Mosby's Handbook of Herbs & Natural Supplements. Fourth Edition

Mosby's Handbook of Herbs & Natural Supplements. Fourth Edition

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Linda Skidmore-Roth, RN, MSN, NP

Littleton, Colorado
Formerly, Nursing Faculty
New Mexico State University
Las Cruces, New Mexico
El Paso Community College
El Paso, Texas

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Book Details
 764 p
 File Size 
 File Type
 PDF format
 2010, 2006, 2004, 2001
 by Mosby, Inc., an affi liate of Elsevier, Inc 

It is estimated that almost half of all health care consumers in the United States
take some form of herbal or natural product supplement alone or in combination
with conventional medicines. Yet the therapeutic value of many of these products is
unproven. Additionally, some products may interact with prescription medications,
and some products may be harmful to clients with certain conditions. Of perhaps
even greater concern is the fact that the majority of clients who use alternative
medicines never mention their use to their health care providers.
Because of the prevalence of the use of herbal products, health care professionals
need access to reliable, unbiased information about herbs and other alternative medicines.
Mosby’s Handbook of Herbs & Natural Supplements, fourth edition, does not
advocate for or against the use of herbal products and other natural supplements.
Rather, this book acknowledges the widespread use of these types of remedies with
the goal of providing health care professionals with current, reliable, unbiased information
with which to advise clients on the responsible and intelligent use of herbal
products as a part of their overall health treatment and maintenance plan.
This book contains detailed monographs of 300 herbs and natural supplements,
appendixes fi lled with key information, a glossary, and a comprehensive index, all
designed to be easy to use and to provide the depth of information today’s health
care professionals demand.

Herbal Monographs
Mosby’s Handbook of Herbs & Natural Supplements provides the user with an
essential reference that allows easy access to extensive information on 300 herbal
and natural supplements. A unique feature of this handbook is the consistent format,
which allows for quick reference without sacrifi cing the depth of detail necessary for
a thorough understanding of the material presented. The following information is
provided whenever possible:
Common Name. Each herb or supplement is arranged alphabetically by the
most common name, in natural order. Hence, black hellebore is located within
the Bs and white cohosh within the Ws.
Scientifi c Name. The scientifi c, or botanical, name immediately follows the
common name whenever applicable. The scientifi c name provides positive
identifi cation for various species or substances that might share a common
name. Occasionally, more than one species is listed when various herbs are
chemically similar. Gentian, for example, has two scientifi c names: Gentiana
lutea and Gentiana acaulis.
Other Common Names. Most herbs and natural supplements are known by a
variety of additional names. The most common of these are listed here and in the
index of the book to aid the user in locating and identifying particular herbs or
natural supplements.
Origin. This section briefl y states the origins of each herb or supplement.
Uses. This section explains the uses for which the remedy is known or has been
known in the past. Included in the section wherever possible is Investigational
Uses, a category that provides information on current research and possible new
uses for a variety of herbs and supplements.
Actions. In this section of the monograph, the actions of the herb or supplement
are explained, together with any research or studies performed.
Product Availability. The common available forms and plant parts used are
listed in this section of the monograph, followed by dosages. Whenever possible,
the dosages are divided by use; age group, including specifi c pediatric and
geriatric doses; and any limiting conditions, such as renal impairment or
pregnancy. Because of great variance in reported dosages, references are cited
whenever possible.
Contraindications. This section includes classifi cation systems and an
explanation of situations in which a particular herb or supplement should not be
used. This information may also include warnings for specifi c groups of people
based on lack of research in a particular area. The fi rst classifi cation system is
from the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. While this system is
recommended for drugs, it is also appropriate for herbs because it allows for
individual analysis of herbs in pregnancy. The second classifi cation system is
used for breastfeeding. Both of these systems classify only a select group of herbs
and focus solely on pregnancy and breastfeeding. The third classifi cation system,
which has been used in past editions, is from the American Herbal Products
Association (AHPA). The AHPA assigns a safety rating to many of the herbs and
supplements in use today. These ratings are broken into four main classes with
several subclasses, and usually identify specifi c plant parts or forms of each herb.
Detailed descriptions of all three of these classifi cations can be found in the
beginning of the book.
Side Effects/Adverse Reactions. Side effects and adverse reactions are
broken down by body system. Any life-threatening side effects are underlined and
in bold, italic type, making them easy to fi nd.
Interactions. The interactions are conveniently broken into four categories—drug,
herb, food, and lab test interactions—making it quick and easy to look for particular
types of interactions.
Pharmacology. Pharmacokinetics for various herbs and natural supplements,
including information on peak, half-life, binding, and excretion, are covered here.
Immediately following the pharmacokinetic information is a table of Chemical
Components and Possible Actions. This table lists the potentially active chemical
constituents for each herb and any possible actions those components might have.
Client Considerations. Client considerations are based loosely on the nursing
process and are organized into Assess, Administer, and Teach Client/Family
categories. Considerations are consistently organized under these headings to
highlight information in a format convenient for client care.
Icons. Throughout the monographs, certain icons are used to highlight key
information. The Alert icon ! calls out key information regarding toxicity,
dangerous interactions, and other signifi cant reactions that may threaten a
client’s health. The Popular Herb icon is used to show that an herb has been
designated by the Herbal Research Foundation as an herb in common use in the
United States. The Pregnancy icon identifi es information of special interest to
pregnant or lactating clients. The Pediatric icon highlights information for
pediatric clients.

