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Handbook of herbs and spices, Second edition. Volume 1

Handbook of herbs and spices, Second edition. Volume 1

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition: Number 227

Edited by K. V. Peter

Published by Woodhead Publishing Limited


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Book Details
 Price
 3.00
 Pages
 634 p
 File Size 
 6,683 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 978-0-85709-039-3 (print) 
 978-0-85709-567-1 (online)
 Copyright©   
 Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2012 
 The authors have asserted their moral rights

Contributor contact details
(* = main contact)

Editor
K. V. Peter
World Noni Research Foundation
Chennai – 600 096 Tamil Nadu India
Email: kvptr@yahoo.com

Chapter 1
K. V. Peter*
World Noni Research Foundation
Chennai – 600 096 Tamil Nadu India
Email: kvptr@yahoo.com
M. R. Shylaja
Kerala Agricultural University
P O KAU Thrissur – 680 651 India
Email: mrshylaja@rediffmail.com

Chapter 2
S. Clemenson
Seasoning and Spice Association
6 Catherine Street London WC2B 5JJ UK
Email: steve.clemenson@btinternet.com
M. Muggeridge
Kerry Ingredients and Flavours Ltd
Equinox South Great Park Road Bradley Stoke
Bristol BS32 4QL UK

Chapter 3
M. G. Sajilata and R. S. Singhal*
Institute of Chemical Technology
Matunga Mumbai – 400 019 India
Email: rs.singhal@ictmumbai.edu.in

Chapter 4
P. Pushpangadan*
Amity Institute for Herbal and Biotech
Products Development 
Thiruvananthapuram – 695 005 Kerala India
Email: palpuprakulam@yahoo.co.in
V. George
Amity Institute of Phytochemistry and Phytomedicine
Thiruvananthapuram – 695 005 Kerala India

Chapter 5
Dr Ashok Sharma*, Dr J Singh and
Prof. Sushil Kumar
Biotechnology 
Division Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
P.O. CIMAP Kukrail Picnic Spot Road Lucknow – 226 015 India
Email: ashoksharma@cimap.res.in;
ashok_sh58@yahoo.com

Chapter 6
Dr P. N. Ravindran*
Manasom, Major Santhosh Road
West Nadakkav, Kozhikode-673 011 Kerala India
Email: ravinair.pn@gmail.com
Johny A. Kallupurackal
Indian Institute of Spices Research
Calicut – 673 012 Kerala India

Chapter 7
T. G. Berke*
Seminis Vegetable Seeds
37437 State Highway 16 Woodland CA 95695-9353 USA
Email: terry.berke@seminis.com
S. C. Shieh
AVRDC: The World Vegetable Center
P.O. Box 204 Shanhua Tainan 74199 Taiwan

Chapter 8
Dr V. A. Parthasarathy*
Indian Institute of Spices Research
P. B. No. 1701 P. O. Marikunnu Calicut – 673 012 Kerala India
Email: parthasarathy@spices.res.in
Dr D. Prasath
Indian Institute of Spices Research
P. B. No. 1701 P. O. Marikunnu Calicut – 673 012 Kerala India
Email: prasath@spices.res.in

Chapter 9
Dr H. Chen
Beijing Vegetable Research Centre
(BVRC) Banjing West Suburb
P. O. Box 2443 Beijing 100089 China
Email: rlzong@yahoo.com

Chapter 10
J. Thomas* and K. M. Kuruvilla
Indian Cardamom Research Institute Spices Board of India
 Myladumpara Idukki – 685 553 Kerala India
Email: jtkotamala@gmail.com

Chapter 11
N. Nurdjannah* and N. Bermawie
Ministry of Agriculture Indonesian Agency for Agriculture
Research and Development (IAARD)
Indonesia Center for Agricultural
Post-harvest Research and Development
Jl Tentara Pelajar No. 12 Bogor, 16114 West Java Indonesia
Email: nanan_july@yahoo.com;
bb_pascapanen@yahoo.com;
Bb_pascapanen@litbang.deptan.go.id

Chapter 12
M. M. Sharma* and R. K. Sharma
Swami Keshwananda Rajasthan
Agricultural University
Bikaner – 334 006 Rajasthan India
Email: mmohanrau@yahoo.com

Chapter 13
Gholamreza Amin
Faculty of Pharmacy
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tehran Iran
Email: amin@tums.ac.ir

Chapter 14
Minoo Divakaran*
Providence Women’s College
Calicut – 673 009 Kerala India
Email: minoo10@yahoo.com
K. V. Peter
World Noni Research Foundation
Chennai – 600 096 Tamil Nadu India
Email: kvptr@yahoo.com
J. Salikutty
Kerala Agricultural University
P O KAU Thrissur – 680 651 Kerala India
Email: salikutty_joseph@rediffmail.com

