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Handbook of Food Bioengineering, Volume 8

Edited by
Alina Maria Holban
Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu


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Book Details
 Price
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 Pages
 540 p
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 ISBN
 978-0-12-811517-6    
 Copyright©   
 2018 Elsevier Inc 

List of Contributors
Navneet Agnihotri Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Dulce E. Alarcón-Yaquetto Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia; 
Research Circle of Plants with Effects on Health, Lima, Peru
Tania V. Altamirano Universidad Latino, Mérida, Yucatán, México
Pathan S. Begum KVR Government Degree College for Women, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza Autonomous Agrarian University Antonio Narro, 
Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico
Priyanka Bhadwal Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Eleftherios Bonos Research Institute of Animal Science, Pella, Greece
Marcelino Cabrera-De la Fuente Autonomous Agrarian University Antonio Narro, 
Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico
Efterpi Christaki Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Ana Ćiric´ University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Luis M. Contreras-Medina Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Santiago de Querétaro,
Querétaro, México
Nada Ćujic´ Institute for Medicinal Plants Research, Belgrade, Serbia
Petko N. Denev Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy
of Sciences; Innovative-Technological Center Ltd., Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Ana A. Feregrino-Perez Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, 
Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, México
Emmanuel Flores-Huicochea National Polytechnic Institute, Biotic Product Development Center,
Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico
Panagiota Florou-Paneri Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Lina Garcia-Mier Universidad del Valle de México, Campus Querétaro, Santiago de Querétaro,
Querétaro, México
Juan F. Garcia-Trejo Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Santiago de Querétaro,
Querétaro, México
Yordan N. Georgiev Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian
Academy of Sciences; Innovative-Technological Center Ltd., Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Ilias Giannenas Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Jasmina Glamocˇlija University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Susana González-Morales Autonomous Agrarian University Antonio Narro, Saltillo,
Coahuila, Mexico
Gustavo F. Gonzales Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia; Research Circle of Plants with Effects
on Health, Lima, Peru
Ramon G. Guevara-González Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Santiago de Querétaro,
Querétaro, México
Teodora Jankovic´ Institute for Medicinal Plants Research, Belgrade, Serbia
Sandra N. Jimenez-Garcia Universidad de Guanajuato, 
Campus Celaya-Salvatierra, Celaya, Guanajuato, México
Antonio Juárez-Maldonado Autonomous Agrarian University Antonio Narro, 
Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico
Nevena Kardum University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Rabia Khalid University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Maria G. Kratchanova Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian
Academy of Sciences; Innovative-Technological Center Ltd., Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Sandeep Kumar Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Paola Leija-Martínez Autonomous Agrarian University Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico
Vannucci Luca Institute of Microbiology, Prague, Czech Republic
Zvonko Magic Military Medical Academy, University of Defense; Institute for Medical Research,
Military Medical Academy, Belgrade, Serbia
Edwin E. Martínez Leo Universidad Latino; Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida,
Yucatán, México
Nebojša Menkovic´ Institute for Medicinal Plants Research, Belgrade, Serbia
Manol H. Ognyanov Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian
Academy of Sciences; Innovative-Technological Center Ltd., Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Amanda Ortíz-Sánchez Autonomous University of Morelos, Biodiversity and Conservation
Research Center, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
Sima Petr Institute of Microbiology, Prague, Czech Republic
Jovana Petrovic´ University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Slavica Radjen Military Medical Academy, University of Defence, Belgrade, Serbia
Senthilkumar Rajagopal Rayalaseema University, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
Meerza A. Razak Rayalaseema University, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
J. Rodolfo Rendón-Villalobos National Polytechnic Institute. Biotic Product Development Center,
Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico
Danijela Ristic´-Medic´ Centre of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for
Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Supraj R. Sangam Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University (JNTU), Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Katarina Šavikin Institute for Medicinal Plants Research, Belgrade, Serbia
Bhoomika Sharma Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Prerna Sharma Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Maira R. Segura Campos Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, México
Mian K. Sharif University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Shubham Singh Nizam College, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Marina Sokovic´ University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Dejan Stojkovic´ University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Gordana Supic Military Medical Academy, University of Defense; Institute for Medical Research,
Military Medical Academy, Belgrade, Serbia
Marija Takic´ Centre of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Medical
Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Vetvicka Vaclav University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States
Moises A. Vazquez-Cruz Universidad del Valle de México, Campus Querétaro, Santiago de
Querétaro, Querétaro, México
Buddolla Viswanath Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
Gordana Zdunic´ Institute for Medicinal Plants Research, Belgrade, Serbia
Katarina Zeljic University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Preface for Volume 8: Therapeutic Foods
In the modern society, the concept of therapeutic foods has gained new insights among
researchers, medical representatives, industry, and consumers.
