Oxford Textbook of Global Public Health

Oxford Textbook of Global Public Health

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Edited by

Roger Detels
Distinguished Professor of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases,
Schools of Public Health and Medicine, University of California,
Los Angeles, CA, USA

Martin Gulliford
Professor of Public Health, Department of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, King's College London, UK

Quarraisha Abdool Karim
Associate Scientific Director, CAPRISA; Professor in Epidemiology, Columbia
University, USA; Adjunct Professor in Public Health and Family Medicine,
University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa


Chorh Chuan Tan
President and Professor of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

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Book Details
 1717 p
 File Size 
 52,531 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 978–0–19–966175–6 (Set)
 978–0–19–871930–4 (Vol. 1)
 978–0–19–871931–1 (Vol. 2)
 978–0–19–871932–8 (Vol. 3)
 Oxford University Press 2015 

Preface to the sixth edition
There have been important developments in public health over the
last decade, and these are reflected in the focus of this new edition
of the Oxford Textbook of Public Health. There has been a dramatic
decline in infant mortality and a commensurate increase
in life expectancy, but at the same time, the disparities in health
between rich and poor countries and between rich and poor
within countries have increased. As life expectancy has increased
in most regions of the world, so has the number of years individuals
spend with significant disabilities from illnesses as reflected in
higher disability-adjusted life years. The response to HIV/AIDS has
forged new alliances between industry and public health and demonstrated
the potential synergy between treatment and prevention
approaches for control of infectious diseases. The speed of transmission
of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and the
recent influenza epidemics which spread across continents within
weeks have underscored the interdependency of nations, the need
for international cooperation and the development of international
and cross-border surveillance and control programs. The epidemic
of chronic diseases has spread to middle- and low-income countries
which now have the majority of cancer, diabetes, and heart disease
occurring globally. Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented
rate and scale in rapidly emerging economies, bringing many new
health and social challenges. These events, trends, and programs are
rapidly changing the scope, reach, and character of public health.
Since the publication of the last edition it has become increasingly
clear that public health must adopt a global perspective in assessing
needs, developing interventions and ensuring good governance
(Chapters 1.5, 11.13). This is underscored by the decision of the
editors to change the title of the textbook to the Oxford Textbook
of Global Public Health which better reflects the scope of the book
and the issues covered in it. To capture this new perspective, we
have updated all the chapters, added new chapters and recruited
new authors with particular expertise in the rapidly changing scope
and responsibilities of public health.

Table of Contents
List of contributors xix
The scope of public health
The development of the discipline of public health
1.1 The scope and concerns of public health 3
Roger Detels and Chorh Chuan Tan
1.2 The history and development of public
health in developed countries 19
Christopher Hamlin
1.3 The history and development of public health
in low- and middle-income countries 37
Than Sein
1.4 Development of public health in economic
transition: the middle-income countries 48
Kai Hong Phua, Mui-Teng Yap, Sara U.
Schwanke Khilji, and Hin-Peng Lee
1.5 Globalization 62
Kelley Lee

Determinants of health and disease
2.1 Determinants of health: overview 81
Justin V. Remais and Richard J. Jackson
2.2 Poverty, justice, and health 89
Ronald Labonté, Frances Baum, and David Sanders
2.3 Socioeconomic inequalities in
health in high-income countries: the facts and the options 106
Johan P. Mackenbach
2.4 Reducing health inequalities
in developing countries 127
Hoosen Coovadia and Irwin Friedman
2.5 Genomics and public health 140
Vural Özdemir, Wylie Burke, Muin J. Khoury,
Bartha M. Knoppers, and Ron Zimmern
2.6 Water and sanitation 162
Thomas Clasen
2.7 Food and nutrition 180
Prakash S. Shetty
2.8 The environment and climate change 201
Alistair Woodward and Alex Macmillan
2.9 Behavioural determinants of
health and disease 218
Lawrence W. Green, Robert A. Hiatt, and Kristin S. Hoeft
2.10 Access to healthcare and population health 234
Martin Gulliford

Public health policies, law, and ethics
3.1 Leadership in public health 253
Manuel M. Dayrit and Maia Ambegaokar
3.2 Ethical principles and ethical
issues in public health 267
Nancy Kass, Amy Paul, and Andrew Siegel
3.3 The right to the highest attainable
standard of health 277
Paul Hunt, Gunilla Backman, Judith Bueno
de Mesquita, Louise Finer, Rajat Khosla,
Dragana Korljan, and Lisa Oldring
3.4 Law and the public’s health 293
Lawrence Gostin
3.5 Priority setting, social values, and public health 303
Peter Littlejohns, Sarah Clark, and Albert Weale
3.6 Health policy in developing countries 314
Miguel Angel González-Block, Adetokunbo Lucas,
Octavio Gómez-Dantés, and Julio Frenk
3.7 Public health policy in developed countries 332
John Powles
3.8 International efforts to promote public health 348
Douglas Bettcher, Katherine DeLand, Gemma
Lien, Fernando Gonzalez-Martinez, Anne Huvos,
Steven Solomon, Ulrike Schwerdtfeger, Haik
Nikogosian, Angelika Tritscher, and Julia Dalzell

