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Handbook of herbs and spices, Second edition. Volume 2

Handbook of herbs and spices, Second edition. Volume 2

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Second edition 2012, Woodhead Publishing Limited

Edited by K. V. Peter

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition: Number 228


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Book Details
 Price
 4.00
 Pages
 625 p
 File Size 
 5,686 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 978-0-85709-568-8 (online)
 Copyright©   
 Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2012  

About Us
Herbs and spices are among the most versatile ingredients in food processing, and
alongside their sustained popularity as fl avourants and colourants, they are increasingly
being used for their natural preservative and potential health-promoting properties. This
authoritative new edition, in two volumes, of Handbook of herbs and spices provides a
comprehensive guide to the properties, production and application of a wide variety of
commercially-signifi cant herbs and spices. Volume 1 begins with an introduction to herbs
and spices, discussing their defi nition, trade and applications. Both the quality specifi cations
for herbs and spices, and the quality indices for spice essential oils are reviewed in detail,
before the book goes on to look in depth at individual herbs and spices, ranging from basil to vanilla.
Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits
Volume 1 (ISBN 978-1-84569-733-4)
Volume 2 (ISBN 978-1-84569-734-1)
Volume 3 (ISBN 978-1-84569-735-8)
Volume 4 (ISBN 978-0-85709-090-4)
While products such as bananas, pineapples, kiwifruit and citrus have long been available
to consumers in temperate zones, new fruits such as lychee, longan, carambola, and
mangosteen are now also entering the market. Confi rmation of the health benefi ts of
tropical and subtropical fruit may also promote consumption further. Tropical and
subtropical fruits are particularly vulnerable to postharvest losses, and are also transported
long distances for sale. Therefore maximising their quality postharvest is essential and
there have been many recent advances in this area. Many tropical fruits are processed
further into purees, juices and other value-added products, so quality optimization of
processed products is also important. These books cover current state-of-the-art and
emerging post-harvest and processing technologies. Volume 1 contains chapters on
particular production stages and issues, whereas Volumes 2, 3 and 4 contain chapters
focused on particular fruit.

Introduction to herbs and spices: 
medicinal uses and sustainable production
K. V. Peter, World Noni Research Foundation, India and 
K. Nirmal Babu, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India

Abstract: This introductory chapter contains a brief history of herbs and spices, including
cultivation, trade and uses. The cultivation requirements of important herbal spices are
discussed, as well as uses of herbs and spices in food and beverages, perfumes and
cosmetics, and medicinal and nutraceutical uses. The important fl avour compounds in
major culinary and herbal spices are considered. Other topics discussed in this chapter are
antioxidants isolated from herbs and spices, active plant constituents and the molecular
phytopharmacology of a few herbs and spices. It also deals with biosafety and effi cacy
issues from a phytochemical perspective.
Key words: acids, alcoholic beverages, alkaloids, anthraquinones, antioxidant and
antimicrobial properties, biosafety, bitters, colouring agents, cosmetics, coumarines, fl avones,
glycosides, gums, herbal remedies, herbs, medicinal and nutraceutical uses, perfumery,
pharmaceuticals, resins, saponins, spices, tannins, volatile oils.


