Herbal Medicines,Third edition

Published by the Pharmaceutical Press

Joanne Barnes, J.David Phillipson, Linda A. Anderson

First edition 1996
Second edition 2002
Reprinted 2003, 2006
Third edition 2007

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Book Details
 721 p
 File Size 
 20,798 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 978 0 85369 623 0
 Pharmaceutical Press 2007 

About the Authors
Dr Joanne Barnes
BPharm, PhD, MRPharmS, RegPharmNZ, MPSNZ, FLS
Joanne Barnes obtained a degree in Pharmacy from the University
of Nottingham in 1988, a postgraduate Certificate in Pharmacovigilance
and Pharmacoepidemiology from the London School
of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in 1999, and a PhD in
Pharmacy from the School of Pharmacy, University of London in
2001. She has been registered as a pharmacist with the Royal
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain since 1989, was made a
Fellow of the Linnean Society of London in 2003 and achieved
registration as a pharmacist in New Zealand in 2007. She was
Research Fellow in Complementary Medicines in the Department
of Complementary Medicine, University of Exeter (1996–1999),
Research Fellow (1999–2002) and Lecturer in Phytopharmacy
(2002–2005) in the Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy,
School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK and, since 2005,
has been Associate Professor in Herbal Medicines, School of
Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of
Auckland, New Zealand. Her research focuses on the utilisation,
efficacy and safety of herbal medicines, particularly in exploring
issues related to pharmacovigilance. Before embarking on an
academic career, she practised as a hospital clinical pharmacist, as
a medical information pharmacist in the pharmaceutical industry
and worked in pharmaceutical publishing.
She was Editor (1996–1999) and a co-founder of the journal
Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies (FACT), Coeditor
(2003–2005) of Complementary Therapies in Medicine and
is an Associate Editor of Phytochemistry Letters and a member of
the editorial boards of Phytotherapy Research, Drug Safety and
the International Journal of Pharmacy Practice. She is a member
of the Health Canada Natural Health Product Directorate's
Expert Resource Group, the RPSGB's complementary medicine
working group, and was a member of the UK Medicines and
Healthcare products Regulatory Agency's Independent Review
Panel for the Classification of Borderline Products (2000–2005).

Dr Linda A Anderson
BPharm, PhD, FRPharmS
Linda Anderson obtained her first degree in Pharmacy and her
PhD in Pharmacognosy at the Welsh School of Pharmacy in
Cardiff. She was a postdoctoral research and teaching fellow at the
School of Pharmacy, University of London from 1981 to 1987.
Dr Anderson joined the Medicines and Healthcare products
Regulatory Agency (MHRA, Department of Health, UK;
formerly Medicines Control Agency) in 1987.
Within the MHRA, she was initially involved in the assessment
of new chemical entities and is now mainly involved with abridged
applications and has specific responsibility for herbal products.
She is Principal Assessor to the Committee on Safety of
Medicine's (CSM) Expert Advisory Group on Chemistry,
Pharmacy and Standards (CPS) and is UK delegate to the
European Committee on Human Medicinal Products (CHMP)
Quality Working Party. Dr Anderson is also UK Delegate to the
European Medicines Agency (EMEA) Committee on Herbal
Medicinal Products (HMPC), a member of the Herbal Medicines
Advisory Committee (HMAC) of the MHRA, and is Vice-Chair
of the British Pharmacopoeia Expert Advisory Group on Herbals
and Complementary Medicines. She is a member of the Royal
Pharmaceutical Society's Science Committee's working group on
complementary/alternative medicine.
Linda Anderson has been awarded a Fellowship of the Royal
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (2001).