Herb Resources. This appendix contains a list of herbal resources located on
the Internet, including key organizations, not-for-profi t research agencies, and
additional educational resources.
Herb/Drug Interactions. This table is a single, handy resource for reviewing
all known drug interactions for the herbs and supplements listed in this book.
Pediatric Herbal Use. This extensive appendix covers current pediatric herbal
use and research.
Abbreviations. This alphabetical list explains the meanings of abbreviations
found in this book.
Each monograph has been individually referenced, with detailed references listed
at the end of the book.
The glossary explains the special vocabulary of herbal medicine. Terms such as
tincture, infusion, extract, and decoction are defi ned clearly and succinctly.
The comprehensive index allows the user to look up each herb by any of its common
or scientifi c names, as well as by any of the conditions it may be used to treat.
That is, the reader can use the index to fi nd a comprehensive list of herbs used in
the treatment of cancer, HIV, or other conditions.

Table of Contents
Herbal Monographs
Acidophilus, 1
Aconite, 4
Agar, 6
Agrimony, 9
Alfalfa, 12
Allspice, 15
Aloe, 18
American Hellebore, 22
Andrographis, 24
Androstenediol, 26
Angelica, European, 27
Anise, 30
Arginine, 33
Arnica, 35
Artichoke, 37
Ash, 39
Astragalus, 40
Avens, 42
Balsam of Peru, 45
Barberry, 46
Barley, 49
Basil, 50
Bay, 52
Bayberry, 54
Bearberry, 56
Bee Pollen, 59
Benzoin, 61
Beta-Carotene, 63
Betel Palm, 64
Bethroot, 67
Betony, 68
Bilberry, 70
Birch, 73
Bistort, 75
Bitter Melon, 76
Bitter Orange, 78
Black Catechu, 80
Black Cohosh, 82
Black Haw, 85
Black Hellebore, 87
Black Pepper, 89
Black Root, 91
Blessed Thistle, 93
Bloodroot, 95
Blue Cohosh, 97
Blue Flag, 99
Bogbean, 101
Boldo, 103
Boneset, 105
Borage, 107
Boron, 110
Boswellia, 111
Brewer’s Yeast, 112
Broom, 114
Buchu, 116
Buckthorn, 118
Bugleweed, 120
Burdock, 122
Butcher’s Broom, 125
Butterbur, 127
Cacao Tree, 130
Calcium, 132
Calumba, 133
Capsicum, 134
Caraway, 137
Cardamom, 138
Carline Thistle, 140
Carnitine, 141
Cascara, 143
Castor, 145
Catnip, 147
Cat’s Claw, 149
Celandine, 152
Celery, 154
Centaury, 156
Chamomile, 158
Chaparral, 160
Chaste Tree, 163
Chaulmoogra Oil, 165
Chickweed, 166
Chicory, 168
Chinese Cucumber, 170
Chinese Rhubarb, 172
Chitosan, 175
Chondroitin, 176
Chromium, 178
Cinnamon, 180
Clary, 182
Clematis, 184
Cloves, 186
Coenzyme Q10, 188
Coffee, 190
Cola Tree, 193
Colostrum, Bovine, 196
Coltsfoot, 197
Comfrey, 199
Condurango, 202
Copper, 204
Coriander, 205
Corkwood, 207
Couchgrass, 209
Cowslip, 211
Cranberry, 213
Creatine, 215
Cucumber, 217
Daffodil, 219
Daisy, 221
Damiana, 222
Dandelion, 224
Devil’s Claw, 228
DHEA, 230
Dill, 232
Dong Quai, 234
Echinacea, 238
Elderberry, 241
Elecampane, 243
Ephedra, 245
Eucalyptus, 249
Evening Primrose Oil, 252
Eyebright, 254
False Unicorn Root, 257
Fennel, 258
Fenugreek, 260
Feverfew, 263
Figwort, 265
Fish Oils, 268