Table of Contents
Contributor contact details ................................. xii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition .......... xvi
1 Introduction to herbs and spices: medicinal uses and sustainable production ..................... 1
K. V. Peter, World Noni Research Foundation, India and
K. Nirmal Babu, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India
1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 1
1.2 Main uses of herbs and spices ............................................................ 3
1.3 Safety and effi cacy issues: a phytochemical perspective ................. 14
1.4 The structure of this book ................................................................... 15
1.5 References ............................................................................................. 15
2 Herbs, spices and their active components as natural antimicrobials
in foods .............................................................................................................. 17
C. C. Tassou and N. G. Chorianopoulos, National Agricultural Research
Foundation, Greece, P. N. Skandamis and G-J. E. Nychas, Agricultural
University of Athens, Greece
2.1 Introduction: a need for ‘new’ preservatives .................................... 17
2.2 Chemical composition of fl avouring substances produced from
herbs and spices .................................................................................... 19
2.3 In vitro antimicrobial activities of herbs, spices and their
components ........................................................................................... 23
2.4 In situ antimicrobial activities of herbs, spices and their
components ........................................................................................... 28
2.5 Mode of antimicrobial action ............................................................. 35
2.6 Legislation and labelling ..................................................................... 38
2.7 Future trends ........................................................................................ 39
2.8 References ............................................................................................. 41
3 The effect of natural antioxidants in herbs and spices on food
shelf-life ............................................................................................................. 51
J. Pokorný and J. Pánek, Prague Institute of Chemical Technology,
Czech Republic
3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 51
3.2 Reactions of spice antioxidants with natural food components .... 57
3.3 Main changes in herb and spice antioxidants under different
conditions .............................................................................................. 61
3.4 Future trends and conclusions ............................................................ 67
3.5 Sources of further information and advice ....................................... 69
3.6 References ............................................................................................. 69
4 Health benefi ts of herbs and spices ............................................................... 72
A. Kurian, Kerala Agricultural University, India
4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 72
4.2 Cancer preventive properties of herbs and spices ........................... 73
4.3 Other health effects of herbs and spices ........................................... 78
4.4 Safety and toxicity ................................................................................ 81
4.5 Future trends ........................................................................................ 82
4.6 References and further reading ......................................................... 82
5 Methods of analysis of herbs and spices ....................................................... 89
T. J. Zachariah, N. K. Leela, A. Shamina, Indian Institute of Spices
Research, India
5.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 89
5.2 General analytical methods ................................................................ 90
5.3 Extraction techniques: determining essential oil content of
plant material ........................................................................................ 92
5.4 Identifying the physical properties of essential oils ........................ 96
5.5 Estimation of oleoresin in spices ....................................................... 99
5.6 Antioxidant potential of plant extracts ............................................. 109
5.7 Estimation of fi bre ............................................................................... 115
5.8 References ............................................................................................. 116
6 Ajowan ............................................................................................................... 118
S. K. Malhotra, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India
6.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 118
6.2 Production and trade ........................................................................... 121
6.3 Main uses in food and cosmetics ....................................................... 123
6.4 Functional properties ........................................................................... 125
6.5 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 130
6.6 References ............................................................................................. 133
7 Aniseed .............................................................................................................. 138
M. Özgüven, University of Cukurova, Turkey
7.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 138
7.2 Production and cultivation .................................................................. 140
7.3 Main uses in food processing.............................................................. 143
7.4 Functional properties ........................................................................... 144
7.5 Quality and regulatory issues ............................................................. 146
7.6 References ............................................................................................. 148
8 Asafoetida ......................................................................................................... 151
C. K. George, Former Executive Director of Spices Board of India,
India
8.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 151
8.2 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 156
8.3 Cultivation and processing .................................................................. 157
8.4 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 160
8.5 Main uses of asafoetida ....................................................................... 160
8.6 References ............................................................................................. 163
9 Allspice .............................................................................................................. 166
J. Rema and B. Krishnamoorthy, Indian Institute of Spices Research,
India
9.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 166
9.2 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 168
9.3 Cultivation ............................................................................................. 178
9.4 Main uses of allspice ............................................................................ 181
9.5 Functional properties ........................................................................... 183
9.6 Quality issues and adulteration .......................................................... 186
9.7 References ............................................................................................. 190
10 Capers and caperberries .................................................................................. 193
G. O. Sozzi, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científi cas y Técnicas,
Argentina, K. V. Peter, World Noni Research Foundation, India,
K. Nirmal Babu, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India and
M. Divakaran, Providence Women’s College, Calicut, India
10.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 193
10.2 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 195
