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Materia Medica of Western Herbs

Materia Medica of Western Herbs

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First published in 2009 by Vitex Medica

Carole Fisher

This edition published in 2018 by
Aeon Books Ltd
12 New College Parade
Finchley Road
London NW3 5EP


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Book Details
 Price
 5.00
 Pages
 1139 p
 File Size 
 12,689 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN-13
 978-1-91159-751-3
 Copyright©   
 2018 by Carole Fisher The right of Carole Fisher to be
 identified as the author of this work has been
 asserted in accordance with §§ 77 and 78
 of the Copyright Design and Patents Act 1988.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to recognize with gratitude those herbalists, past and present, who
have contributed to the knowledge of herbal medicine and from whom we all
benefit.
I thank Gilian Painter for supplying botanical information for each monograph
and for her help with proof reading. Thanks also to Alan Esler for his earlier
permission to use his diagrams of families, Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae
and Isabel Sutherland for her help with redrawing some of the illustrations in the
text.Most illustrations have come from botanical works from last century and I
gratefully acknowledge the work of W. H. Fitch and W. G. Smith in the
Illustrations of The British Flora, L. Reeve and Co., London, 1880; Britton, N.
L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States,
Canada and the British Possessions as well as Vol. 1–3 of the USDA-NRCS
PLANTS Database from the same book, Medicinal Plants by R. Bently and H.
Trimen, J. and A. Churchill, London. 1888. Also used were the works of older
herbalists John Gerard, Leonhart Fuchs and Matthiolus.
I also gratefully acknowledge:
CRC Press Inc. Boca Raton Florida for permission to use the illustrations of
Harpagophytum from Handbook of Medicinal Plants by James Duke.
The University of Hawaii for permission to use the illustration of Serenoa
repens from The Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii Vol. 2 by W. L.
Wagner, B. R. Herbst and S. H. Sohmer.
I would especially like to thank Doreen Marshall for her invaluable
suggestions, careful compilation, dedication and patience in editing and
producing this text. Without her enormous effort, wise contributions and
unerring support my task would have been very much more difficult.
Finally my heartfelt thanks for the tremendous love and support I have
received from my family.
....

Introduction
Herbal medicine is the traditional medicine of all cultures and still accounts for
three quarters of the remedies used throughout the world today. Although the
principles and practice of herbal medicine had been largely dismissed in the west
in the last several centuries, studies are increasingly supporting their age-old
uses as well as discovering new properties and applications for them. The recent
interest in herbs and their constituents is the result of awareness of iatrogenic
diseases; side effects of allopathic medicine; the resistance that has developed to
over-used antimicrobials; and the search for new and better medicines.
This book is a series of monographs of some of the most commonly used
herbs in western herbal medicine. They have been arranged in a format similar to
Dioscorides’ original text, De Materia Medica written about 2000 years ago, but
in a modern framework that also presents a summary of the knowledge that has
accumulated in recent years for the herbs and/or their constituents. Each herb is
presented with:-
Plant name and picture
Parts used
Actions
Pharmacy
Interaction with drugs
Botanical description
Active constituents
Scientific information
Precaution and/or Safety
Historical uses
Habitat and geographical location
Nutritional constituents
Medicinal uses
Contraindications
Unfortunately not all monographs contain information in all these areas for
whilst a great deal is known about a few herbs, like Panax ginseng and
Hypericum perforatum, for others virtually no research exists or what there is
may be many decades old and based on using scientific tools that lack today's
level of reliability.
Also included in this text is information on scheduled or restricted herbs.
These have been included for information only as many countries do not allow
their general use and in some cases do not allow herbalists to use them.
Scientific information (both positive and negative) from reputable journals
and texts has been compiled, without personal evaluation, with the aim of
providing an understanding of the scope of activity and mechanisms, as far as
they are known, for each herb. Scientific methods used and conclusions drawn
from this data should be assessed bearing in mind that the goals of modern
science are not necessarily in harmony with the tenets of herbal medicine and the
hypotheses being tested may be at odds with the herbs’ traditional use. Moreover
the aim of phytotherapy is not to simply treat symptoms or conditions, by
suppressing biochemical reactions, and herbalists should not rely solely on this
science to guide their application of these unique and complex healing agents.
Their actions and effectiveness have been gleaned and refined over many
thousands of years of practical use which is one of the soundest ways to evaluate
their medicinal value for human health. At the same time science can provide us
with important scientific information as well as ensure our method of practice is
safe as well as appropriate.
Information on the botany, growing and harvesting of herbs has been provided
by Gilian Painter so that those who are keen gardeners can plant and work
directly with fresh herbs and the various preparations that can be manufactured
from them.
....


Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
INTRODUCTION
GENERAL NOTES
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF BOTANICAL NAMES
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF COMMON NAMES
APIACEAE [Formerly Known as Umbelliferae]
Angelica archangelica
Apium graveolens
Carum carvi
Centella asiatica
Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce
Lomatium dissectum
Pimpinella anisum
APOCYNACEAE
Vinca major
Vinca minor
ARACEAE
Acorus calamus
ARALIACEAE
Eleutherococcus senticosus [Also known as Acanthopanax senticosus]
Panax ginseng
ARECACEAE
Serenoa serrulata
ASCLEPIADACEAE
Asclepias tuberosa
ASTERACEAE [Formerly Known as Compositae]
Achillea millefolium
Arctium lappa
Arnica montana
Artemisia absinthium
Artemisia vulgaris
Calendula officinalis
Cichorium intybus
Cynara scolymus
Echinacea angustifolia
Echinacea pallida
Echinacea purpurea
Eupatorium cannabinum
Eupatorium perfoliatum
Eupatorium purpureum
Grindelia camporum [Syn. G. robusta var. rigida]
Inula helenium
Matricaria recutita [Formerly M. chumomilla]
Silybum marianum
Solidago virgaurea and S. canadensis
Tanacetum parthenium [Formerly Chrysanthemum parthenium]
Tanacetum vulgare
Taraxacum officinale
Tussilago farfara
BERBERIDACEAE
Berberis vulgaris
Mahonia aquifolium [Formerly Berberis aquifolium]
Caulophyllum thalictroides
BETULACEAE
Betula alba & Betula pendula
BIGNONIACEAE
Tabebuia avellanedae
BORAGINACEAE
Borago officinalis
Symphytum spp. [Symphytum officinale, S. asperum and S. x uplandicum]
BRASSICACEAE [Formerly Known as Cruciferae]
Armoracia rusticana
Capsella bursa-pastoris
BURSERACEAE
Commiphora molmol
CANNABACEAE
Humulus lupulus
CAPRIFOLIACEAE
Sambucus nigra
Viburnum opulus
Viburnum prunifolium
CARYOPHYLLACEAE
Stellaria media
CLUSIACEAE
Hypericum perforatum
CUPRESSACEAE
Juniperus communis
Thuja occidentalis
DIOSCOREACEAE
Dioscorea villosa
DROSERACEAE
Drosera rotundifolia
EPHEDRACEAE
Ephedra sinica [Restricted Herb]
EQUISETACEAE
Equisetum arvense
Equisetum hymale
ERICACEAE
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Gaultheria procumbens
Vaccinium myrtillus
EUPHORBIACEAE
Chamaesyce hirta [Formerly Euphorbia pilulifera]
FABACEAE
Baptisia tinctoria
Cassia acutifolia and Cassia angustifolia [Formerly listed as Cassia senna]
Cytisus scoparius [Formerly Sarothamnus scoparius]
Galega officinalis
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Melilotus officinalis
Piscidia piscipula [Formerly P. erythrina]
Trifolium pratense
Trigonella foenum-graecum
FAGACEAE
Quercus robur
FUMARIACEAE
Fumaria officinalis
GENTIANACEAE
Gentiana lutea
GERANIACEAE
Geranium maculatum
GINKGOACEAE
Ginkgo biloba
HAMAMELIDACEAE
Hamamelis virginiana
HIPPOCASTANACEAE
Aesculus hippocastanum
IRIDACEAE
Iris versicolor
JUGLANDACEAE
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra
Juglans regia
LAMIACEAE [Formerly Known as Labiatae]
Ballota nigra
Glechoma hederacea [Formerly Nepeta hederacea]
Hyssopus officinalis
Lamium album
Lavandula angustifolia subsp. angustifolia
Leonurus cardiaca
Lycopus europaeus
Marrubium vulgare
Melissa officinalis
Mentha x piperita var. piperita
