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Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Volume 3

Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Volume 3

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WOODHEAD PUBLISHING LIMITED

Edited by K. V. Peter

CRC Press

Boca Raton Boston New York Washington, DC


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 Woodhead Publishing-10: 1-84569-017-6 (book) 
 Woodhead Publishing-13: 978-1-84569-171-4 (e-book)
 Woodhead Publishing-10: 1-84569-171-7 (e-book)
 CRC Press-13: 978-0-8493-9155-2
 CRC Press-10: 0-8493-9155-5
 CRC Press order number: WP9155
 Copyright©   
 2006, Woodhead Publishing Limited
 The authors have asserted their moral rights 

Introduction
Herbs and spices play a pivotal role in the day-to-day life of mankind as important
flavouring agents in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals and also as ingredients in
perfumes and cosmetics. The manufacturers of foods, beverages, cosmetics and
pharmaceuticals are responding to the growing wave of consumer resistance and
legislative limitations set for products containing chemical additives. Spices as sources
of natural colours and flavours present welcome opportunities in the international
market. The nutritional, antioxidant, antimicrobial and medicinal properties of spices
also have widespread applications.

I.1 Production of quality spices
Production of quality clean spices without any pesticide/chemical residues is important
in this era of free international trade resulting from globalisation. Organic spices
which fetch 20 to 50% higher prices than spices from conventional farms are devoid
of pesticides and chemical residues and are superior in quality. Adoption of good
agricultural practices helps to reduce the above contaminants. Quality assurance
systems such as HACCP is of great relevance in the production of quality spices.
Decontamination techniques and proper packaging and storage techniques play a
major role in maintaining quality of spices.

I.1.1 Rational uses of pesticides and controlling the pesticide/chemicals
residues in herbs and spices
All over the world, people are becoming more and more conscious of health problems
due to consumption of foods contaminated with pesticide residues. It is estimated
that a large number of people suffer from pesticide poisoning and suffer every year
due to the toxic effects of chemicals. Promotion of a farming technique adopting
ecologically sound plant protection measures, organic recycling and bio-waste
management would go a long way in bringing back the health of soil and reducing the
pesticide residues of farm produce. The role played by various beneficial microorganisms
including mycorrhizae, biocontrol agents and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria
are enormous in enhancing crop growth and disease control without leaving any
chemical residues on plants. The effective bioagents for the control of major diseases
of spice crops are listed in Table I.1.

I.1.2 Radiation processing to decontaminate spices
Radiation processing offers good scope for increasing shelf life, enhancing quality
and microbial safety without changing the natural flavour attributes of spices. This
technique is widely practised in North America and Europe to decontaminate imported
spices. The various producing countries also started installing facilities for radiation
processing of spices. Radiation sterilisation along with good agricultural and
manufacturing practices help to produce clean, high quality spices free from pesticide
and chemical residues. Being a cold process, it does not affect the delicate aroma and
flavour compounds in spices. The risk of post-treatment contamination can be eliminated
by subjecting the pre-packed spices to irradiation. Table I.3 gives the list of countries
that have approved irradiation processing of food products and spices items permitted
for irradiation under the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA) rules.
Low doses of irradiation (< 1 K.Gy) help to inhibit sprouting in onion, garlic,
ginger, etc. A medium dose application (1–10 K.Gy) eliminates spoilage microbes
and food pathogens and high dose application (>10 K.Gy) sterilises food for special
requirements and for shelf-stable foods without refrigeration.

I.1.3 Packaging in spices for maintenance of quality
Spice products are hygroscopic in nature and being highly sensitive to moisture,
absorption of moisture may result in caking, discolouration, hydrolytic rancidity,
mould growth and insect infestation. As spices contain volatile aromatic principles,
loss of these principles and the absorption of foreign odours as a result of inefficient
packaging may pose serious problems. In addition, heat and light accelerate deterioration
of aroma and flavour components.
Spices containing natural colouring pigments need protection from light (capsicum,
cardamom, turmeric and saffron). Spice powders like onion and garlic contain highly
volatile sulphur compounds and need rigorous protection from loss/absorption of
flavour. The essential oil components naturally present in most of the spices are
subject to oxidation by atmospheric oxygen, particularly at high storage temperature
resulting in the development of off-flavours. Packing of spice oils and oleoresins is
done in epoxy lined steel drums and high-density polythene containers. For certain
oils and oleoresins, aluminium and stainless steel containers are used. Polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) bottles, which possess very good odour barrier properties and
food-grade high-molecular-weight high-density polyethylene (HMHDPE) containers
are also used for storing essential oils and oleoresins. Most of the whole spices are
protected by pericarp and the natural antioxidants present therein, and need less
rigorous protection than ground spices. The packaging materials suitable for different
spice products are listed in Table I.4.