Traditional uses of therapeutic foods were related to nutritional and therapeutic purposes in
the form of dietary supplements. They were used for emergency feeding of malnourished
children or to supplement the diets of patients having special nutritional needs. In recent
years, the progress made in research and technology enabled the development of a true
therapeutic food revolution. The concept of therapeutic foods was currently expanded to new
avenues in medicine, that is, to prevent and even cure metabolic disorders or to promote a
healthy lifestyle; and also in industry, that is, the development of green food industry. The
concept of nutraceuticals and functional foods emerged in the last 20 years and the intense
research made on this field has led to the development of numerous dietary supplements and
food additives with health-benefiting properties.

This book aimed to bring together the most investigated and innovative approaches
regarding the development of therapeutic foods to obtain valuable products with improved
quality, ensuring health promotion and environment protection in the context of a
sustainable food industry.

The volume contains 15 chapters prepared by outstanding authors from Serbia, USA,
Pakistan, Greece, India, Czech Republic, Mexico, Bulgaria, and Peru.
The selected manuscripts are clearly illustrated and contain accessible information for a
wide audience, especially food scientists, engineers, biotechnologists, biochemists, industrial
companies and also for any reader interested in learning about the most interesting and recent
advances in the field of therapeutic foods.

This volume includes an introduction into nutraceuticals (Chapter 1), Nutraceuticals: Myths
Versus Realities, prepared by Sharif and Khalid. The chapter discusses the myths and realities
about the use of nutraceuticals widely clearing prevalent ambiguities about their health
benefits and the safe use before starting a new dietary regimen. A comprehensive deliberation
regarding global market, trends, commonly used nutraceuticals, scientific evidence of
reported health claims, mechanisms of action, nutraceuticals as diet replacement, comparison
between drug and nutraceutical, safety and quality indicators, labeling requirements, and
regulatory bodies are debated in this work.
Chapter 2, entitled The Impact of Functional Food and Nutraceuticals in Health, prepared by
Singh et al., explores the health benefits of the easily available nutraceuticals, which could
act as adjunct lifesaving molecules for patients with chronic diseases, in a context of an
established epidemiological relation between disease, lifestyle, and diet.
In Chapter 3, Lipids as Nutraceuticals: A Shift in Paradigm, Kumar et al. reveals potential
advantages of the incorporation of lipid compounds into human diet as functional foods. This
study comes as an explanation over the fact that dietary intake of some lipids has been shown
to suppress inflammation, hypercholesterolemia, and dyslipidemia and are implicated in
cellular signaling pathways, including programmed cell death and malignant transformation.
In Chapter 4, entitled Plant Nutrition and Agronomic Management to Obtain Crops With
Better Nutritional and Nutraceutical Quality, Cabrera-De la Fuente et al. describe different
growing systems, fertilizer management, the use of natural or synthetic elicitors, and the
soil and climate conditions that lead to the production of crops with better nutritional and
nutraceutical qualities.