Professor J David Phillipson
BSc(Pharm), MSc, PhD, DSc, FRPharmS, FLS
David Phillipson graduated BSc in Pharmacy (1956), MSc (1959),
and DSc (1979) from the University of Manchester, and PhD (1965)
from the University of London. Hewas Lecturer in Pharmacognosy
(1961–1972) at the Department of Pharmacy, Chelsea College,
London, and Senior Lecturer (1973–1979), Reader in Phytochemistry
(1979–1981), and Professor and Head of the Department of
Pharmacognosy (1981–1994) at the School of Pharmacy, University
of London. On retirement he became Emeritus Professor of
Pharmacognosy. In 1995 he was appointed as Wilson T S Wang
Distinguished International Visiting Professor at the Chinese
University of Hong Kong from January to June. His research
included investigations of the chemistry and biological activities of
natural products from higher plants with special interests in indole
and isoquinoline alkaloids, and plants used in traditional
medicines for the treatment of malaria and other protozoal
diseases. Collaboration with the pharmaceutical industry included
the application of radioligand–receptor binding assays in the search
for natural products with activity in the central nervous system.
David Phillipson has received awards from the Phytochemical
Society of Europe including the Tate and Lyle Award (1982), Medal
(1994), and the Pergamon Prize for Creativity in Plant Biochemistry
(1996). He was awarded the Korber Foundation Prize for
Achievement in European Science (1989) in collaboration with
Professor MH Zenk of the University of Munich and four other
European colleagues, was presented with the Harrison Memorial
Medal of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (1999),
and with the Sir Hans Sloane Medal of the Faculty of the History
and Philosophy of Medicine and Pharmacy, Society of Apothecaries
(2001). In 1985 he was Science Chairman of the British
Pharmaceutical Conference and has been Secretary (1977–1982),
Vice-Chairman (1982–1984, 1986–1988) and Chairman (1984–
1986) of the Phytochemical Society of Europe. He has been awarded
Fellowships of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain
(1980) and of the School of Pharmacy, University of London (1998).
He has supervised 33 PhD students and 11 postdoctoral
researchers, publishing some 222 full research papers, 150 short
communications, 42 review articles, and has edited six books on
natural products. Collaborative research was established with
scientists in many countries world-wide and in 1989 he was
appointed Honorary Professor of the Chinese Academy of
Medical Sciences at the Institute of Medicinal Plant Research
and Development, Beijing, China. For 19 years he was a member of
the Natural Products Group of the International Foundation for
Science, Sweden, helping to award research grants to individual
young scientists in developing countries. He has been a member of
a number of national and international committees, including the
Herbal Medicines Advisory Committee (HMAC) of the MHRA.

How to Use Herbal Medicines
Purpose and Scope
Herbal Medicines is intended to serve as a reference work for
pharmacists, doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals,
assisting in their provision of advice on the use of herbal
medicines to members of the public. Herbal Medicines is not
intended to represent a guide to self-diagnosis and self-treatment
with herbal medicines, and should not be used as such.
The term 'herbal medicine' or 'herbal medicinal product' (or,
less frequently, 'herbal remedy') is used to describe a marketed
product, whereas 'herbal ingredient' refers to an individual herb
that is present in a herbal medicine. 'Herbal constituent' is used to
describe a specific chemical constituent of a herbal ingredient.
Thus, as examples, Valerian Tablets are a herbal product, valerian
root is a herbal ingredient, and valtrate is a herbal constituent of valerian.
The main criterion for inclusion of a herbal ingredient in the
text is its presence in herbal medicines that are used in the UK,
particularly those which are sold through pharmacies. In addition,
herbs that have recently been the subject of media or scientific
interest have been included. The aim of Herbal Medicines is to
draw the attention of the reader to the reputed actions and uses of
herbal ingredients, and to whether or not these have been
substantiated by evidence from preclinical and/or clinical studies.
In addition, any known or potential toxicities of herbal
ingredients, and how these may influence the suitability for
inclusion in herbal medicines or for use with conventional
medicines, are also discussed.

Introduction to the Monographs
The introductory section to the 152 monographs on the individual
herbal ingredients contained in Herbal Medicines discusses the
legal aspects of herbal medicines including licensed medicines and
non-licensed products in the UK and within the European Union
(EU). All medicines are assessed for their quality, safety and
efficacy and, in the context of herbal medicines, there are often
specific criteria which are not encountered in the assessment of
other medicines. As a first line in ensuring the safety and efficacy
of herbal medicines there is a series of guidelines for quality
assessment and this is briefly discussed. In terms of safety, it is a
popular conception that because herbs are 'natural' then they must
also be safe. This is a misconception, and it is emphasised that
some herbal ingredients have the capability to cause adverse
effects, whilst some are decidedly toxic. Within the context of the
152 monographs on herbal ingredients, most have documented
adverse effects, or the potential to interact with other medication,
and few can be recommended for use during pregnancy.
Tables in the Introduction and appendices at the end of the
monographs summarise the safety aspects of these herbal
ingredients and give information on biologically active herbal
ingredients and their active principles. Clinical efficacy has not
been established for the majority of the herbal ingredients
described in this handbook and, in some instances, there is a
lack of documentation for chemical constituents and for
pharmacological actions.

The Herbal Monographs
Some 152 monographs on individual herbal ingredients found in
herbal products are included, the title used for the monograph
being their preferred common name. A data sheet-type format
was chosen for the monographs because it was felt important to
arrange the relevant information in a format familiar to
pharmacists, doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals.
Although conventional data sheets are written for products, it was
decided to draw up the data sheets for herbal ingredients and not
for specific products, although where possible details are provided
of the specific products assessed in the studies discussed.
The headings used in the herbal monographs are listed below
with a brief explanation of the information provided under them.

