(late} CK Jayaram Paniker MD
Director and Professor
Department of Microbiology
Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala
Dean, Faculty of Medicine
University of Calicut, Kera la, India
Emeritus Medical Scientist
Indian Council of Medical Research
New Delhi, India

Revised and Edited by
Sougata Ghosh MD ocH
Department of Microbiology
Government Medical College
Kol kata, West Bengal, India
Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (IPGMER) and
Calcutta School ofTropical Medicine
Kolkat a, West Bengal, India

Jagdish Chander
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Book Details
 271 p
 File Size 
 66,704 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers 

This is a great pleasure to write the foreword to the eighth edition of Paniker's Textbook of Medical
Parasitology dealing with medically important parasites vis-a-vis human diseases caused by them.
The parasitic infections (protozoa! and helminthic) are still major cause of high morbidity as well
as mortality of substantial number of population residing in the developing world of tropical and
subtropical regions. The clinical presentations of parasit ic diseases have also significantly evolved
with the passage of time. Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax has never been life-threatening but
now it is presenting with renal failure as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) thereby
leading to fatal consequences. On the other hand, some of the infections such as dracunculiasis
have been eradicated from India and others are the next targets being in the pipeline.
There are a number of novel diagnostic techniques, which are being designed for rapid
diagnosis of various parasitic diseases and accurate identification of their causative pathogens. 
The non-invasive imaging techniques, both MRI and CT scans, are proving to be very useful tools for an early diagnosis thereby delineating the extent of disease in a particular patient. Therefore, to cope up with the changing epidemiological scenario and newer diagnostic modalities, medical students and professionals involved in the patient care need updates from time to time. Dr Sougata Ghosh (Editor), has done a remarkable job of going through the voluminous information and presenting it in a very lucid, concise and reproducible manner.
This edition will ideally be suited for medical students and resident doctors, who are preparing for various examinations entrance tests. I feel the present edition will also be appreciated by students and teaching faculties in all disciplines of medicine. The chapter on pneumocystosis has been removed, however, on sporozoa dealing with diseases caused by
different species of microsporidia, traditionally retained in this edition, despite the fact that it has also been shifted now to the kingdom fungi like Pneumocystis jirovecii.
The unique feature of the textbook is that it has many illustrations, photographs of cl inical specimens and photomicrographs with an easy-to-read and understand format. This will help the students to memorize the information given in the text easily as well as to use the same in medical practice. Each chapter has key points with a set of multiple choice questions (MCQs), which will help a student for better understanding and preparation before the examination. Although it is meant for medical graduates, recent advances mentioned in this book will also be useful for the postgraduates.
The original author, Professor CK Jayaram Paniker, was an experienced and enthusiastic medical teacher, and we recently lost him. Moreover, he was a legendary microbiologist and the author of numerous valuable textbooks, part icularly co-author of Ananthanarayan's Textbook of Microbiology. His name has been retained as such in the title of the eighth edition of this textbook is a great honor and real tribute to him thereby continuing his legacy to attain more heights in the field of medical parasitology even in his physical absence. I hope that this textbook will continue to benefit the medical
students and faculties for many years as it has done during the last three decades.
Jagdish Chander
Professor and Head
Department of Microbiology
Government Medical College and Hospital
Chandigarh, India

The previous editions of Paniker's Textbook of Medical Parasitology have been widely accepted by the medical students and teachers across India and abroad for almost three decades.
Medical science is not a static art. Methods of diagnosis and treatment of parasitic infections change constantly. To keep pace with these developments, all the chapters of present edition have been thoroughly revised and expanded, providing up-to-date epidemiological data, new diagnostic methods and recent treatment guidelines of parasitic infections.
In the current edition, many new tables, flow charts and photographs of specimens and microscopic view pictures have been added for better comprehension of the subject.
Recent advances such as vaccinology of malaria and leishmaniasis, malarial drug resistance, new treatment protocols of different parasitic infections are the salient features of the book.
The aim of the contents of the book remains same in this edition, that is compact yet informative and useful for both graduate and postgraduate students.
Like the last edition, the present edition is also designed in a colorful format, which can be easily read and comprehended. Important points and terms have been highlighted by making them bold and italic. At the end of each chapter, the must-know facts are given as "Key Points" in box formats for quick recapitulation. Important multiple choice questions (MCQs) and review questions from various university examinations' papers have been added to test and reinforce understanding of the topics by the students.
Sougata Ghosh