In Chapter 5, Mushrooms as Sources of Therapeutic Foods, Sokovic´ et al. focus on recent
literature regarding antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and antidiabetic properties of edible
mushrooms. Molecular mechanisms involved in the health-beneficial effects of mushroom
extracts and purified compounds are discussed.
Chapter 6, Oregano: A Feed Additive With Functional Properties, prepared by Giannenas
et al., focuses on recent advances in the dietary use of oregano, which demonstrated notable
beneficial effects on animal growth performance, feed efficiency, production traits, and
product quality, as well as on modulation of immune system, intestinal architecture, and
microbiota. Oregano could be regarded as a promising functional ingredient for an extensive
use in animal nutrition.
In Chapter 7, Potential of Chokeberry (Aronia Melanocarpa L.) as a Therapeutic Food, Ćujic´
et al. reveal the health-beneficial effects of chokeberry, highlighting impact on decreasing
oxidative damage markers, improvement in prooxidant–antioxidant balance after polyphenolrich
chokeberry juice consumption, and increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and decrease
in monounsaturated fatty acids in erythrocytes, suggesting a role in cell protection against oxidative stress.
In Chapter 8, Beta Glucan as Therapeutic Food, Vaclav et al. offer an up-to-date
comprehensive review of the possible use of beta-glucan as a food additive, because betaglucan
has not only a prebiotic quality, but also immunostimulatory effects regardless of the
route of administration, making it an ideal food additive.
In Chapter 9, Nutritionally Enhanced Foods Incorporating Chía Seed, Rendón-Villalobos
et al. reveal the benefits of chía, one of the oldest crops cultivated for centuries for its
high dietary fiber content, fatty acids, such as omega-3 and protein content. The seeds are
considered energizing ingredients loaded with nutrients, and with a bland, neutral taste profile
are suitable for both sweet and savory applications. Some attributes of the seeds refer, for
example, to: low-glycemic index, help to maintain energy levels, and is also a great way to
boost daily iron intake.
Chapter 10, Perspective Therapeutic Effects of Immunomodulating Acidic Herbal
Heteropolysaccharides and Their Complexes in Functional and Dietary Nutrition, prepared
by Georgiev et al., compiles information about the perspective therapeutic effects of herbal
acidic heteropolysaccharides and their complexes, and emphasize on their role in functional and dietary nutrition.
In Chapter 11, Soybeans, Flaxseeds, and Fish Oil in the Treatment of Renal Disease, Ristic´-
Medic´ et al. reveal and discuss recent evidence regarding the impact of soybeans, flaxseeds,
and fish oil supplementation in reducing the progression of chronic renal disease and even
elimination of some clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients.
Chapter 12, entitled Maca, A Nutraceutical From the Andean Highlands, prepared by
Gonzales and Alarcón-Yaquetto, discusses the nutritional value and health benefits of
hypocotyls of Maca. It seems that the therapeutic effects of Maca range from increase in
sperm count and motility, improvement in embryo quality, reverse testosterone-induced
prostate hyperplasia, and ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis, to enhanced learning and
memory, delayed fatigue, and increase in the interferon gamma production, while reducing glycemia.
Chapter 13, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Secondary Metabolites in
Berries, prepared by Jimenez-Garcia et al., summarizes the biological active compounds in
berries in relation to the prevention and treatment of severe diseases, such as cancer. The
study highlights the necessity to emphasize on the relation between plant crops and elicitors
to increase their variety in bioactive compounds and synthesis capacity focused on nutrition and health.
In Chapter 14, Functional Foods and Chemoprevention in Cancer, Martínez Leo et al.
describe current evidence related to the chemopreventive activity of functional foods and give
an idea on the proposed multiple dietetic possibilities for cancer patients. Also, the potential
to establish particular alimentary strategies that prevent and treat cancer in a more effective
and personalized way is highlighted.