I.2 Herbs and spices as sources of natural colours and flavours
The food sector is now experiencing a trend back towards natural colourants due to
changes in legislation and consumer preference as synthetic food colourants pose
health hazards like cancer, asthma, allergy, hyperacidity and thyroidism. But low
tinctorial power, poor stability (to changes in pH, oxygen, heat and light), low solubility,
off-flavour and high cost limit the use of natural colours. These problems can be
overcome by improving the traditional extraction methods using enzymes,
microorganisms, super-critical CO2, membrane processing and encapsulation techniques.
Before synthetic colours came into existence, spices like chilli, saffron, turmeric,
etc., were used in Indian cuisines to add colour. The Central Food Technological
Research Institute of India (CFTRI) has developed technology for the manufacture of
certain natural food colours such as kokum (red) and chillies (red). Kokum contains
2–3% anthocyanin and is regarded as a natural colour source for acidic foods.
Garcinol is the fat soluble yellow pigment isolated from rind of kokum fruit. Garcinol
is added at 0.3% level to impart an acceptable yellow colour to butter. Colour components
present in spices and natural shades available with spices are presented in Table I.5.

I.2.1 Sources of natural colours in spices
Paprika
The colour in paprika is due to carotenoids, namely capsanthin and capsorubin,
comprising 60% of total carotenoids. Other pigments are cryptoxanthin, xeaxanthin,
violaxanthin, neoxanthin and lutein. The outer pericarp of paprika is the main source
of capsanthin and capsorubin. Indian paprika oleoresin is orange in colour which is
less preferred in the international market. Oleoresin contains up to 50% capsorubin.
Paprika oleoresin is insoluble in water whilst being readily soluble in vegetable oil
and is made dispersible in water by the addition of polysorbate.
Applications are in sausages, cheese sauces, gravies, salad dressings, baked goods,
snacks, icings, cereals and meat products.
Turmeric
Curcumin is the golden-yellow pigment present in turmeric, regarded as the pure
colouring principle with very little of flavour components. It is produced by
crystallisation from the oleoresin and has a purity level of 95%. Pure curcumin is
insoluble in water and hence is dissolved in food grade solvent and permitted emulsifier
(Polysorbate 80). Curcumin gives a lemon-yellow colour in acidic pH. It is used at
levels of 5–20 ppm. Curcumin is available in two basic forms, oleoresin and curcumin
powder, both are used as food colourants.
Saffron
Saffron gives a wonderful golden colour to food but due to its powerful and distinctive
flavour, it is prized in soups, stews, bread and rice dishes in many global cuisines.
Saffron is perceived as luxurious and expensive and hence its use is restricted in
foods. The intensive colour of saffron is caused by carotenoids, especially crocetine
esters with gentobiose. Other carotenoids present are alpha and b carotene, lycopene
and zeaxanthin.

I.2.2 Spices as sources of natural flavours
The increasing demand in developed countries for natural flavour offers tremendous
potential for spice crops as sources of natural flavours. The main flavour compounds
present in herbs and spices are presented in Table I.6. The recovery of essential oil
and oleoresin from various spices and the major aromatic principles present in spices
are illustrated in Table I.7. Extraction of oils and oleoresins is accomplished using a
range of methods, including steam distillation, hydrocarbon extraction, chlorinated
solvent extraction, enzymatic treatment and fermentation, and super-critical carbon
dioxide extraction.
Carbon dioxide extraction from solid botanicals is now adopted on a commercial
scale. The resulting essential oils have no solvent residue, fewer terpenes and enhanced
black notes. Enzymatic treatment and fermentation of raw botanicals also result in
greater yields and quality of essential oil. More recently, the use of genetic engineering