Chapter 15
R. Gupta
Zandu Pharmaceuticals India
Professor M. M. Anwer* and
Dr Y. K. Sharma
National Research Centre on Seed Spices 
Tabiji Ajmer – 305 206 Rajasthan India
Email: mmanwer1951@yahoo.com;
yksharma.nrcss@yahoo.co.in

Chapter 16
Dr R. K. Kakani and Prof
M. M. Anwer*
National Research Centre on Seed Spices
Tabiji Ajmer – 305 206 Rajasthan India
Email: mmanwer1951@yahoo.com;
rkkakani.nrcss@rediffmail.com

Chapter 17
U. B. Pandey
Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd
Jain Plastic Park 
P.O. Box 72 Jalgaon – 425 001 Maharashtra India
Email: pandey.udaibhan@jains.com

Chapter 18
P. A. Vasala
Kerala Agricultural University
P O KAU Thrissur – 680 651 Kerala India
Email: pavalsala@rediffmail.com

Chapter 19
V. Krishnakumar
Central Plantation Crops Research
Institute (ICAR) Regional Station
Krishnapuram Kayamkulam
Kerala – 690 533 India
Email: dr.krishnavkumar@gmail.com

Chapter 20
Subhash C. Taneja* and Suresh Chandra
Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine
(CSIR) Canal Road Jammu Tawi – 180 001 India
Email: sctaneja@iiim.ac.in;
schandra@iiim.ac.in

Chapter 21
J. Thomas,* K. M. Kuruvilla and
T. K. Hrideek
Indian Cardamom Research Institute
(ICRI) Spices Board
Kailasanadu PO Kerala – 685 553 India
Email: jtkotamala@gmail.com

Chapter 22
J. Rema and B. Krishnamoorthy*
Indian Institute of Spices Research
P. O. Marikunnu Calicut – 673 012 Kerala India
Email: bkmoorthy@spices.res.in;
rema@spices.res.in

Chapter 23
Dr K. E. Lawande, Vice, Chancellor
Dr Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi
Vidyapeeth
PO Dapoli Ratnagiri Maharashtra – 415 712 India
Email: kelawande2011@gmail.com

Chapter 24
Dr Denys J. Charles
Director of Research Aura Cacia
Frontier Natural Products Co-op
5398 31st Street Urbana IA-52345 USA
Email: Denys.Charles@frontiercoop.com

Chapters 25 and 28
Dr B. Sasikumar
Indian Institute of Spices Research
P. O. Markunnu Calicut – 673 012 Kerala India
Email: bhaskaransasikumar@yahoo.com

Chapter 26
Gonzalo Luis Alonso, Amaya Zalacain,
Manuel Carmona*
Cátedra de Química Agrícola
E.T.S.I.A
Universidad Castilla-La Mancha
E-02071 Albacete Spain
Email: Manuel.Carmona@uclm.es

Chapter 27
Prof. Dr Elisabeth Stahl-Biskup*
University of Hamburg
Institute of Pharmacy
Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Microbiology
Bundesstrasse 45 D-20146 Hamburg Germany
Email: elisabeth.stahl-biskup@unihamburg.de
Prof. Rimantas P. Venskutonis
Kaunas University of Technology
Radvilenu pl. 19 Kaunas LT-50254 Lithuania
Email: rimas.venskutonis@ktu.lt

Chapter 29
Dr C. C. De Guzman* and
Ms R. R. Zara
Crop Science Cluster
College of Agriculture
University of the Philippines Los Baños
College, Laguna 4031 Philippines
Email: tansdg2000@yahoo.com;
rosezara33@yahoo.com