In Chapter 15, Epigenetic Nutraceuticals in Cancer Treatment, Supic et al. reveal new
insights into the emerging field of nutritional epigenetics, which is a novel and complex
scientific field focused on studying dietary bioactive components as epigenetic modulators
in chemoprevention and therapy of complex diseases, particularly cancer. The field of
nutritional epigenetics seems to have very promising future in chemoprevention and treatment of cancer.
Alina M. Holban
University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
Alexandru M. Grumezescu
Politehnica University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania


Table of Contents
List of Contributors............................................................................................ xiii
Foreword..........................................................................................................xvii
Series Preface.....................................................................................................xix
Preface for Volume 8: Therapeutic Foods............................................................. xxiii
Section I: State of the Art and Applications...........................................1
Chapter 1: Nutraceuticals: Myths Versus Realities...................................................3
Mian K. Sharif, Rabia Khalid
1 Nutraceuticals............................................................................................................ 3
1.1 Preamble...................................................................................................................3
1.2 Definitions.................................................................................................................4
1.3 Classification.............................................................................................................5
1.4 Global Market...........................................................................................................6
1.5 Commonly Used Nutraceuticals...............................................................................6
1.6 Mechanism of Action................................................................................................6
2 Natural, Nutraceuticals, and Pharmaceuticals........................................................... 6
3 Nutraceuticals: Myths Versus Realities..................................................................... 8
3.1 Role of Nutraceuticals in the Prevention and Treatment of Health Disorders..........9
3.2 Supplements Can Correct Flaws in Diet...................................................................9
3.3 All the Supplements Labeled “All Natural” are all Good.......................................10
3.4 When a Nutrient is Introduced in Market, Stock it up............................................11
3.5 Nutraceuticals are as Good for Health as Diet........................................................12
3.6 In Vitro and In Vivo Studies are Enough to Believe Health Benefits
of Certain Nutrients
4 Health Claims of Nutraceuticals.............................................................................. 14
5 Labeling Requirements............................................................................................ 15
5.1 Nutritional Labeling................................................................................................15
5.2 Labeling for Quality................................................................................................15
6 Safety and Quality Issues........................................................................................ 16
6.1 Analytical................................................................................................................16
6.2 Bioavailability.........................................................................................................16
6.3 Contaminants and Adulterants................................................................................17
6.4 Dosage.....................................................................................................................17
7 Global Regulations and Compliance....................................................................... 18
7.1 USA.........................................................................................................................18
7.2 European Union......................................................................................................18
7.3 China.......................................................................................................................19
7.4 Japan.......................................................................................................................19
7.5 India and Pakistan...................................................................................................19
8 Role of Nutraceuticals in Human Health................................................................. 19
9 Conclusions............................................................................................................. 20
References................................................................................................................... 20
Chapter 2: The Impact of Functional Food and Nutraceuticals in Health...................23
Shubham Singh, Meerza A. Razak, Supraj R. Sangam, Buddolla Viswanath,
Pathan S. Begum, Senthilkumar Rajagopal
1 Introduction............................................................................................................. 23
1.1 History of Nutraceuticals........................................................................................23
1.2 Components of Nutraceuticals................................................................................24
1.3 Classification of Nutraceuticals..............................................................................24
2 Disease Patterns Arising From a 21st-Century Lifestyle......................................... 24
3 Food as Medicine..................................................................................................... 25
3.1 Dietary Amino Acids and Their Effect on Brain Health.......................................25
3.2 The Role of Amino Acid in Brain Health.............................................................27
3.3 Amino Acid in Synthesis of Neurotransmitters....................................................30
3.4 Role of Fruits in Boosting Memory......................................................................30
3.5 Fruits for Treating and Preventing Brain Diseases...............................................30
3.6 Grape Juice for Healthier Brain............................................................................31