I.2.3 Herbs and spices as medicinal plants
The medicinal properties of spices have been known to mankind from time immemorial.
Spices were used extensively in the traditional systems of medicines such as
Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani. In the recent past, there has been increasing interest in
the biological effects of spices as they are safe and cause no side effects to humans.
Extensive studies are going on in developed countries for the separation of medicinal
components from spices and evaluation of their biological properties. A classic example
for such study is the Piperine alkaloid separated from black pepper and marketed as
Bioperine (98% pure piperine). This alkaloid could increase bioavailability of certain
drugs and nutrients like beta carotene. 
The medicinal properties of spices are summarised in Table I.8.
This volume is the third in the series Handbook of herbs and spices and has two
parts. The first part deals with general aspects referred to the industry such as quality
spice production, quality assurance systems, decontamination techniques, packaging,
spices as sources of natural colours and flavours, effect of Agreement on Agriculture
on spice production and export, etc. The second part deals with detailed information
on individual spices. It is hoped that this book will form a good reference source for
those who are involved in the study, cultivation, trade and use of spices and herbs.


Table of Contents
Contributor contact details ................................................................................ xiii
Introduction ........................................................................................................ xix
I.1 Production of quality spices........................................................... xix
I.2 Herbs and spices as sources of natural colours and flavours ....... xxiv
I.3 References and further reading ...................................................... xxviii
Part I Improving the safety of herbs and spices....................................... 1
1 Detecting and controlling mycotoxin contamination of herbs
and spices .................................................................................................. 3
D. Heperkan, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 3
1.2 Naturally occurring mycotoxins in herbs and spices .................... 4
1.3 Mycobiota of spices and herbs and possible mycotoxin
production ....................................................................................... 13
1.4 Detecting mycotoxins in herbs and spices .................................... 19
1.5 Preventing and controlling mycotoxin contamination .................. 27
1.6 Future trends ................................................................................... 33
1.7 Sources of further information and advice.................................... 34
1.8 References ....................................................................................... 34
2 Controlling pesticide and other residues in herbs and spices ........... 41
K. J. Venugopal, AVT McCormick Ingredients (P) Ltd, India
2.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 41
2.2 The regulation of pesticide residues .............................................. 42
2.3 Analytical methods for detecting pesticide residues .................... 44
2.4 Control of pesticide residues in herbs and spices ......................... 49
2.5 Integrated pest management and organic production ................... 54
2.6 Acknowledgements......................................................................... 58
2.7 Bibliography ................................................................................... 58
3 Irradiation to decontaminate herbs and spices ................................... 60
A. Sharma, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India
3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 60
3.2 Quality considerations .................................................................... 61
3.3 Application of ionizing radiation ................................................... 67
3.4 Nutritional and safety aspects ........................................................ 70
3.5 International approval ..................................................................... 71
3.6 SPS application to boost international trade ................................. 71
3.7 Detection of irradiated spices and herbs ....................................... 72
3.8 References and further reading ...................................................... 73
4 Other decontamination techniques for
herbs and spices ....................................................................................... 74
C. K. George, Peermade Development Society, India
4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 74
4.2 Preventive measures against contamination .................................. 75
4.3 Organic production ......................................................................... 79
4.4 GAP, GMP, ISO 9000 and HACCP............................................... 79
4.5 Decontamination techniques .......................................................... 80
4.6 Sterilization of herbs and spices .................................................... 82
4.7 Detoxification ................................................................................. 83
4.8 Sources of further information and advice.................................... 84
4.9 References ....................................................................................... 85
5 Packaging and storage of herbs and spices .......................................... 86
K. King, Gourmet Garden, Australia
5.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 86
5.2 Consumer trends driving innovation ............................................. 86
5.3 Herb and spice product formats and packaging techniques ......... 87
5.4 Essential oils ................................................................................... 91
5.5 Oleoresins ....................................................................................... 92
5.6 Storage requirements for fresh and dried herbs and spices ......... 93
5.7 Types of packaging materials ........................................................ 94
5.8 Printing ............................................................................................ 97
5.9 Microbiological safety of herbs and spices ................................... 98
5.10 New packaging materials used in herbs and spices ...................... 100
5.11 Future trends ................................................................................... 100
5.12 Bibliography ................................................................................... 101
6 QA and HACCP systems in herb and spice production .................... 103
C. Kehler, Canadian Herb, Spice and Natural Health Coalition,
Canada and J. Schooley, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Canada
6.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 103
6.2 HACCP planning for herb and spice production .......................... 104
6.3 Plant identification practice ........................................................... 108
6.4 Future trends ................................................................................... 110
6.5 Acknowledgement .......................................................................... 110
6.6 Bibliography ................................................................................... 110
Part II Herbs and spices as functional ingredients and flavourings ..... 111
7 The range of medicinal herbs and spices ............................................. 113
