Principles of Food Chemistry. Fourth Edition

John M. deMan
John W. Finley
W. Jeffrey Hurst
Chang Yong Lee

Food Science Text Series
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Book Details
 614 p
 File Size 
 22,274 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 978-3-319-63607-8 (eBook) 
 Springer International Publishing AG 1999, 2018

About the Editors
John M. deMan (1926–2010) was a University Professor Emeritus in the
Department of Food Science at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
He was the Chairman of the Department and Past President of the Canadian
Institute of Food Science and Technology. He published over 250 papers and
book chapters on multiple aspects of food science and technology. He
received many professional awards, including the Dairy Research Award of
the American Dairy Science Association, the Institute Award of the Canadian
Institute of Food Science and Technology, the Alton E. Bailey Award of the
American Oil Chemist Society, the Stephen S. Chang Award of the Institute
of Food Technologists, and the Kaufmann Memorial Award of the International
Society of Fat Research. He was a Fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists,
the Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology, and the Malaysian
Oil Science and Technology Association.
John W. Finley received a B.S. in Chemistry from LeMoyne College and a
Ph.D. from Cornell University. Dr. Finley retired from Louisiana State
University where he was head of the Food Science program from 2007 to
2014. His laboratory studied low calorie ingredients, anti-inflammatory compounds
in the diet, modified nutritional lipids, and edible fiber. Previously he
headed Fundamental Science at Nabisco, was a Fellow at Kraft Food, served
as chief technology officer of A.M. Todd Co. and the leader of the Food
Science program at Monsanto, and Research Scientist with the USDA
Regional Research Center.

Dr. Finley is a Fellow of the American Chemical Society, Fellow of
Agricultural and Food Division of the American Chemical Society, Fellow of
the Royal Society of Chemistry, Fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists,
and Certified Food Technologist by Fellow Institute of Food Technologists. He
was recognized as an Outstanding Alumnus of Michigan State University.
Other awards include Harris Distinguished lecturer at the Ohio State University
and a Leadership Award at Nabisco, and his memberships include Sigma Xi at
Michigan State University and Phi Kappa Phi at Cornell University.
Dr. Finley has edited 8 books, holds 70 patents, and 135 publications.
W. Jeffrey Hurst retired from the Hershey Company as Principal Scientist
after being with the corporation for over 39 years. His research focused on
monitoring new developments in measurement technology as they apply to
food systems and the review of new and emerging compounds important to
the food industry. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, the
Institute of Food Technologist. He is a member of the American Society of
Mass Spectrometry and Fellow of the American Institute of Chemists (FAIC).
Furthermore, he was named a Fellow of the AOAC, a Pioneer in Laboratory
Robotics, and is a Diplomate of the American Association Integrated
Medicine. Dr. Hurst was a member of the US Air Force and retired as a Major.
He also serves as a member of the External Advisory Board of the University
of Illinois at Chicago NIH bv Botanical Center. This book will be the tenth
one that he has edited or written. He was founding editor of Lab Robotics
Automation and Seminars in Food Analysis. He has numerous patents with
over 300 papers and presentations.

Chang Yong Lee received a B.S. in Chemistry from Chung-Ang University
in Seoul, Korea, and a Ph.D. from Utah State University. He has been working
as a faculty member at Cornell University since 1969. Professor Lee has
been teaching food chemistry for a number of years in the Department of
Food Science. His research interests have been on biochemical aspects of
plant foods. Recently his laboratory has been working on the bioactivity of
phytochemicals that is related to health benefits. He served as Chair of the
Department of Food Science and Technology and Co-director of Cornell
Institute of Food Science (2002–2008). Dr. Lee has held visiting professor
appointments at several institutions, including Korea Institute of Science and
Technology; Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Science at EMBRAPA,
Brazil; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Avignon, France;
Beijing Vegetable Research Center, China; Ecole Nationale Superieure
des Industries Agricoles et Alimentaire, France; Graduate School of
Biotechnology, Korea University; and Kyung Hee University, Korea.
Professor Lee has authored more than 300 research articles. He was a
recipient of Platinum Award on his edited books on polyphenols from the
American Chemical Society’s Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry and the Institute for Scientific
Information (ISI) acknowledged Professor Lee as one of the Highly Cited
Researchers (HCR) in 2004. Thomson Reuters selected him as one of 112
scientists in the world in the field of Agricultural Science during 2002–2012
who published the greatest number of highly cited papers ranked in the top
1% by citations. Again in 2015, Thomson Reuters listed Lee as one of the
World’s Most Influential Scientific Minds in Agricultural Science. Professor
Lee was awarded USDA Secretary’s Honor Award for Excellence in Research
in 2001 and 2004, and Babcock-Hart Award from the International Life
Science Institute and the Institute of Food Technologists in 2003. He is
elected Fellow of the American Chemical Society’s Division of Agriculture
and Food Chemistry (1991), the Institute of Food Technologists (1996), the
Korean Academy of Science and Technology (1998), and International
Academy of Food Science and Technology (2006). He was appointed as
International Scholar (2011–2014) at Kyung Hee University in Korea and
recently (2014–present) he has been serving as Adjunct Distinguished
Professor at King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