3.7 Therapeutic Application of Blueberries................................................................31
3.8 Black Seed: A Potential Nutraceutical for Healthier Brain..................................32
3.9 Health Benefits of Black Seed..............................................................................32
3.10 Role of Black Seed Against Brain Inflammation..................................................33
3.11 Black Seed in Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease.................................................33
3.12 Black Seed in Epilepsy Treatment........................................................................34
3.13 Black Seed as Antitumor Agent............................................................................34
3.14 Momordica charantia (Karela) in Treatment of Diabetes.....................................35
4 Challenges With Natural Nutrient Supplement....................................................... 38
5 Allopathic Drugs and Challenges............................................................................ 39
6 Nutrients as Adjunct for Chemical Drugs................................................................ 39
7 Nutrient Adjuncts for Cancer Therapy.................................................................... 39
7.1 Epigallocatechin Gallate.........................................................................................40
7.2 Selenium.................................................................................................................40
7.3 Arginine...................................................................................................................40
8 Advancement in Food Processing for Nutrients...................................................... 40
9 Conclusions............................................................................................................. 41
References................................................................................................................... 41
Section II: Nutrition..........................................................................49
Chapter 3: Lipids as Nutraceuticals: A Shift in Paradigm........................................51
Sandeep Kumar, Bhoomika Sharma, Priyanka Bhadwal,
Prerna Sharma, Navneet Agnihotri
1 Introduction............................................................................................................. 51
2 Classification of Lipids............................................................................................ 51
2.1 Simple Lipids..........................................................................................................51
2.2 Complex Lipids.......................................................................................................53
2.3 Derived Lipids.........................................................................................................56
3 Biological Functions of Lipids................................................................................ 60
3.1 Energy.....................................................................................................................60
3.2 Role in Membrane...................................................................................................61
3.3 Role of Eicosanoids................................................................................................62
3.4 Role in Signaling Pathways....................................................................................63
4 Lipid Transport........................................................................................................ 64
5 Lipids in Pathogenesis of Diseases.......................................................................... 65
5.1 Cancer.....................................................................................................................65
5.2 Obesity....................................................................................................................71
5.3 Role of Lipids in Nervous System..........................................................................73
5.4 Role of Lipids in Cardiovascular Diseases.............................................................78
6 Lipids as Nutraceuticals........................................................................................... 82
6.1 n−3 PUFAs.............................................................................................................82
6.2 MUFAs....................................................................................................................83
6.3 Phytosterols.............................................................................................................84
6.4 Isoprenoids..............................................................................................................87
6.5 Conjugated Linolenic Acid.....................................................................................87
References................................................................................................................... 89
Chapter 4: Plant Nutrition and Agronomic Management to Obtain Crops
With Better Nutritional and Nutraceutical Quality.................................99
Marcelino Cabrera-De la Fuente, Susana González-Morales,
Antonio Juárez-Maldonado, Paola Leija-Martínez, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza
1 Introduction............................................................................................................. 99
2 The Nutritional and Nutraceutical Quality of Crops............................................. 100
3 Nutraceutical Value of Plant Crops and Human Health........................................ 105
3.1 Diseases Related to Oxidative Stress....................................................................107
3.2 Cardiovascular Diseases........................................................................................108
3.3 Carcinogenesis......................................................................................................108
3.4 Neurodegenerative Diseases.................................................................................109
4 Regulation of the Synthesis and Accumulation of Compounds
That Enhance the Nutraceutical Quality of Plant Foods
5 Agricultural Practices for Improving the Nutraceutical Quality of Crops............. 116
6 Results of Applying Agricultural Practices on Nutraceutical Quality................... 120
6.1 Preharvest Environmental Factors........................................................................120
6.2 Postharvest Environmental Factors.......................................................................123
