Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, Fourth Edition

Volume 2 Design, Instrumentation, and Controls

Edited by Myer Kutz
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 1010 p
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 978-1-118-93080-9 (ePub)
 978-1-118-93083-0 (Adobe PDF) 
 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc 

The second volume of the fourth edition of the Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook is comprised
of two parts: Part 1, Mechanical Design, with 14 chapters, and Part 2, Instrumentation, Systems,
Controls and MEMS, with 11 chapters. The mechanical design chapters were in Volume
I in the third edition. Given the introduction of 6 new chapters, mostly on measurements, in
Volume I in this edition, it made sense to move the mechanical design chapters to Volume II
and to cull chapters on instrumentation to make way for the measurements chapters, which
are of greater use to readers of this handbook. Moreover, the mechanical design chapters have
been augmented with 4 chapters (updated as needed) from my book, Environmentally Conscious
Mechanical Design, thereby putting greater emphasis on sustainability. The 4 chapters
are Design for Environment, Life-Cycle Design, Design for Maintainability, and Design for
Remanufacturing Processes. They flesh out sustainability issues that were covered in the third
edition by only one chapter, Product Design and Manufacturing Processes for Sustainability.
The other 9 mechanical design chapters all appeared in the third edition. Six of them have
been updated.
In the second part of Volume 2, Instrumentation, Systems, Controls and MEMS, 5 of
the 11 chapters were new to the third edition of the handbook, including the 3 chapters I
labeled as “newdepartures”: Neural Networks in Control Systems,Mechatronics, and Introduction
to Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS): Design and Application. These topics have
become increasingly important to mechanical engineers in recent years and they are included
again. Overall, 3 chapters have been updated for this edition. In addition, I brought over the
Electric Circuits chapter from the fifth edition of Eshbach’s Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals.
Readers of this part of Volume 2 will also find a general discussion of systems
engineering; fundamentals of control system design, analysis, and performance modification;
and detailed information about the design of servo actuators, controllers, and general-purpose
control devices.
All Volume 2 contributors are from North America. I would like to thank all of them for
the considerable time and effort they put into preparing their chapters.