The methods of public health
Information systems and sources of intelligence
4.1 Information systems in support of public
health in high-income countries 367
Tjeerd-Pieter van Staa and Liam Smeeth
4.2 Information systems and community diagnosis
in low- and middle-income countries 375
Peter Cherutich and Ruth Nduati
4.3 New communication technologies,
social media, and public health 388
Mohan J. Dutta

Epidemiological and biostatistical approaches
5.1 Epidemiology: the foundation of public health 403
Roger Detels
5.2 Ecological variables, ecological studies, and
multilevel studies in public health research 411
Ana V. Diez Roux
5.3 Cross-sectional studies 430
Manolis Kogevinas and Leda Chatzi
5.4 Principles of outbreak investigation 442
Kumnuan Ungchusak and Sopon Iamsirithaworn
5.5 Case–control studies 457
Noel S. Weiss
5.6 Cohort studies 467
Alvaro Muñoz and F. Javier Nieto
5.7 Methodology of intervention
trials in individuals 484
Lawrence M. Friedman and Eleanor B. Schron
5.8 Methodological issues in the design and
analysis of community intervention trials 500
Allan Donner
5.9 Community intervention trials in
high-income countries 516
John W. Farquhar and Lawrence W. Green
5.10 Community-based intervention trials
in low- and middle-income countries 528
Sheena G. Sullivan and Zunyou Wu
5.11 Clinical epidemiology 540
Vivian A. Welch, Kevin Pottie, Tomás Pantoja,
Andrea C. Tricco, and Peter Tugwell
5.12 Genetic epidemiology 550
Elizabeth H. Young and Manjinder S. Sandhu
5.13 Validity and bias in epidemiological research 569
Sander Greenland and Tyler J. VanderWeele
5.14 Causation and causal inference 591
Katherine J. Hoggatt, Sander Greenland,
and Tyler J. VanderWeele
5.15 Systematic reviews and meta-analysis 599
Jimmy Volmink and Mike Clarke
5.16 Statistical methods 613
Gail Williams
5.17 Measuring the health of populations: the
Global Burden of Disease study methods 634
Theo Vos and Christopher J.L. Murray
5.18 Mathematical models of transmission
and control of infectious agents 645
Alex Welte, Brian Williams, and Gavin Hitchcock
5.19 Public health surveillance 664
James W. Buehler and Ann Marie Kimball
5.20 Life course epidemiology and analysis 679
Diana Kuh, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Kate
Tilling, and Rebecca Hardy

Social science techniques
6.1 Sociology and psychology in public health 695
Stella R. Quah
6.2 Sexuality and public health 709
Richard Parker, Jonathan Garcia, Miguel
Muñoz-Laboy, Marni Sommer, and Patrick Wilson
6.3 Demography and public health 718
Emily Grundy and Michael Murphy
6.4 Health promotion, health education,
and the public’s health 736
Simon Carroll and Marcia Hills
6.5 Development and evaluation
of complex multicomponent
interventions in public health 751
Rona Campbell and Chris Bonell
6.6 Economic appraisal in public healthcare:
assessing efficiency and equity 761
David Parkin, Stephen Morris, and Nancy Devlin
6.7 Behavioural economics and health 775
Judd B. Kessler and C. Yiwei Zhang
6.8 Governance and management of
public health programmes 790
Eng-kiong Yeoh
6.9 Implementation science and
translational public health 807
Kedar S. Mate, Theodore Svoronos, and Dan W. Fitzgerald

Environmental and occupational
health sciences
7.1 Environmental health issues in public health 823
Chien-Jen Chen
7.2 Radiation and public health 840
Leeka Kheifets, Adele Green, and Richard Wakeford
7.3 Environmental exposure assessment: modelling
air pollution concentrations 857
John Gulliver and Kees de Hoogh
7.4 Occupational health 868
David Koh and Tar-Ching Aw
7.5 Toxicology and risk assessment in the
analysis and management of
environmental risk 883
David Koh, Tar-Ching Aw, and Bernard D. Goldstein
7.6 Risk perception and communication 893
Baruch Fischhoff