T. S. C. Li, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food
Research Centre, Canada
7.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 113
7.2 The role of medicinal herbs and spices ......................................... 118
7.3 Major constituents and therapeutic uses of medicinal herbs
and spices ........................................................................................ 118
7.4 Future trends ................................................................................... 121
7.5 Sources of further information ...................................................... 121
7.6 References ....................................................................................... 121
8 Herbs, spices and cardiovascular disease ............................................. 126
H. Collin, University of Liverpool, UK
8.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 126
8.2 Chemical composition of herbs and spices ................................... 127
8.3 Herbs spices and cardiovascular disease ....................................... 129
8.4 Measurement of antioxidants ......................................................... 132
8.5 Complex mixtures versus single compounds ................................ 134
8.6 Conclusions ..................................................................................... 135
8.7 References ....................................................................................... 135
9 Herbs, spices and cancer ......................................................................... 138
S. Maiti and K. A. Geetha, National Research Centre for Medicinal
and Aromatic Plants, India
9.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 138
9.2 What is cancer? .............................................................................. 139
9.3 Cancer therapy in modern medicine .............................................. 139
9.4 Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) ...................... 140
9.5 Mechanism of action of herbs and spices ..................................... 142
9.6 Evidence supporting the functional benefits of herbs and spices 142
9.7 Botany of some important herbs in cancer therapy ...................... 145
9.8 References ....................................................................................... 149
10 Herbs, spices and gut health .................................................................. 151
C. C. Tassou, National Agricultural Research Foundation, Greece
10.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 151
10.2 Herbs and spices as digestive stimulants ...................................... 152
10.3 The effects of herbs and spices on enteric bacterial pathogens ... 154
10.4 Herbs and spices as growth promoters in animal studies ............. 159
10.5 Anti-inflammatory activity ............................................................. 161
10.6 Effect on gut immunity .................................................................. 163
10.7 Adverse effects ............................................................................... 165
10.8 Future trends ................................................................................... 166
10.9 Sources of further information ...................................................... 167
10.10 References ....................................................................................... 167
11 Volatiles from herbs and spices.............................................................. 177
T. J. Zachariah and N. K. Leela, Indian Institute of Spices
Research, India
11.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 177
11.2 Classification of volatiles ............................................................... 177
11.3 Biosynthesis of the components of volatile oils ........................... 179
11.4 Volatiles and plant sources ............................................................. 183
11.5 References ....................................................................................... 211
Part III Particular herbs and spices........................................................... 219
12 Asafetida .................................................................................................... 221
C. K. George, Peermade Development Society, India
12.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 221
12.2 World trade ..................................................................................... 224
12.3 Chemical constituents .................................................................... 225
12.4 Extraction ........................................................................................ 225
12.5 Processing ....................................................................................... 226
12.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 227
12.7 Main uses ........................................................................................ 227
12.8 References ....................................................................................... 229
13 Capers and caperberries ......................................................................... 230
G. O. Sozzi, Universidad de Buenos Aires and CONICET, Argentina
and A. R. Vicente, CONICET–UNLP, Argentina
13.1 Introduction: brief description ....................................................... 230
13.2 Chemical composition .................................................................... 231
13.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 233
13.4 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 243
13.5 Functional and health benefits ....................................................... 245
13.6 Quality issues and future trends .................................................... 247
13.7 References ....................................................................................... 247
14 Carambola................................................................................................. 257
K. N. Babu and D. Minoo, Indian Institute of Spices Research,
India and K. V. Tushar and P. N. Ravindran, Center for
Medicinal Plants Research, India
14.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 257
14.2 Description ...................................................................................... 258
14.3 Origin and distribution ................................................................... 258
14.4 Cultivars and varieties .................................................................... 260
14.5 Climate ............................................................................................ 260
14.6 Propagation ..................................................................................... 261
14.7 Planting ........................................................................................... 261
14.8 Soils, water and nutrients ............................................................... 262
14.9 Pests and diseases ........................................................................... 262
14.10 Harvesting and yield ...................................................................... 263
14.11 Keeping quality .............................................................................. 263
14.12 Food uses ........................................................................................ 264
14.13 Food value ...................................................................................... 265
14.14 Medicinal uses ................................................................................ 267
14.15 Other uses ....................................................................................... 267