6.3 Summary of Environmental Factors, Technology, and Agricultural Practices
That Modify the Nutraceutical Quality of Crops
7 Conclusions........................................................................................................... 129
References................................................................................................................. 129
Chapter 5: Mushrooms as Sources of Therapeutic Foods.......................................141
Marina Sokovic´, Jasmina Glamocˇlija, Ana C´iric´, Jovana Petrovic´, Dejan Stojkovic´
1 Introduction to Mushrooms as Therapeutic Foods.............................................. 141
2 Cultivation Technologies for Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms........................ 142
3 Mushrooms Uses in Traditional Medicine Versus Scientific Confirmation
for the Uses
4 Agaricus spp........................................................................................................ 145
5 Antrodia spp......................................................................................................... 147
6 Boletus spp........................................................................................................... 148
7 Cordyceps spp...................................................................................................... 149
8 Ganoderma spp.................................................................................................... 151
9 Hericium spp........................................................................................................ 154
10 Laetiporus spp..................................................................................................... 156
11 Lentinula spp....................................................................................................... 158
12 Phellinus spp........................................................................................................ 161
13 Trametes spp........................................................................................................ 164
14 Miscellaneous Mushrooms.................................................................................. 166
15 Conclusions......................................................................................................... 169
References................................................................................................................. 170
Chapter 6: Oregano: A Feed Additive With Functional Properties..........................179
Ilias Giannenas, Eleftherios Bonos, Efterpi Christaki, Panagiota Florou-Paneri
1 Introduction........................................................................................................... 179
2 Antimicrobial Growth Promoters.......................................................................... 180
3 Oregano Essential Oil............................................................................................ 181
4 Modes of Action of Oregano................................................................................. 183
4.1 Antimicrobial Activity of Oregano........................................................................183
4.2 Antiparasitic Activity of Oregano.........................................................................186
4.3 Antioxidant Activity of Oregano...........................................................................189
4.4 Analgesic, Antiaggregant, Antiinflammatory, and Antispasmodic
Activity of Oregano
4.5 Immunostimulating, Antimutagenic, and Protective Effects of Oregano.............191
5 Use of Oregano in Animal Nutrition..................................................................... 192
5.1 Effects of Dietary Oregano in Poultry..................................................................193
5.2 Effects of Dietary Oregano in Pigs.......................................................................196
5.3 Effects of Dietary Oregano in Ruminants.............................................................199
5.4 Effects of Dietary Oregano in Rabbits..................................................................200
6 Conclusions........................................................................................................... 201
References................................................................................................................. 202
Chapter 7: Potential of Chokeberry (Aronia Melanocarpa L.)
as a Therapeutic Food.......................................................................209
Nada C´ujic´, Nevena Kardum, Katarina Šavikin, Gordana Zdunic´,
Teodora Jankovic´, Nebojša Menkovic´
1 Introduction........................................................................................................... 209
2 Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa)........................................................................ 210
2.1 Polyphenolsas Active Compounds of Chokeberry................................................210
2.2 Antioxidant Potential of Chokeberry....................................................................212
2.3 Potential Health Effects of Chokeberry................................................................216
3 Bioavailability and Metabolism of Polyphenols Present
in Chokeberry
4 Chokeberry Products-Extracts............................................................................... 225
5 New Technologies in Chokeberry Products........................................................... 228
6 Conclusions........................................................................................................... 230
References................................................................................................................. 231
Chapter 8: Beta Glucan as Therapeutic Food.......................................................239
Vetvicka Vaclav, Sima Petr, Vannucci Luca
1 History................................................................................................................... 239
2 New Discoveries.................................................................................................... 240
3 Nutrition and Immunity......................................................................................... 241
4 Why the Immune Responses are Dependent on Nutrition..................................... 244
5 Beta Glucans.......................................................................................................... 245
6 Transport Through the Gastrointestinal Tract........................................................ 246
7 Beta Glucan and Immunity.................................................................................... 246