Table of Contents
1 Water  1
Yrjo H. Roos, John W. Finley, and John M. deMan
Water in Foods   1
Physical Properties of Water and Ice   1
Structure of the Water Molecule   4
Structure of Ice   6
Growth of Ice Crystals  7
Latent Heat of Fusion  7
Solidification Without Crystallization   8
Surface Tension of Water  10
Examples of Surface Tension   11
Colligative Properties of Aqueous Solutions  11
Freezing Point Depression  11
Boiling Point Elevation  12
Osmotic Pressure   12
Vapor Pressure Lowering   12
Ionic Interactions Are Attractions Between Oppositely
Charged Ions   13
Properties of Hydrogen Bonds   15
Hydrophobic Interactions   16
Water Activity and Sorption Phenomena  17
Types of Water  24
Phase Diagram   26
The Glass Transition  27
Water Activity and Reaction Rate  30
Water Activity and Food Spoilage  30
Water Activity and Packaging   33
Water Activity and Food Processing   34
References  35
2 Lipids   39
John W. Finley and John M. deMan
Shorthand Description of Fatty Acids and Glycerides  40
Fatty Acids  43
Lipid Nomenclature  43
Cis and trans Fatty Acids  44
Triglycerides  48
Component Glycerides  53
Waxes   58
Phospholipids  60
Unsaponifiables   63
Terpenes   63
Steroids  63
Phytosterols  66
Lipid Reactions   68
Fatty Acid Salts   68
Hydrolysis  68
Interesterification   68
Hydrogenation  72
Lipid Oxidation  78
Initiation   79
Propagation  79
Termination  79
Photooxidation   88
Heated Fats: Frying   90
Flavor Reversion  93
Physical Properties   95
Fractionation  105
Emulsions and Emulsifiers  106
Fat Replacers  110
References  113
3 Amino Acids and Proteins  117
Michael Appell, W. Jeffrey Hurst, John W. Finley,
and John M. deMan
Introduction   117
Amino Acids  117
Peptides and Proteins  118
Protein Classification  120
Simple Proteins  120
Conjugated Proteins  123
Derived Proteins   123
Protein Structure    123
Denaturation  125
Non-enzymic Browning   127
Chemical Changes  136
Functional Properties   139
Surface Activity of Proteins   140
Gel Formation   142
Animal Proteins   142
Milk Proteins  142
Meat Proteins   147
Meromysin  147
Collagen  149
Fish Proteins   152
Egg Proteins  153
Plant Proteins   154
Wheat Proteins   154
Maize Proteins   156
Rice Proteins  157
Soybean Proteins   158
Gluten Sensitivity   161
Test Methods   161
References   162
4 Carbohydrates  165
Gillian Eggleston, John W. Finley, and John M. deMan
Introduction   165
Monosaccharides   166
Related Compounds to Monosaccharides   171
Amino Sugars   171
Glycosides  172
Sugar Alcohols   172
Oligosaccharides   175
Disaccharides   175
Chemical Reactions of Sugars   179
Compounds Related to Sugars  191
Polysaccharides   191
Starch  192
Starch Degrading Enzymes  200
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)   201
Starch Hydrolyzates: Corn Sweeteners   202
Modified Starches   202
Glycogen   207
Cellulose   209
Pentosans/Hemicelluloses  210
Lignin  211
Cyclodextrins  212
Polydextrose   214
Pectins   215
Gums    216
Dietary Fiber  222
References   226
5 Minerals   231
John W. Finley and John M. deMan
Introduction  231
Interactions with Other Food Components   236
Major Minerals   237
Sodium   237
Potassium  237
Calcium   238
Phosphates  238
Minerals in Milk   239
Minerals in Meat  241
Minerals in Plant Products  242
Chloride  243
Trace Elements  244
Iron   244
Cobalt   245
Copper   245
Zinc  245
Manganese  245
Molybdenum   246
Selenium   246
Fluorine  246
Iodine   246
Chromium  246
Additional Information on Trace Elements   247
Metal Uptake in Canned Foods  247
References  250
6 Color and Food Colorants  253
John W. Finley, John M. deMan, and Chang Yong Lee
Introduction   253
CIE System   253
Munsell System   258
Hunter System  260
Lovibond System   261
Gloss   262
Food Colorants    263
Tetrapyrrole Pigments  266
Myoglobins   266
Chlorophylls  268
Isoprenoid Derivative Pigments  270
Carotenoids   270
Benzopyran Derivative Pigments  276
Anthocyanins and Flavonoids  276
Other Pigments  281
Betalains  281
References   283
7 Flavor  285
Han-Seok Seo, John W. Finley, and John M. deMan
Taste Sensations  290
Chemical Structure and Taste   290
Sweet Taste   293
Sour Taste   294
Salty Taste   295
Bitter Taste  298
Other Aspects of Taste  301
Taste Inhibition and Modification   303
Flavor Enhancement—Umami   304
Odor   306
Odor and Molecular Structure  310
Description of Food and Beverage Flavors   314
Astringency   316
Flavor and Off-Flavor  317
Flavor of Some Foods  319
Meat   320
Fish  320
Milk  321
Cheese   321
Fruits  322
Vegetables  322
Tea   322
Coffee  323
Alcoholic Beverages  324
References  325
8 Texture   329