The practice of public health
Major health problems
8.1 Epidemiology and prevention
of cardiovascular disease 909
Nathan D. Wong
8.2 Cancer epidemiology and public health 923
Zuo-Feng Zhang, Paolo Boffetta, Alfred
I. Neugut, and Carlo La Vecchia
8.3 Chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease and asthma 945
Jeroen Douwes, Marike Boezen, Collin
Brooks, and Neil Pearce
8.4 Obesity 970
W. Philip T. James and Tim Marsh
8.5 Physical activity and health 992
Nasiha Soofie and Roger Detels
8.6 Diabetes mellitus 1001
Nigel Unwin and Jonathan Shaw
8.7 Public mental health and suicide 1013
Kristian Wahlbeck and Danuta Wasserman
8.8 Dental public health 1028
Peter G. Robinson and Zoe Marshman
8.9 Musculoskeletal disorders 1046
Lope H. Barrero and Alberto J. Caban-Martinez
8.10 Neurological diseases, epidemiology,
and public health 1060
Walter A. Kukull and James Bowen
8.11 Infectious diseases and prions 1079
Davidson H. Hamer and Zulfiqar A. Bhutta
8.12 Sexually transmitted infections 1104
Mary L. Kamb and Patricia J. Garcia
8.13 HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 1122
Sten H. Vermund and Suniti Solomon
8.14 Tuberculosis 1144
David W. Dowdy, Richard E. Chaisson,
and Gavin J. Churchyard
8.15 Malaria 1161
Frank Sorvillo, Shira Shafir, and Benjamin Bristow
8.16 Chronic hepatitis and other liver disease 1175
Pierre Van Damme, Tinne Lernout, Koen Van Herck, Rui
T. Marinho, Raymundo Paraná, and Daniel Shouval
8.17 Emerging and re-emerging infections 1192
David L. Heymann and Vernon J. M. Lee
8.18 Bioterrorism 1206
Nicholas S. Kelley and Michael T. Osterholm

Prevention and control of public
health hazards
9.1 Tobacco 1217
Tai Hing Lam and Sai Yin Ho
9.2 Public health aspects of illicit
psychoactive drug use 1233
Don Des Jarlais, Jonathan Feelemyer, and Deborah Hassin
9.3 Alcohol 1249
Robin Room
9.4 Injury prevention and control: the
public health approach 1262
Corinne Peek-Asa and Adnan Hyder
9.5 Interpersonal violence: a recent
public health mandate 1276
Rachel Jewkes
9.6 Collective violence: war 1288
Barry S. Levy and Victor W. Sidel
9.7 Urban health in low- and
middle-income countries 1297
Mark R. Montgomery

Public health needs of population groups
10.1 The changing family 1317
Gavin W. Jones
10.2 Women, men, and health 1328
Sarah Payne and Lesley Doyal
10.3 Child health 1344
Cynthia Boschi-Pinto, Nigel Rollins, Bernadette Daelmans,
Rajiv Bahl, Jose Martines, and Elizabeth Mason
10.4 Adolescent health 1359
Pierre-André Michaud, Anne-Emmanuelle Ambresin,
Richard F. Catalano, Judith Diers, and Georges C. Patton
10.5 Ethnicity, race, epidemiology, and public health 1371
Raj Bhopal
10.6 The health of indigenous peoples 1382
Ian Anderson and Sue Crengle
10.7 People with disabilities 1392
Donald J. Lollar and Elena M. Andresen
10.8 Health of older people 1408
Julie E. Byles and Meredith A. Tavener
10.9 Forced migrants and other
displaced populations 1425
Catherine R. Bateman Steel and Anthony B. Zwi
10.10 Prisons: from punishment to public health 1445
Ernest Drucker

Public health functions
11.1 Health needs assessment 1463
Michael P. Kelly, Jane E. Powell, and Natalie Bartle
11.2 Prevention and control of
non-communicable diseases 1476
K. Srinath Reddy
11.3 Principles of infectious disease control 1484
Robert J. Kim-Farley
11.4 Population screening and public health 1507
Allison Streetly and Lars Elhers
11.5 Environmental health practice 1523
Yasmin E.R. von Schirnding
11.6 Strategies and structures for public
health intervention 1542
Sian Griffiths
11.7 Strategies for health services 1563
Chien Earn Lee
11.8 Training of public health professionals
in developing countries 1580
Vonthanak Saphonn, San Hone, and Roger Detels
11.9 Training of local health workers to
meet public health needs 1585
Piya Hanvoravongchai and Suwit
11.10 Emergency public health
and humanitarian assistance in the
twenty-first century 1594
Les Roberts and Richard Brennan
11.11 Principles of public health emergency
response for acute environmental,
chemical, and radiation incidents 1608
Naima Bradley, Jill Meara, and Virginia Murray
11.12 Private support of public health 1621
Quarraisha Abdool Karim and Roger Detels
11.13 The future of international public
health in an era of austerity 1629
Margaret Chan and Mary Kay Kindhauser


Chapters 3.8, 10.3, 11.10 and 11.13 © World Health Organization 2015

The moral rights of the authors have been asserted
First edition 1984
Second edition 1991
Third edition 1997
Fourth edition 2002 (reprinted in paperback 2004, 2005 twice)
Fifth edition 2009
Sixth edition 2015