8 Beta Glucan as Food Additive............................................................................... 247
9 Conclusions........................................................................................................... 252
References................................................................................................................. 252
Chapter 9: Nutritionally Enhanced Foods Incorporating Chía Seed.........................257
J. Rodolfo Rendón-Villalobos, Amanda Ortíz-Sánchez, Emmanuel Flores-Huicochea
1 Introduction........................................................................................................... 257
2 Therapeutic Foods................................................................................................. 259
3 History and Ethnobotanical Aspects of Chia......................................................... 263
3.1 Chia Seed as Valuable Food..................................................................................265
3.2 Health Benefits and Nutraceuticals of Chia..........................................................268
4 Some Reports on Use of Chia Seed as Food Ingredient........................................ 272
5 Conclusions........................................................................................................... 276
References................................................................................................................. 277
Section III: Medical impact...............................................................283
Chapter 10: Perspective Therapeutic Effects of Immunomodulating
Acidic Herbal Heteropolysaccharides and Their Complexes
in Functional and Dietary Nutrition..................................................285
Yordan N. Georgiev, Manol H. Ognyanov, Petko N. Denev,
Maria G. Kratchanova
1 Introduction........................................................................................................... 286
1.1 Trends in Herbal Medicine and Nutrition.............................................................286
1.2 Importance of Bioactive Acidic Heteropolysaccharides.......................................286
2 Chemical Diversity of Herbal Acidic Heteropolysaccharides
and Relation to Immunogenicity
3 Perspective Therapeutic Effects of Acidic Heteropolysaccharides....................... 293
3.1 Modulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity......................................................293
3.2 Antitumor Activity Via Immune System Stimulation...........................................301
3.3 Gastroprotective Effects Via Immune System Modulation...................................304
3.4 Perspective Therapeutic Effects of Polysaccharide Complexes............................311
4 Preparation of Immunomodulating Acidic Heteropolysaccharides
and Their Complexes
5 Concluding Remarks............................................................................................. 317
References................................................................................................................. 318
Chapter 11: Soybeans, Flaxseeds, and Fish Oil in the Treatment
of Renal Disease.............................................................................329
Danijela Ristic´-Medic´, Marija Takic´, Slavica Radjen
1 Introduction........................................................................................................... 329
2 Sources, Dietary, and Supplement Intake.............................................................. 332
2.1 Soybean-Dietary Sources of Soy Protein, Isoflavones, Fatty Acids,
and Fiber
2.2 Flaxseed-Dietary Sources of ALA, Lignans, Fiber, and Flaxseed Protein...........333
2.3 Dietary Sources and Rrecommendation of N – 3 PUFAs
(ALA, EPA, and DHA)
3 Clinical Association of Soybeans, Flaxseed, and Fish Oil Treatments in CKD ����335
3.1 Effect on Renal Function......................................................................................336
3.2 Fish Oil and IgA Nephropathy..............................................................................339
3.3 Fatty Acid Status in Patients With CKD...............................................................340
3.4 Soybean, Flaxseed, and Fish Oil Effects on Dyslipidemia...................................342
3.5 Soybean, Flaxseed, and Fish Oil Effects on Inflammation...................................348
3.6 Soybean, Flaxseed, and Fish Oil Effects on Oxidation.........................................350
3.7 Soybean, Flaxseed, and Fish Oil Effects on Blood Pressure................................352
3.8 The Effect of n – 3 PUFAs Supplementation on Thrombosis
and Vascular Access Patency
3.9 Soybean, Flaxseed, and Fish Oil Effects on Cardiovascular Events
and Mortality
3.10 Soybeans, Flaxseed, and n − 3 PUFAs in the Prevention
of Polycystic Kidney Disease Progression
4 Conclusions........................................................................................................... 359
References................................................................................................................. 360
Chapter 12: Maca, A Nutraceutical From the Andean Highlands...........................373
Gustavo F. Gonzales, Dulce E. Alarcón-Yaquetto
1 Introduction........................................................................................................... 373
2 A Crop Native From the Peruvian Highlands........................................................ 374
3 The Tradition Behind Maca................................................................................... 375
4 The Science Behind Maca..................................................................................... 375
4.1 Phenotypes of Maca and Differential Properties..................................................375
4.2 Biological Properties.............................................................................................377
5 The Future of Maca............................................................................................... 385
5.1 Biotechnology in the Study of Maca....................................................................385
5.2 Mixture of Plants...................................................................................................386
5.3 Maca and the Endocannabinoid System...............................................................386
6 Concluding Remarks............................................................................................. 387
References................................................................................................................. 388
Chapter 13: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties
of Secondary Metabolites in Berries..................................................397
Sandra N. Jimenez-Garcia, Moises A. Vazquez-Cruz, Lina Garcia-Mier,
Luis M. Contreras-Medina, Ramon G. Guevara-González,
Juan F. Garcia-Trejo, Ana A. Feregrino-Perez
1 Introduction........................................................................................................... 397
2 Taxonomic Problems............................................................................................. 398
3 Berry Fruits, Bioactives, and Bioavailability......................................................... 399
4 Metabolic Syndrome.............................................................................................. 400
4.1 Traditional Uses of Medicinal Berry Plants Against Cancer................................400
4.2 In Vitro Validation of Berries Against Different Types of Cancer
Cell Lines
5 Clinical Efficacy and Mechanism of Action Berries............................................. 401
6 Cancer and Oxidative Species............................................................................... 408
6.1 Antioxidants Compounds From Natural Origin....................................................409
7 Types of Cancer With Potential to be Treated by Medicinal Plants...................... 414
7.1 Breast Cancer........................................................................................................414
7.2 Lung Cancer..........................................................................................................415
7.3 Digestive System Cancer......................................................................................416
7.4 Skin Cancer...........................................................................................................417
7.5 Other Cancer Types...............................................................................................418
8 Epidemiological Studies of Cancer....................................................................... 419
9 Conclusions........................................................................................................... 420
References................................................................................................................. 420
Section IV: Cancer Therapy..............................................................429
Chapter 14: Functional Foods and Chemoprevention in Cancer..............................431
Edwin E. Martínez Leo, Tania V. Altamirano, Maira R. Segura Campos
1 Functional Foods and Bioactive Compounds........................................................ 431
1.1 Bioactive Compounds With Chemopreventive Action..........................................432
1.2 Compounds That Inhibit Carcinogens..................................................................433
2 Bioactive Compounds With Anticancer Activity................................................... 434
2.1 Carotenoids...........................................................................................................435
2.2 Phenolics and Polyphenols...................................................................................436
2.3 Lignans..................................................................................................................441
2.4 Glucosinolates.......................................................................................................442
2.5 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs)..............................................443
3 Conclusions........................................................................................................... 445
References................................................................................................................. 445
Chapter 15: Epigenetic Nutraceuticals in Cancer Treatment..................................449
Gordana Supic, Katarina Zeljic, Zvonko Magic
1 Introduction........................................................................................................... 449
1.1 DNA Methylation..................................................................................................450
1.2 Histone Modifications...........................................................................................451
1.3 Small Noncoding RNAs........................................................................................453
2 Diet and Transgenerational Epigenetic Changes................................................... 454
3 Epigenetic Nutraceuticals in Cancer Treatment.................................................... 456
4 Essential Micronutrients–Folate, Selenium, Vitamin D........................................ 456
4.1 Folate.....................................................................................................................456
4.2 Selenium...............................................................................................................459
4.3 Vitamin D..............................................................................................................462
5 Flavonoids.............................................................................................................. 465
5.1 Curcumin...............................................................................................................465
5.2 Quercetin...............................................................................................................467
5.3 Apigenin................................................................................................................468
5.4 Garcinol.................................................................................................................469
6 Polyphenol Catechins............................................................................................ 470
6.1 Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)......................................................................470
6.2 Resveratrol............................................................................................................471
6.3 Genistein...............................................................................................................472
6.4 Sulforaphane.........................................................................................................474
7 Conclusions, Future Perspectives, and Challenges................................................ 476
References................................................................................................................. 479
Index...............................................................................................................495


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