Flax, 269
Folic Acid, 272
Fo-ti, 273
Fumitory, 274
Galanthamine, 277
Gamma Linolenic Acid, 278
Garcinia, 280
Garlic, 281
Gentian, 285
Ginger, 287
Ginkgo, 290
Ginseng, 294
Glossy Privet, 297
Glucomannan, 299
Glucosamine, 301
Glutamine, 303
Glycine, 304
Goat’s Rue, 304
Golden Rod, 306
Goldenseal, 308
Gossypol, 311
Gotu Kola, 314
Grapeseed, 316
Graviola, 318
Green Tea, 319
Ground Ivy, 322
Guarana, 323
Guar Gum, 326
Guggul, 328
Gymnema, 330
Hawthorn, 332
Hops, 334
Horehound, 337
Horse Chestnut, 339
Horseradish, 341
Horsetail, 343
Huperzine A, 345
Hyssop, 346
Iceland Moss, 349
Indigo, 350
Inosine, 352
Irish Moss, 353
Jaborandi, 355
Jamaican Dogwood, 357
Jambul, 359
Jimsonweed, 360
Jojoba, 363
Juniper, 364
Kaolin, 367
Karaya Gum, 368
Kava, 369
Kelp, 373
Kelpware, 375
Khat, 377
Khella, 379
Kudzu, 381
Lady’s Mantle, 384
Lavender, 385
Lecithin, 387
Lemon Balm, 389
Lemongrass, 392
Lentinan, 393
Licorice, 395
Lily of the Valley, 400
Lobelia, 402
Lovage, 404
Lungwort, 406
Lycopene, 408
Lysine, 409
Maitake, 411
Male Fern, 412
Mallow, 415
Marigold, 416
Marijuana, 418
Marjoram, 420
Marshmallow, 422
Mayapple, 424
Meadowsweet, 427
Melatonin, 429
Milk Thistle, 432
Mistletoe, European, 434
Monascus, 436
Morinda, 439
Motherwort, 441
Mugwort, 443
Mullein, 445
Mustard, 447
Myrrh, 449
Myrtle, 452
Neem, 455
Nettle, 457
New Zealand Green-Lipped
Mussel, 459
Night-Blooming Cereus, 460
Nutmeg, 462
Oak, 466
Oats, 468
Octacosanol, 470
Oleander, 471
Oregano, 473
Oregon Grape, 475
Pansy, 478
Papaya, 479
Parsley, 481
Parsley Piert, 483
Passionfl ower, 484
Pau D’arco, 487
Peach, 489
Pectin, 491
Pennyroyal, 492
Peppermint, 494
Perilla, 497
Peyote, 499
Pill-Bearing Spurge, 501
Pineapple, 503
Pipsissewa, 504
Plantain, 506
Pokeweed, 508
Pomegranate, 510
Poplar, 513
Poppy, 514
Prickly Ash, 516
Propolis, 518
Pulsatilla, 519
Pumpkin, 521
Pycnogenol, 522
Pygeum, 524
Queen Anne’s Lace, 527
Quince, 529
Quinine, 530
Ragwort, 533
Raspberry, 534
Rauwolfi a, 536
Red Bush Tea, 538
Rose Hips, 540
Rue, 541
Saffl ower, 545
Saffron, 547
Sage, 548
SAM-e, 550
Sassafras, 552
Savory, 554
Saw Palmetto, 555
Schisandra, 558
Senega, 559
Senna, 561
Shark Cartilage, 564
Siberian Ginseng, 565
Skullcap, 567
Slippery Elm, 569
Sorrel, 571
Soy, 572
Spirulina, 575
Squill, 577
St. John’s Wort, 579
Storax, 582
Tea Tree Oil, 584
Thymus Extract, 585
Tonka Bean, 586
Turmeric, 588
Valerian, 591
White Cohosh, 593
Wild Cherry, 594
Wild Yam, 596
Wintergreen, 598
Witch Hazel, 599
Wormseed, 601
Yarrow, 603
Yellow Dock, 605
Yellow Lady’s Slipper, 607
Yerba Maté, 608
Yerba Santa, 610
Yew, 612
Yohimbe, 614
A. Herbal Resources, 617
B. Drug/Herb Interactions, 618
C. Pediatric Herbal Use, 646
D. Abbreviations, 662
References, 663
Glossary, 715
Index, 717

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Control Number 2009923753
Editor: Tamara Myers
Senior Developmental Editor: Laura M. Selkirk
Publishing Services Manager: Pat Joiner-Myers
Project Manager: Joy Moore
Design Project Manager: Paula Catalano