10.3 Cultivation of capers and caperberries ............................................. 197
10.4 Pests and diseases ................................................................................. 203
10.5 Main cultivars and world production and trade .............................. 205
10.6 Post-harvest technology and uses in food processing ..................... 207
10.7 Functional properties and health benefi ts ........................................ 210
10.8 Quality issues and future trends ........................................................ 213
10.9 References ............................................................................................. 214
11 Caraway ............................................................................................................. 225
S. K. Malhotra, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India
11.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 225
11.2 Production and international trade ................................................... 229
11.3 Main uses in food ................................................................................. 230
11.4 Nutritional and functional benefi ts .................................................... 235
11.5 Toxicity................................................................................................... 241
11.6 Quality specifi cations ........................................................................... 241
11.7 References ............................................................................................. 244
12 Celery ................................................................................................................. 249
S. K. Malhotra, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India
12.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 249
12.2 Production and international trade ................................................... 251
12.3 Main products and uses in food ......................................................... 255
12.4 Nutritional value and functional properties ..................................... 257
12.5 Quality specifi cations ........................................................................... 262
12.6 References ............................................................................................. 265
13 Chervil ................................................................................................................ 268
A. A. Farooqi and K. N. Srinivasappa, University of Agricultural
Sciences, India
13.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 268
13.2 Production and cultivation of chervil ................................................ 269
13.3 Main uses of chervil ............................................................................. 272
13.4 Sources of further information ........................................................... 274
14 Fennel and fennel seed .................................................................................... 275
S. K. Malhotra, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India
14.1 Introduction and description .............................................................. 275
14.2 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 276
14.3 International trade, production and post-harvest processing ......... 281
14.4 Main uses of fennel in food ................................................................ 283
14.5 Functional properties of fennel .......................................................... 286
14.6 Toxicity and allergenicity .................................................................... 292
14.7 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 293
14.8 References ............................................................................................. 298
15 Galangal ............................................................................................................. 303
P. N. Ravindran, Tata Global Beverages, India, G. S. Pillai and
I. Balachandran, Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, India, and
M. Divakaran, Providence Women’s College, India
15.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 303
15.2 Functional properties ........................................................................... 307
15.3 Main uses of galangal .......................................................................... 312
15.4 Quality issues and adulteration .......................................................... 313
15.5 References ............................................................................................. 314
16 Kaffi r lime leaf .................................................................................................. 319
S. Wongpornchai, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
16.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 319
16.2 Cultivation and production ................................................................. 320
16.3 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 321
16.4 Main uses and functional properties ................................................. 325
16.5 References ............................................................................................. 327
17 Lavender ............................................................................................................ 329
M. T. Lis-Balchin, Formerly of South Bank University, UK
17.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 329
17.2 Production ............................................................................................. 331
17.3 Main uses in food processing, perfumery and paramedical
spheres ................................................................................................... 333
17.4 Functional properties and toxicity ..................................................... 334
17.5 Quality issues and adulteration .......................................................... 339
17.6 References ............................................................................................. 342
18 Lemongrass ....................................................................................................... 348
B. P. Skaria, P. P. Joy, G. Mathew, S. Mathew and A. Joseph, Aromatic
and Medicinal Plants Research Station, India
18.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 348
18.2 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 351
18.3 Production ............................................................................................. 354
18.4 Harvesting and processing .................................................................. 360
18.5 Main uses of lemongrass ..................................................................... 364
18.6 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 366
18.7 References ............................................................................................. 368
19 Lovage ................................................................................................................ 371
M. H. Mirjalili, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran and J. Javanmardi,
Shiraz University, Iran
19.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 371
19.2 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 373
19.3 Cultivation and production ................................................................. 377
19.4 Main uses in food ................................................................................. 382
19.5 Functional properties ........................................................................... 384
19.6 References ............................................................................................. 386
20 Nigella ................................................................................................................ 391
S. K. Malhotra, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India
20.1 Introduction and description .............................................................. 391
20.2 Production and international trade ................................................... 396
20.3 Functional properties ........................................................................... 399
20.4 Toxicity................................................................................................... 407
20.5 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 408