14.16 References ....................................................................................... 267
15 Caraway .................................................................................................... 270
S. K. Malhotra, National Research Centre on Seed Spices, India
15.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 270
15.2 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 272
15.3 Chemical structure .......................................................................... 277
15.4 Main uses in food processing ........................................................ 280
15.5 Functional properties ...................................................................... 285
15.6 Toxicity ........................................................................................... 290
15.7 Quality specifications ..................................................................... 291
15.8 References ....................................................................................... 293
16 Cayenne/American pepper ..................................................................... 299
S. Kumar, R. Kumar and J. Singh, Indian Institute of Vegetable
Research, India
16.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 299
16.2 The genus Capsicum ...................................................................... 300
16.3 Pod types and quality breeding goals ............................................ 301
16.4 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 301
16.5 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 307
16.6 Conclusions ..................................................................................... 309
16.7 References ....................................................................................... 311
17 Celeriac ...................................................................................................... 313
A. A. Farooqi, C. Kathiresan and K. N. Srinivasappa, University of
Agricultural Sciences, India
17.1 Introduction and description .......................................................... 313
17.2 Production ....................................................................................... 314
17.3 References ....................................................................................... 316
18 Celery ......................................................................................................... 317
S. K. Malhotra, National Research Centre on Seed Spices, India
18.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 317
18.2 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 319
18.3 Post-harvest handling ..................................................................... 321
18.4 Cultivars .......................................................................................... 321
18.5 Chemical structure .......................................................................... 322
18.6 Main uses in food processing ........................................................ 324
18.7 Functional properties ...................................................................... 328
18.8 Quality specifications ..................................................................... 331
18.9 References ....................................................................................... 334
19 Chives ........................................................................................................ 337
H. Chen, Beijing Vegetable Research Centre, China
19.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 337
19.2 Chemical composition and nutritional value ................................. 337
19.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 340
19.4 Varieties .......................................................................................... 343
19.5 References and further reading ...................................................... 344
20 Galanga ..................................................................................................... 347
P. N. Ravindran and G. S. Pillai, Centre for Medicinal Plants
Research, India
20.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 347
20.2 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 348
20.3 Tissue culture studies ..................................................................... 349
20.4 Functional properties ...................................................................... 350
20.5 Chemistry ........................................................................................ 351
20.6 Uses ................................................................................................. 352
20.7 K. rotunda ....................................................................................... 353
20.8 References and further reading ...................................................... 353
21 Galangal .................................................................................................... 357
P. N. Ravindran and I. Balachandran, Centre for Medicinal Plants
Research, India
21.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 357
21.2 Production ....................................................................................... 359
21.3 Molecular pharmacology................................................................ 360
21.4 Functional properties ...................................................................... 360
21.5 Alpinia officinarum Hance (lesser galangal, Chinese ginger) ...... 362
21.6 Alpinia calcarata (lesser galangal) ................................................ 363
21.7 References and further reading ...................................................... 363
22 Leek and shallot ....................................................................................... 365
K. R. M. Swamy and R. Veere Gowda, Indian Institute of
Horticultural Research, India
22.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 365
22.2 Leek................................................................................................. 366
22.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 370
22.4 Uses in food industry/processing ................................................... 378
22.5 Functional properties ...................................................................... 378
22.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 380
22.7 Shallot ............................................................................................. 381
22.8 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 383
22.9 Uses in food industry/processing ................................................... 386
22.10 Quality issues .................................................................................. 387
22.11 References ....................................................................................... 387
23 Lemon balm .............................................................................................. 390
H. Turhan, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey
23.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 390
23.2 Chemical composition .................................................................... 391
23.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 392
23.4 Main uses ........................................................................................ 394
23.5 Functional/health benefits .............................................................. 394
23.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 397
23.7 References ....................................................................................... 397
24 Lemongrass ............................................................................................... 400