Table of Contents
1. General Introduction: Parasitology
Parasites 1
Host 1
Zoonosis 2
Host-parasite Relationships 2
Life Cycle of Parasites 3
Sources of Infection 3
Modes of Infection 4
Pathogenesis 4
Immunity in Parasitic Infection 5
Immune Evasion 5
Vaccination 5
Laboratory Diagnosis 6
2. Protozoa General Features 10
Structure 10
Cytoplasm 10
Nucleus 10
Terminologies Used in Protozoology 10
Reproduction 11
Life Cycle 11
Classification of Protozoa 11
3. Amebae 15
Entamoeba histolytica 15
Nonpathogenic Intestinal Ameba 24
Pathogenic Free-living Amebae 26
4. Intestinal, Oral and Genital Flagellates Giardia lamblia 32
Trichomonas 36
Chilomastix mesnili 38
Enteromonas hominis 38
Retortamonas intestina/is 38
Dientamoeba fragilis 39
5. Hemoflagellates
Zoological Classification of Flagellates 41
General Characteristics 41
Trypanosomes 42
Leishmania 52
6. Malaria and Babesia Malaria 66
Classification 66
Causative Agents of Human Malaria 66
Malaria Parasite 66
Babesia Species 86
Classification 86
History and Distribution 86
Habitat 86
Morphology 86
Life Cycle 86
Pathogenicity and Clinical Features 87
Laboratory Diagnosis 87
Treatment 88
Prophylaxis 88
7. Coccidia Toxoplasma gondii 90
/sospora be/Ii 96
Cryptosporidium parvum 97
Cyclospora cayetanensis 100
8/astocystis hominis 101
Sarcocystis 102
8. Microspora 104
History and Distribution 104
Morphology 704
Life Cycle 105
Clinical Features 105
Laboratory Diagnosis 105
Treatment 106
Prophylaxis 706
9. Balantidium coli 107
History and Distribution 107
Habitat 107
Morphology 107
Life Cycle 108
Pathogenesis 108
Clinical Features 109
Laboratory Diagnosis 109
Treatment 109
Prophylaxis 109
10. Helminths: General Features 111
Phylum Platyhelminthes 111
Phylum Nemathelminthes (Nematoda) 112
Important Features of Helminths 112
Zoological Classification of Helminths 113
11. Cestodes: Tapeworms 115
Classification of Cestodes 115
Tapeworms: General Characteristics 115
Pseudophyllidean Tapeworms 117
Cyclophyllidean Tapeworms 122
12. Trematodes: Flukes 141
Classification ofTrematodes 141
Flukes: General Characteristics 747
Life Cycle 142
Blood Flukes 143
Hermaphroditic Flukes: Liver Flukes 150
Intestinal Flukes 156
Lung Flukes 160
13. Nematodes: General Features 164
General Characteristics 164
Life Cycle 164
Modes of Infection 165
Classification 165
Larva Migrans 165
14. Trichinella spiralis 170
Common Name 170
History and Distribution 170
Habitat 110
Morphology 110
Life Cycle 111
Pathogenicity and Clinical Features 112
Diagnosis 112
Treatment 114
Prophylaxis 114
15. Trichuris trichiura 115
Common Name 115
History and Distribution 115
Habitat 775
Morphology 175
Life Cycle 7 16
Pathogenicity and Clinical Features 117
Laboratory Diagnosis 118
Treatment 118
Prophylaxis 118
16. Strongyloides stercoralis 180
History and Distribution 180
Habitat 180
Morphology 180
Life Cycle 182
Pathogenicity and Clinical Features 783
Laboratory Diagnosis 184
Treatment 185
Prophylaxis 185
17. Hookworm 187
History and Distribution 187
Ancylostoma duodenale 187
Necator americanus 189
Pathogenicity and Clinical Features of Hookworm Infection 190
Laboratory Diagnosis 197
Treatment 192
Prophylaxis 793
Other Hookworms 193
Trichostrongyliasis 793
18. Enterobius vermicularis 195
Common Name 795
History and Distribution 795
Habitat 795
Morphology 795
Life Cycle 796
Pathogenicity and Clinical Features 196
Laboratory Diagnosis 797
Treatment 798
Prophylaxis 7 99
19. Ascaris /umbricoides 200
Common Name 200
History and Distribution 200
Habitat 200
Morphology 200
Life Cycle 201
Pathogenicity and Clinical Features 203
Laboratory Diagnosis 205
Treatment 205
Prophylaxis 205
20. Filarial Worms 208
Lymphatic Filariasis 210
Subcutaneous Filariasis 219
21. Dracunculus medinensis 225
Common Name 225
History and Distribution 225
Habitat 225
Morphology 225
Life Cycle 226
Pathogenicity and Clinical Features 227
Laboratory Diagnosis 227
Treatment 227
Prophylaxis 229
22. Miscellaneous Nematodes 230
Angiostrongylus cantonensis 230
Capillaria philippinensis 231
Gnathostoma spinigerum 231
Anisakiasis 232
23. Diagnostic Methods in Parasitology 234
Examination of Stool 234
Examination of Blood 240
Sputum Examination 242
Urine or Body Fluids Examination 243
Tissue Biopsy 243
Muscle Biopsy 243
Duodenal Capsule Technique {Enterotest) 243
Sigmoidoscopy Material 244
Urogenital Specimen 244
Cult ure Methods 244
Animal Inoculation 245
Xenodiagnosis 245
Immunological Diagnosis 246
Skin Tests 247
Molecular Methods 247
Index 249


Printed at: Ajanta Offset & Packagings Ltd., Faridabad, Haryana

First Edition: 1988
Second Edition: 1989, Reprint: 1991
Third Edition: 1993
Fourth Edition: 1997, Reprint: 1999
Fifth Edition: 2002, Reprint: 2003, 2004
Sixth Edition: 2007, Reprint: 2011
Seventh Edition: 2013
Eighth Edition: 2018
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