Table of Contents
Contributor contact details ....................................................................................... xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology
and Nutrition ............................................................................................................. xix
1 Introduction to herbs and spices: defi nitions, trade and applications ....... 1
K. V. Peter, World Noni Research Foundation, India and M. R. Shylaja,
Kerala Agricultural University, India
1.1 Defi nitions ............................................................................................. 1
1.2 Trade in herbs and spices and trends in their use ........................... 3
1.3 Herbs and spices in traditional medicine .......................................... 4
1.4 Herbs and spices in the food and beverage industries ................... 6
1.5 Herbs and spices in the cosmetics and perfumery industries ........ 9
1.6 Modern research into the medicinal and nutraceutical
properties of herbs and spices ............................................................ 9
1.7 Production of quality herbs and spices ............................................. 13
1.8 The structure of this book ................................................................... 16
1.9 Sources of further information ........................................................... 18
1.10 References ............................................................................................. 19
Appendix 1 ........................................................................................................ 20
Appendix 2 ........................................................................................................ 24
2 Quality specifi cations for herbs and spices ................................................... 25
S. Clemenson, Camstar Ingredients Ltd and Seasoning and Spice Association,
UK, M. Muggeridge, Lion Foods, UK and M. Clay, European Spices Association
2.1 Introduction: defi ning quality ............................................................. 25
2.2 Major international quality specifi cations......................................... 26
2.3 Product-specifi c quality parameters ................................................... 29
2.4 World spice organisations ................................................................... 30
2.5 Quality management system (QMS) ................................................. 36
2.6 Environmental safety: ISO 14001 ...................................................... 39
2.7 Sources of further information ........................................................... 40
2.8 References ............................................................................................. 40
Appendix 1: Recommended analytical methods .......................................... 41
3 Quality indices for spice essential oils ........................................................... 42
M. G. Sajilata and R. S. Singhal, Institute of Chemical Technology, India
3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 42
3.2 Major chemical constituents of spice essential oils ......................... 44
3.3 The problem of adulteration .............................................................. 47
3.4 Future trends ........................................................................................ 51
3.5 References ............................................................................................. 52
4 Basil .................................................................................................................... 55
P. Pushpangadan, Amity Institute for Herbal and Biotech Products
Development, India, and V. George, Amity Institute of Phytochemistry
and Phytomedicine, India
4.1 Introduction: the origin of basil ......................................................... 55
4.2 Chemical composition of the basil plant ........................................... 56
4.3 Production of basil ............................................................................... 57
4.4 Post-harvest handling and production of basil ................................. 60
4.5 Main uses of basil ................................................................................. 63
4.6 Functional properties of basil ............................................................. 65
4.7 Quality issues and toxicity .................................................................. 68
4.8 References ............................................................................................. 70
5 Bay leaves .......................................................................................................... 73
A. Sharma, J. Singh and S. Kumar, Central Institute of Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants (CSIR), India
5.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 73
5.2 Cultivation, production and processing of bay leaves ..................... 74
5.3 Chemical composition of bay leaves ................................................. 75
5.4 Functional properties of bay leaves ................................................... 79
5.5 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 80
5.6 References ............................................................................................. 81
6 Black pepper ..................................................................................................... 86
P. N. Ravindran, Tata Global Beverages, India, and J. A. Kallupurackal,
Indian Institute of Spices Research, India
6.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 86
6.2 Production and international trade of black pepper ....................... 86
6.3 The black pepper plant and its varieties ........................................... 90
6.4 Cultivation of black pepper ................................................................ 91
6.5 Chemical composition of black pepper ............................................. 94
6.6 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 96
6.7 Industrial processing and value addition .......................................... 99
6.8 Functional properties of black pepper .............................................. 102
6.9 Use of black pepper in food ............................................................... 104
6.10 Conclusion ............................................................................................. 112
6.11 Source of further information ............................................................ 113
6.12 References ............................................................................................. 113
7 Capsicum cultivars ............................................................................................ 116
T. G. Berke, Seminis Vegetable Seeds, USA, and S. C. Shieh, AVRDC:
The World Vegetable Center, Taiwan
7.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 116
7.2 Production of capsicum cultivars ....................................................... 119
7.3 Main uses in food processing.............................................................. 121
7.4 Functional properties and toxicity ..................................................... 123
7.5 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 124
7.6 References ............................................................................................. 129
8 Cardamom ......................................................................................................... 131
V. A. Parthasarathy and D. Prasath, Indian Institute of Spices Research,
India
8.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 131
8.2 Classifi cation of cardamom ................................................................. 134
8.3 Genetic improvement and varieties................................................... 137
8.4 Production of cardamom: horticultural technologies and
nursery management ............................................................................ 142
8.5 Production of cardamom: planting and aftercare ............................ 143
8.6 Harvesting and post-harvest processing ............................................ 147
8.7 Other value-added products from cardamom .................................. 150
8.8 Chemical structure and characteristics .............................................. 154
8.9 Major uses of cardamom ..................................................................... 158
8.10 Quality standards and grade specifi cations ...................................... 160
8.11 Conclusion ............................................................................................. 164
8.12 References ............................................................................................. 164