Harry Levine and John W. Finley
Introduction   329
Fluids  330
Texture of Solids   333
Texture Profile   334
Measurement of Texture  335
Force and Stress   336
Deformation and Strain   336
Principles of Measurement   337
Different Types of Bodies  337
The Elastic Body   337
The Retarded Elastic Body  338 
The Viscoelastic Body   338
The Plastic Body  339
The Thixotropic Body   341
Dynamic Behavior   341
Rheology Applications in Foods   342
Textural Properties of some Foods   348
Meat Texture  348
Wheat Flour Dough   349
Fats  350
Fruits and Vegetables   353
Starch   353
Microstructure  355
Water Activity and Texture   359
References   361
9 Vitamins   365
John W. Finley and John M. deMan
Introduction   365
Fat-Soluble Vitamins  367
Vitamin A (Retinol)  367
Vitamin D  372
Tocopherols (Vitamin E)  372
Vitamin K  378
Water-Soluble Vitamins   378
Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic Acid)   378
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)  382
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)  383
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)  385
Niacin   386
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamine)   388
Folic Acid (Folacin)   389
Pantothenic Acid  391
Biotin   391
Vitamins as Food Ingredients  392
References  394
10 Enzymes   397
John M. deMan and Chang Yong Lee
Introduction   397
Nature and Kinetics of Enzymes   400
Nature of Enzymes  400
Kinetics of Enzymes  400
Specificity  404
Classification  405
Enzyme Production  405
Hydrolases  405
Esterases   405
Amylases   411
Pectic Enzymes   413
Proteases   415
Protein Hydrolysates  419
Oxidoreductases   421
Phenolases  421
Glucose Oxidase (β-d-Glucose: Oxygen Oxidoreductase)  423
Catalase (Hydrogen Peroxide: Hydrogen Peroxide
Oxidoreductase)   423
Peroxidase (Donor: Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidoreductase) 424
Lipoxygenase (Linoleate: Oxygen Oxidoreductase)  426
Xanthine Oxidase (Xanthine: Oxygen Oxidoreductase)   427
Immobilized Enzymes   429
References   432
11 Fruits and Vegetables  435
Chang Yong Lee
Major and Minor Components   435
Water   435
Carbohydrates   436
Proteins and Nitrogenous Compounds   438
Lipids   438
Minor Composition   438
Organic Acids   438
Phenolic Compounds  441
Minerals   443
Pigments  444
Postharvest Deterioration   445
Cellular Components and Physiology of Fruits
and Vegetables   446
Respiration   447
Environmental Factors that Influence Deterioration  448
Effects of Processing on Fruits and Vegetables  448
Carbohydrate Reactions   449
Protein Reactions   449
Lipid Reactions   450
Color Change  450
Flavor Change  451
Texture Change   452
Nutrient Loss  452
Dehydration of Fruits and Vegetables   453
Canning of Fruits and Vegetables  454
Freezing of Fruits and Vegetables  454
Lactic Acid Fermentation  454
References   455
12 Herbs and Spices   457
Zhuohong Xie and John W. Finley
Black Pepper  463
Vanilla  464
Cardamom   468
Ginger  469
Turmeric  471
Cinnamon   473
Ginseng  477
Ginkgo  478
Food Fraud Risks   478
References   478
13 Beer and Wine   483
John W. Finley
Alcoholic Fermentation  484
Beer   486
Raw Materials  488
Hops   489
Yeast   493
Wine   495
Wine Grape Production   496
Wine Production  498
References   506
14 Genetically Modified Crops   511
W. Jeffrey Hurst and John W. Finley
Applications of Genetically Modified Crops  518
Testing  521
Regulation  522
Future Challenges   522
GMO Dictionary  523
Flour  525
References   526
15 Additives and Contaminants   527
W. Jeffrey Hurst, John W. Finley and John M. deMan
Introduction  527
Food Toxins   527
Food Additives  531
Benzoic Acid  533
Parabens   533
Sorbic Acid  536
Sulfites  536
Nitrates and Nitrites   538
Hydrogen Peroxide  539
Sodium Chloride   539
Bacteriocins  540
Antioxidants  540
Emulsifiers  542
Bread Improvers  543
Incidental Additives or Contaminants  549
Pesticides  549
Dioxin   551
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)  552
Antibiotics  555
Trace Metals   556
Mercury  556
Lead and Tin  559
Cadmium  560
Arsenic   560
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)  560
Caffeine  562
References  563
Appendix A: Moisture Analysis  567
Appendix B: Units and Conversion Factors  573
Appendix C: Greek Alphabet  575
Index  577


Library of Congress Control Number: 2017956195
1st edition: © AVI 1980
2nd edition: © AVI 1989

This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature
The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG
The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland
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