20.6 References ............................................................................................. 409
21 Oregano ............................................................................................................. 417
S. E. Kintzios, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
21.1 Introduction and description .............................................................. 417
21.2 Production and cultivation .................................................................. 421
21.3 Main uses in food processing and medicine ..................................... 425
21.4 Functional properties ........................................................................... 427
21.5 Quality specifi cations and commercial issues ................................... 429
21.6 References ............................................................................................. 431
22 Poppy ................................................................................................................. 437
P. Pushpangadan, Amity Institute for Herbal and Biotech Products
Development, India, V. George, Amity Institute of Phytochemistry and
Phytomedicine, India and S. P. Singh, National Botanical Research
Institute, India
22.1 Introduction and description .............................................................. 437
22.2 Production, cultivation and chemical composition .......................... 440
22.3 Main uses of poppy .............................................................................. 443
22.4 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 445
22.5 References ............................................................................................. 446
23 Sesame ............................................................................................................... 449
D. M. Hegde, Directorate of Oilseeds Research, India
23.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 449
23.2 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 452
23.3 Production: crop adaptation ............................................................... 462
23.4 Cultivation ............................................................................................. 465
23.5 Harvesting and post-harvest production ........................................... 469
23.6 Processing of sesame ........................................................................... 470
23.7 Main uses of sesame seed ................................................................... 475
23.8 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 479
23.9 Future trends ........................................................................................ 479
23.10 References ............................................................................................. 481
24 Star anise ........................................................................................................... 487
C. K. George, Former Executive Director of Spices Board of India, India
24.1 Introduction and description .............................................................. 487
24.2 Oil extraction ........................................................................................ 490
24.3 Physical properties and chemical constituents of star anise oil ..... 492
24.4 Quality issues and specifi cations ........................................................ 495
24.5 Main uses of star anise ........................................................................ 498
24.6 World trade ........................................................................................... 500
24.7 References ............................................................................................. 502
25 Tarragon ............................................................................................................. 504
P. Pripdeevech, Mae Fah Luang University, Thailand and
S. Wongpornchai, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
25.1 Introduction and description .............................................................. 504
25.2 Cultivation and processing .................................................................. 506
25.3 Main uses and functional properties ................................................. 507
25.4 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 510
25.5 References ............................................................................................. 510
26 Tamarind ............................................................................................................ 512
Y. Saideswara Rao and K. M. Mathew, Spices Board of India, India
26.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 512
26.2 Production and cultivation .................................................................. 515
26.3 Main uses of tamarind products ......................................................... 517
26.4 Functional properties ........................................................................... 521
26.5 Quality issues ........................................................................................ 524
26.6 References ............................................................................................. 525
27 Other herbs and spices: achiote to Szechuan pepper .................................. 534
P. N. Ravindran, Tata Global Beverages, India, M. Divakaran,
Providence Women’s College, India, and G. S. Pillai, Center for
Medicinal Plants Research, India
27.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 534
27.2 Achiote (annatto) ................................................................................. 535
27.3 Chamomile ............................................................................................ 538
27.4 Galanga .................................................................................................. 541
27.5 Horseradish ........................................................................................... 542
27.6 Hyssop ................................................................................................... 544
27.7 Juniper berry ......................................................................................... 545
27.8 Kokum and Malabar tamarind ........................................................... 546
27.9 Large cardamom .................................................................................. 548
27.10 Lemon balm .......................................................................................... 549
27.11 Long pepper .......................................................................................... 551
27.12 Szechuan pepper .................................................................................. 552
27.13 References ............................................................................................. 554
28 Other herbs and spices: mango ginger to wasabi ......................................... 557
P. N. Ravindran, Tata Global Beverages, India, G. S. Pillai, Center for
Medicinal Plants Research, India, M. Divakaran, Providence Women’s
College, India
28.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 557
28.2 Mango ginger ........................................................................................ 557
28.3 Fragrant pandan ................................................................................... 559
28.4 Pink peppercorn ................................................................................... 561
28.5 Rue ......................................................................................................... 563
28.6 Sumac ..................................................................................................... 565
28.7 Summer savory and winter savory ..................................................... 567
28.8 Wasabi .................................................................................................... 569
28.9 Less well-known spices and herbs ..................................................... 573
28.10 References ............................................................................................. 579
Index ........................................................................................................................... 583


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