Table of Contents
Preface to the Third Edition viii
About the Authors x
How to Use Herbal Medicines 1
Introduction 3
Chemical Constituents of Plants
Used as Herbal Medicines 29
General References 34
The monographs
Agnus Castus 36
Agrimony 42
Alfalfa 45
Aloe Vera 48
Aloes 50
Angelica 53
Aniseed 57
Apricot 61
Arnica 64
Artichoke 67
Asafoetida 72
Avens 75
Bayberry 77
Bilberry 79
Bloodroot 84
Blue Flag 87
Bogbean 89
Boldo 91
Boneset 94
Borage 96
Broom 98
Buchu 100
Burdock 102
Burnet 105
Butterbur 107
Calamus 118
Calendula 121
Capsicum 125
Cascara 128
Cassia 130
Cat’s Claw 132
Celandine, Greater 136
Celery 146
Centaury 149
Cereus 151
Chamomile, German 152
Chamomile, Roman 156
Chaparral 159
Cinnamon 162
Clivers 164
Clove 166
Cohosh, Black 168
Cohosh, Blue 180
Cola 183
Coltsfoot 185
Comfrey 188
Corn Silk 191
Couchgrass 193
Cowslip 195
Cranberry 197
Damiana 201
Dandelion 204
Devil’s Claw 207
Drosera 215
Echinacea 217
Elder 237
Elecampane 240
Ephedra 243
Eucalyptus 247
Euphorbia 249
Evening Primrose 251
Eyebright 256
False Unicorn 258
Fenugreek 260
Feverfew 263
Figwort 268
Frangula 270
Fucus 273
Fumitory 276
Garlic 279
Gentian 290
Ginger 293
Ginkgo 299
Ginseng, Eleutherococcus 315
Ginseng, Panax 325
Golden Seal 337
Gravel Root 340
Ground Ivy 342
Guaiacum 344
Hawthorn 346
Holy Thistle 352
Hops 354
Horehound, Black 358
Horehound, White 361
Horse-chestnut 363
Horseradish 367
Hydrangea 369
Hydrocotyle 371
Ispaghula 374
Jamaica Dogwood 379
Java Tea 381
Juniper 386
Kava 389
Lady’s Slipper 403
Lemon Verbena 405
Liferoot 407
Lime Flower 409
Liquorice 411
Lobelia 416
Marshmallow 418
Mate´ 421
Meadowsweet 423
Melissa 425
Milk Thistle 429
Mistletoe 436
Motherwort 447
Myrrh 449
Nettle 452
Parsley 456
Parsley Piert 459
Passionflower 461
Pennyroyal 470
Pilewort 472
Plantain 474
Pleurisy Root 477
Pokeroot 479
Poplar 482
Prickly Ash, Northern 484
Prickly Ash, Southern 486
Pulsatilla 489
Quassia 491
Queen’s Delight 493
Raspberry 495
Red Clover 498
Rhodiola 500
Rhubarb 506
Rosemary 508
Sage 512
Sarsaparilla 515
Sassafras 518
Saw Palmetto 521
Scullcap 530
Senega 533
Senna 537
Shepherd’s Purse 541
Skunk Cabbage 543
Slippery Elm 545
Squill 547
St John’s Wort 549
Stone Root 570
Tansy 572
Thyme 574
Uva-Ursi 577
Valerian 580
Vervain 591
Wild Carrot 593
Wild Lettuce 596
Willow 598
Witch Hazel 601
Yarrow 604
Yellow Dock 608
Yucca 610
.1 Potential Drug–Herb Interactions 612
.2 Pharmacological Activities and
Constituents of Herbal Ingredients 616
.3 Council of Europe – Categories for
Natural Sources of Flavourings 622
.4 Preparations Directory 623
.5 Suppliers Directory 660
Index 690

Text design by Eric Drewery, East Molesey, Surrey
Typeset by Data Standards Ltd, Frome, Somerset
Printed in Great Britain by Butler and Tanner, Frome, Somerset

Front cover images (from top l–r): Echinacea, Hops, Calendula, Echinacea root
(dry), Milk Thistle, Calendula (dry), Passionflower, German Chamomile (dry), German chamomile

All cover photographs ©Plantaphile, Germany 2007, with the exception of
Echinacea root ©Digital Vision, Getty Images and German chamomile ©Photodisc, Getty Images.
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