B. P. Skaria, P. P. Joy, S. Mathew and G. Mathew, Aromatic and
Medicinal Plants Research Centre, India
24.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 400
24.2 Species and varieties ...................................................................... 400
24.3 Origin and distribution ................................................................... 401
24.4 Cultivation and processing ............................................................. 401
24.5 Physiology and Biochemistry ........................................................ 408
24.6 Chemical composition .................................................................... 408
24.7 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 409
24.8 Functional properties ...................................................................... 413
24.9 Quality issues .................................................................................. 414
24.10 References ....................................................................................... 416
25 Long pepper .............................................................................................. 420
K. N. Babu and M. Divakaran, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India;
P. N. Ravindran, Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, India; and
K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University, India
25.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 420
25.2 Chemical composition of long pepper .......................................... 423
25.3 Uses ................................................................................................. 428
25.4 Cultivation ....................................................................................... 431
25.5 Quality specifications ..................................................................... 434
25.6 Biotechnology ................................................................................. 434
25.7 Future .............................................................................................. 435
25.8 References ....................................................................................... 436
26 Lovage........................................................................................................ 438
M. H. Mirjalili, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran and
J. Javanmardi, Shiraz University, Iran
26.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 438
26.2 Chemical composition .................................................................... 439
26.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 443
26.4 Use in food ..................................................................................... 446
26.5 Functional/health benefits .............................................................. 448
26.6 References ....................................................................................... 450
27 Pandan wangi ........................................................................................... 453
S. Wongpornchai, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
27.1 Description ...................................................................................... 453
27.2 Cultivation, production and processing ......................................... 454
27.3 Chemical structure .......................................................................... 455
27.4 Uses in food .................................................................................... 457
27.5 Functional properties ...................................................................... 458
27.6 References ....................................................................................... 458
28 Peppermint ................................................................................................ 460
P. Pushpangadan and S. K. Tewari, National Botanical Research
Institute, India
28.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 460
28.2 Description ...................................................................................... 460
28.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................. 462
28.4 Chemical composition .................................................................... 470
28.5 Commercial uses ............................................................................ 471
28.6 Quality issues .................................................................................. 475
28.7 References ....................................................................................... 478
29 Perilla ......................................................................................................... 482
P. N. Ravindran, Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, India and
M. Shylaja Providence Women’s College, India
29.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 482
29.2 Crop production and management ................................................. 484
29.3 Chemical composition .................................................................... 486
29.4 Biotechnological approaches ......................................................... 487
29.5 Functional properties and pharmacological studies ...................... 488
29.6 References and further reading ...................................................... 491
30 Potato onion (Multiplier onion) ............................................................. 494
U. B. Pandey, National Horticultural Research and Development
Foundation, India
30.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 494
30.2 Chemical composition and uses .................................................... 495
30.3 Production ....................................................................................... 496
30.4 Uses in food processing ................................................................. 498
30.5 Medicinal properties ....................................................................... 498
30.6 Toxicity ........................................................................................... 499
30.7 Quality............................................................................................. 499
30.8 References ....................................................................................... 500
31 Spearmint .................................................................................................. 502
N. K. Patra and B. Kumar, Central Institute of Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants, India
31.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 502
31.2 Chemical composition, biosynthesis and genetics of
the essential oil ............................................................................... 503
31.3 Cultivation and production ............................................................ 504
31.4 Diseases, pests and their control ................................................... 510
31.5 Food uses ........................................................................................ 512
31.6 Medicinal uses ................................................................................ 512
31.7 Functional benefits ......................................................................... 512
31.8 Quality issues .................................................................................. 516
31.9 References ....................................................................................... 517
Index ................................................................................................................. 520


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