9 Chives ................................................................................................................. 171
H. Chen, Beijing Vegetable Research Centre, China
9.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 171
9.2 Chemical composition and nutritional value.................................... 172
9.3 Cultivation and production ................................................................. 174
9.4 Varieties ................................................................................................. 178
9.5 References and further reading ......................................................... 179
10 Cinnamon .......................................................................................................... 182
J. Thomas, Rubber Board, India, and K. M. Kuruvilla,
Indian Cardamom Research Institute, India
10.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 182
10.2 Description of cinnamon ..................................................................... 183
10.3 Harvesting and production of cinnamon .......................................... 185
10.4 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 188
10.5 Main uses in the food industry ........................................................... 191
10.6 Functional properties and toxicology ................................................ 192
10.7 References ............................................................................................. 194
11 Cloves ................................................................................................................. 197
N. Nurdjannah and N. Bermawie, Indonesian Agency for Agriculture
Research and Development (IAARD), Indonesia
11.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 197
11.2 Production and post-harvest processing ........................................... 198
11.3 Main uses in food processing.............................................................. 204
11.4 Functional properties of cloves .......................................................... 205
11.5 Toxicology of cloves ............................................................................. 209
11.6 Quality and regulatory issues ............................................................. 210
11.7 References ............................................................................................. 212
12 Coriander ........................................................................................................... 216
M. M. Sharma and R. K. Sharma, Swami Keshwananda Rajasthan
Agricultural University, India
12.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 216
12.2 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 219
12.3 Cultivation of coriander ...................................................................... 224
12.4 Post-harvest management and processing ........................................ 227
12.5 Main uses of coriander ........................................................................ 228
12.6 Modern research into the medicinal properties of coriander ........ 231
12.7 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 235
12.8 References ............................................................................................. 244
Appendix 1 ........................................................................................................ 248
Appendix 2 ........................................................................................................ 249
13 Cumin ................................................................................................................. 250
Gh. Amin, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
13.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 250
13.2 Production of cumin ............................................................................ 252
13.3 Main uses of cumin in food processing ............................................. 254
13.4 Quality specifi cations ........................................................................... 255
13.5 Sources of further information ........................................................... 258
14 Curry leaf ........................................................................................................... 260
J. Salikutty, Kerala Agricultural University, India, K. V. Peter,
World Noni Research Foundation, India and M. Divakaran,
Providence Women’s College, India
14.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 260
14.2 Cultivation and production of curry leaves ...................................... 263
14.3 Functional properties and uses of curry leaves ................................ 266
14.4 Conclusion ............................................................................................. 271
14.5 References ............................................................................................. 272
15 Dill ...................................................................................................................... 275
R. Gupta, Zandu Pharmaceuticals, India, M. M. Anwer and
Y. K. Sharma, National Research Centre on Seed Spices, India
15.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 275
15.2 Production and cultivation of dill ...................................................... 277
15.3 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 280
15.4 Main uses of dill ................................................................................... 281
15.5 Quality issues and standards............................................................... 283
15.6 References ............................................................................................. 283
16 Fenugreek .......................................................................................................... 286
R. K. Kakani and M. M. Anwer, National Research Centre on Seed
Spices, India
16.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 286
16.2 Production and cultivation of fenugreek .......................................... 287
16.3 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 290
16.4 Functional properties and main uses of fenugreek ......................... 291
16.5 Quality issues and standards............................................................... 294
16.6 References ............................................................................................. 295
17 Garlic .................................................................................................................. 299
U. B. Pandey, Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd., India
17.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 299
17.2 Chemical structure of garlic ................................................................ 301
17.3 Production and processing of garlic .................................................. 303
17.4 Functional properties and toxicology ................................................ 308
17.5 Quality issues of dehydrated garlic.................................................... 309
17.6 References ............................................................................................. 314
18 Ginger ................................................................................................................ 319
P. A. Vasala, Kerala Agricultural University, India
18.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 319
18.2 Products of ginger rhizomes ............................................................... 321
18.3 Main uses and functional properties of ginger ................................ 324
18.4 Quality specifi cations ........................................................................... 329
18.5 References ............................................................................................. 333
19 Marjoram ........................................................................................................... 336
V. Krishnakumar and S. N. Potty, Central Plantation Crops Research
Institute (ICAR), India
19.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 336
19.2 Production, harvesting and post-harvest management ................... 338
19.3 Marjoram essential oil ......................................................................... 341
19.4 Main uses of marjoram ........................................................................ 345
19.5 Functional properties ........................................................................... 347
19.6 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 352
19.7 References ............................................................................................. 357
20 Mint .................................................................................................................... 366
S. C. Taneja and S. Chandra, Indian Institute of Integrative
Medicine (CSIR), India
