of Contents
T 241
Taints: Analysis and Identification 241
AR Fontana
Tannins 247
I Ky, A Le Floch, L Zeng, L Pechamat, M Jourdes, and P-L Teissedre
Tea: Analysis and Tasting 256
Q Zhang and J Ruan
Tea: Chemistry and Processing 268
S Sang
Tea: Health Effects 273
R Munday
Tea: Types, Production, and Trade 279
X Li and X Zhu
Tequila: Raw Material, Classification, Process, and Quality Parameters 283
SJ Villanueva-Rodrı´guez, B Rodrı´guez-Garay, R Prado-Ramı´rez, and A Gschaedler
Thiamin: Physiology 290
R Bitsch
Thiamin: Properties and Determination 297
MV Chandra-Hioe, J Arcot, and MP Bucknall
Tocopherols: Physiology and Health Effects 303
R Ja¨rvinen and AT Erkkila¨
Tocopherols: Properties and Determination 309
NE Craft
Tortillas 319
SO Serna Saldivar and C Chuck-Hernandez
Toxins in Food: Naturally Occurring 326
D-F Hwang and T-Y Chen
Trace Minerals and Trace Elements 331
PA Tsuji, JA Canter, and LE Rosso
Traditional Foods 339
LF D’Antuono
Triacylglycerols: Characterization and Determination 345
F Marini
Triacylglycerols: Structures and Properties 351
FJ Hidalgo and R Zamora
V 357
Vegetable Oils: Composition and Analysis 357
AJ Dijkstra
Vegetable Oils: Dietary Importance 365
SC Savva and A Kafatos
Vegetable Oils: Oil Production and Processing 373
AJ Dijkstra and G van Duijn
Vegetable Oils: Types and Properties 381
AJ Dijkstra
Volume 5 Table of Contents xxiii
Vegetables of Temperate Climates: Carrot, Parsnip, and Beetroot 387
SA Tanumihardjo, D Suri, P Simon, and IL Goldman
Vegetables of Temperate Climates: Leafy Vegetables 393
A Alvino and G Barbieri
Vegetarian Diets 401
N Burkholder, S Rajaram, and J Sabate´
Vibrio: Types, Properties, and Determination 413
E Suffredini and G Caburlotto
Vinegar 418
A Mas, AM Troncoso, MC Garcı´a-Parrilla, and MJ Torija
Vitamin K: Physiology 424
MJ Shearer
Vitamin K: Properties and Determination 430
HE Indyk, MJ Shearer, and DC Woollard
Vitamins: Overview 436
PM Finglas
Vodka 442
RI Aylott
W 447
Wastage of Food 447
S Osborn
Water Management, Treatment and Environmental Impact 453
HK Karapanagioti
Water Supplies: Microbiological Analysis 458
A Korajkic and VJ Harwood
Water Supplies: Water Analysis 463
K Katsanou and HK Karapanagioti
Wheat: Grain Structure of Wheat and Wheat-based Products 470
VA Solah, HK Fenton, and GB Crosbie
Wheat: The Crop 478
RL Cracknell
Whey and Whey Powders: Fermentation of Whey 486
T Tavares and FX Malcata
Whey and Whey Powders, Principles and Applications of Dialysis 493
T Tavares and FX Malcata
Whey and Whey Powders: Production and Uses 498
OL Ramos, RN Pereira, RM Rodrigues, JA Teixeira, AA Vicente, and FX Malcata
Whey and Whey Powders: Protein Concentrates and Fractions 506
T Tavares and FX Malcata
Whisky, Whiskey and Bourbon: Composition and Analysis of Whisky 514
JR Piggott
Whisky, Whiskey, and Bourbon: Products and Manufacture 519
JR Piggott
Wines: Champagne and Sparkling Wines – Production and Effervescence 526
G Liger-Belair
xxiv Volume 5 Table of Contents
Wines: Madeira, Port and Sherry Fortified Wines – The Sui Generis and Notable Peculiarities.
Major Differences and Chemical Patterns 534
R Perestrelo, C Silva, J Pereira, and JS Caˆmara
Wines: Types of Table Wines 556
RS Jackson
Wines: Wine and Health 562
RS Jackson
Wines: Wine Production 571
GR Scollary
Wines: Wine Tasting 577
RS Jackson
World Health Organization 585
RS Chavan, S Tewari, CD Khedkar, and S Bhatt
Y 593
Yeasts 593
R Tofalo and G Suzzi
Yersinia enterocolitica: Detection and Treatment 600
D Rodrı´guez-La´zaro and M Herna´ndez
Yersinia enterocolitica: Properties and Occurrence 606
S Joutsen and M Fredriksson-Ahomaa
Yogurt: Dietary Importance 612
P Behare, V Lule, and P Patil
Yogurt: The Product and its Manufacture 617
G Corrieu and C Be´al
Yogurt: Yogurt Based Products 625
P Behare, H Kumar, and S Mandal
Z 633
Zinc: Physiology and Health Effects 633
KM Hambidge, NF Krebs, and LV Miller
Zinc: Properties and Determination 638
F Ca´mara Martos and R Moreno Rojas
Zoonoses 645
AT Rantsios
List of Contributors 655
Index 679

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