Nepeta cataria
Rosmarinus officinalis
Salvia officinalis
Scutellaria lateriflora
Stachys officinalis [Formerly Stachys betonica]
Thymus vulgaris
LAURACEAE
Cinnamomum zeylanicum [Synonym Cinnamomum verum]
LILIACEAE
Aletris farinosa
Allium sativum
Aloe barbadensis [Formerly Aloe vera]
Chamaelirium luteum
Convallaria majalis [Restricted Herb]
Smilax ornata and spp.
Trillium erectum
Urginea maritima
LINACEAE
Linum usitatissimum
LOBELIACEAE
Lobelia inflata [Restricted Herb]
LOGANIACEAE
Gelsemium sempervirens [Restricted Herb]
LORANTHACEAE
Viscum album
MALVACEAE
Althaea officinalis
MENYANTHACEAE
Menyanthes trifoliata
MONIMIACEAE
Peumus boldo
MYRICACEAE
Myrica cerifera
NYMPHACEAE
Nymphaea odorata
OLEACEAE
Chionanthus virginicus
Olea europaea
PAPAVERACEAE
Chelidonium majus
Eschscholzia californica
Sanguinaria canadensis
PASSIFLORACEAE
Passiflora incarnata
PEDALIACEAE
Harpagophytum procumbens
PHAEOPHYCEAE
Fucus vesiculosus
PHYTOLACCACEAE
Phytolacca americana [Formerly known as Phytolacca decandra]
PIPERACEAE
Piper methysticum
PLANTAGINACEAE
Plantago lanceolata
Plantago major
Plantago psyllium
POACEAE [Formerly Known as Graminae]
Avena sativa
Elytrigia repens [Formerly known as Agropyrum repens; Agropyron repens;
Triticum repens]
Zea mays
POLYGONACEAE
Rheum officinale
Rheum palmatum
Rumex crispus
RANUNCULACEAE
Anemone pulsatilla
Cimicifuga racemosa
Hydrastis canadensis
Ranunculus ficaria
RHAMNACEAE
Rhamnus purshiana
ROSACEAE
Agrimonia eupatoria
Alchemilla vulgaris
Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna [C. laevigata formerly known as
C. oxyocantha]
Filipendula ulmaria
Prunus serotina
Rubus idaeus
RUBIACEAE
Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Cinchona spp. [Restricted Herb]
Galium aparine
Mitchella repens
RUTACEAE
Agathosma betulina [Formerly Barosma betulina]
Ruta graveolens
Zanthoxylum americanum Z. clava-herculis
SALICACEAE
Populus spp.
Populus alba
Populus x gileadensis
Salix spp.
Salix alba
SCROPHULARIACEAE
Digitalis spp. [No longer used]
Euphrasia rostkoviana [Formerly E. officinalis]
Scrophularia nodosa
Verbascum thapsus
Veronicastrum virginicum [Formerly Leptandra virginica]
SOLANACEAE
Atropa belladonna [Restricted Herb]
Capsicum annuum
Datura stramonium [Restricted Herb]
Hyoscyamus niger [Restricted Herb]
TILIACEAE
Tilia spp. [Tilia x europaea, T. platyphyllos and T. cordata]
TURNERACEAE
Turnera diffusa [Formerly known as Turnera aphrodisiaca]
ULMACEAE
Ulmus rubra [Formerly U. fulva]
URTICACEAE
Parietaria diffusa [Also known as P. officinalis]
Urtica dioica
VALERIANACEAE
Valeriana officinalis
VERBENACEAE
Verbena officinalis
Vitex agnus-castus
VIOLACEAE
Viola odorata
Viola tricolor
ZINGIBERACEAE
Zingiber officinale
APPENDIX I—DEFINITIONS
APPENDIX II—ABBREVIATIONS USED
APPENDIX III—GLOSSARY OF CONSTITUENTS
APPENDIX IIIA GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS
APPENDIX IV CONTRAINDICATIONS TABLE
APPENDIX V INTERACTIONS
APPENDIX VI SUBSRATE AND INTERACTION TABLE FOR CYTOCHROME
P450
REFERENCES
PRIMARY REFERENCES
THERAPEUTIC INDEX


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