20.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 366
20.2 Production, cultivation and harvesting .............................................. 372
20.3 Production of mint essential oil and menthol crystals .................... 379
20.4 Main uses of mint ................................................................................. 382
20.5 Improvement in quality and the impact of biotechnology ............. 385
20.6 References ............................................................................................. 385
21 Mustard .............................................................................................................. 388
J. Thomas, Rubber Board, India, K. M. Kuruvilla and T. K. Hrideek,
Indian Cardamom Research Institute, India
21.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 388
21.2 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 391
21.3 Production and cultivation .................................................................. 392
21.4 Main uses of mustard........................................................................... 393
21.5 Functional properties of mustard....................................................... 395
21.6 Quality specifi cations ........................................................................... 397
21.7 References ............................................................................................. 397
22 Nutmeg and mace ............................................................................................. 399
J. Rema and B. Krishnamoorthy, Indian Institute of Spices
Research, India
22.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 399
22.2 Production and chemical structure .................................................... 399
22.3 Main uses of nutmeg and mace .......................................................... 405
22.4 Modern research into the functional properties of nutmeg
and mace ................................................................................................ 406
22.5 Quality issues and toxicity .................................................................. 410
22.6 References ............................................................................................. 412
23 Onion ................................................................................................................. 417
K. E. Lawande, National Research Centre for Onion and Garlic, India
23.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 417
23.2 Chemical structure and infl uences on fl avour .................................. 419
23.3 Production and functional properties of onion ................................ 421
23.4 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 425
23.5 References ............................................................................................. 427
24 Parsley ................................................................................................................ 430
D. J. Charles, Frontier Natural Products Co-op, USA
24.1 Introduction and description .............................................................. 430
24.2 Production and cultivation .................................................................. 432
24.3 Organic farming .................................................................................... 435
24.4 Environmental management systems ................................................ 438
24.5 Chemical composition of parsley ....................................................... 439
24.6 Main uses of parsley ............................................................................ 443
24.7 Functional properties and toxicity ..................................................... 444
24.8 References ............................................................................................. 447
25 Rosemary ........................................................................................................... 452
B. Sasikumar, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India
25.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 452
25.2 Production and cultivation of rosemary............................................ 454
25.3 Post-harvest technology and further processing .............................. 457
25.4 Main uses of rosemary......................................................................... 459
25.5 Toxicology and quality control ........................................................... 463
25.6 Conclusion ............................................................................................. 463
25.7 References ............................................................................................. 463
26 Saffron ................................................................................................................ 469
G. L. Alonso, A. Zalacain and M. Carmona, Universidad Castilla-La
Mancha, Spain
26.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 469
26.2 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 473
26.3 Production and distribution ................................................................ 477
26.4 Functional properties and uses of saffron ........................................ 484
26.5 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 488
26.6 References ............................................................................................. 491
27 Thyme ................................................................................................................ 499
E. Stahl-Biskup, University of Hamburg, Germany and R. P. Venskutonis,
Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania
27.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 499
27.2 Chemical composition of thyme......................................................... 500
27.3 Production of thyme ............................................................................ 504
27.4 Main uses in food processing.............................................................. 508
27.5 Functional properties and toxicity ..................................................... 510
27.6 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 515
27.7 References ............................................................................................. 518
28 Turmeric ............................................................................................................. 526
B. Sasikumar, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India
28.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 526
28.2 Production of turmeric ........................................................................ 530
28.3 Quality specifi cations ........................................................................... 535
28.4 Functional properties and uses of turmeric ...................................... 540
28.5 Future trends ........................................................................................ 543
28.6 References ............................................................................................. 543
29 Vanilla ................................................................................................................ 547
C. C. de Guzman and R. R. Zara, University of the Philippines
Los Baños, Philippines
29.1 Introduction and description .............................................................. 547
29.2 Cultivation of vanilla ........................................................................... 553
29.3 Harvesting and post-production activities ........................................ 559
29.4 Main products and functional properties of vanilla ........................ 565
29.5 Quality issues and adulteration .......................................................... 570
29.6 Conservation and alternative methods for natural
vanillin production ............................................................................... 575
29.7 Future trends ........................................................................................ 579
29.8 References ............................................................................................. 579
Index ........................................................................................................................... 591


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Published by Woodhead Publishing Limited,
80 High Street, Sawston, Cambridge CB22 3HJ, UK

Woodhead Publishing, 1518 Walnut Street, Suite 1100, Philadelphia,
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Woodhead Publishing India Private Limited, G-2, Vardaan House, 7/28 Ansari Road,
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First edition 2001, Woodhead Publishing Limited
Second edition 2012, Woodhead Publishing Limited

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