Vision for the Fourth Edition
Basic engineering disciplines are not static, no matter how old and well established they are.
The field ofmechanical engineering is no exception. Movement within this broadly based discipline
is multidimensional. Even the classic subjects, on which the discipline was founded, such
as mechanics of materials and heat transfer, keep evolving. Mechanical engineers continue to
be heavily involved with disciplines allied to mechanical engineering, such as industrial and
manufacturing engineering, which are also constantly evolving. Advances in other major disciplines,
such as electrical and electronics engineering, have significant impact on the work
of mechanical engineers. New subject areas, such as neural networks, suddenly become all
the rage.
In response to this exciting, dynamic atmosphere, the Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook
expanded dramatically, from one to four volumes for the third edition, published in November
2005. It not only incorporated updates and revisions to chapters in the second edition, published
seven years earlier, but also added 24 chapters on entirely new subjects, with updates
and revisions to chapters in the Handbook ofMaterials Selection, published in 2002, as well as
to chapters in Instrumentation and Control, edited by Chester Nachtigal and published in 1990,
but never updated by him.
The fourth edition retains the four-volume format, but there are several additional major
changes. The second part of Volume I is now devoted entirely to topics in engineering mechanics,
with the addition of five practical chapters on measurements from the Handbook of Measurement
in Science and Engineering, published in 2013, and a chapter from the fifth edition of
Eshbach’s Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals, published in 2009. Chapters on mechanical
design have been moved from Volume I to Volumes II and III. They have been augmented
with four chapters (updated as needed) from Environmentally Conscious Mechanical Design,
published in 2007. These chapters, together with five chapters (updated as needed, three from
Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing, published in 2007, and two from Environmentally
Conscious Materials Handling, published in 2009 ) in the beefed-up manufacturing section of
Volume III, give the handbook greater and practical emphasis on the vital issue of sustainability.
Prefaces to the handbook’s individual volumes provide further details on chapter additions,
updates and replacements. The four volumes of the fourth edition are arranged as follows:
Volume 1: Materials and Engineering Mechanics—27 chapters
Part 1. Materials—15 chapters
Part 2. Engineering Mechanics—12 chapters
Volume 2: Design, Instrumentation and Controls—25 chapters
Part 1. Mechanical Design—14 chapters
Part 2. Instrumentation, Systems, Controls and MEMS —11 chapters
Volume 3: Manufacturing and Management—28 chapters
Part 1. Manufacturing—16 chapters
Part 2. Management, Finance, Quality, Law, and Research—12 chapters
Volume 4: Energy and Power—35 chapters
Part 1: Energy—16 chapters
Part 2: Power—19 chapters
The mechanical engineering literature is extensive and has been so for a considerable
period of time. Many textbooks, reference works, and manuals as well as a substantial number
of journals exist. Numerous commercial publishers and professional societies, particularly
in the United States and Europe, distribute these materials. The literature grows continuously,
as applied mechanical engineering research finds new ways of designing, controlling, measuring,
making, and maintaining things, as well as monitoring and evaluating technologies,
infrastructures, and systems.
Most professional-level mechanical engineering publications tend to be specialized,
directed to the specific needs of particular groups of practitioners. Overall, however, the
mechanical engineering audience is broad and multidisciplinary. Practitioners work in a
variety of organizations, including institutions of higher learning, design, manufacturing, and
consulting firms, as well as federal, state, and local government agencies. A rationale for a
general mechanical engineering handbook is that every practitioner, researcher, and bureaucrat
cannot be an expert on every topic, especially in so broad and multidisciplinary a field, and
may need an authoritative professional summary of a subject with which he or she is not
intimately familiar.
Starting with the first edition, published in 1986, my intention has always been that the
Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook stand at the intersection of textbooks, research papers, and
design manuals. For example, I want the handbook to help young engineers move from the
college classroom to the professional office and laboratory where they may have to deal with
issues and problems in areas they have not studied extensively in school.
With this fourth edition, I have continued to produce a practical reference for the mechanical
engineer who is seeking to answer a question, solve a problem, reduce a cost, or improve
a system or facility. The handbook is not a research monograph. Its chapters offer design techniques,
illustrate successful applications, or provide guidelines to improving performance, life
expectancy, effectiveness, or usefulness of parts, assemblies, and systems. The purpose is to
show readers what options are available in a particular situation and which option they might
choose to solve problems at hand.
The aim of this handbook is to serve as a source of practical advice to readers. I hope that
the handbook will be the first information resource a practicing engineer consults when faced
with a new problem or opportunity—even before turning to other print sources, even officially
sanctioned ones, or to sites on the Internet. In each chapter, the reader should feel that he or she
is in the hands of an experienced consultant who is providing sensible advice that can lead to
beneficial action and results.
Can a single handbook, even spread out over four volumes, cover this broad, interdisciplinary
field? I have designed the Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook as if it were serving as a
core for an Internet-based information source. Many chapters in the handbook point readers
to information sources on the Web dealing with the subjects addressed. Furthermore, where
appropriate, enough analytical techniques and data are provided to allow the reader to employ
a preliminary approach to solving problems.
The contributors have written, to the extent their backgrounds and capabilities make possible,
in a style that reflects practical discussion informed by real-world experience. I would
like readers to feel that they are in the presence of experienced teachers and consultants who
know about the multiplicity of technical issues that impinge on any topic within mechanical
engineering. At the same time, the level is such that students and recent graduates can find the
handbook as accessible as experienced engineers.

Table of Contents
Preface ix
Vision for the Fourth Edition xi
Contributors xiii

1. Computer-Aided Design 3
Emory W. Zimmers Jr., Charalambos A. Marangos, Sekar Sundararajan,
and Technical Staff
2. Product Design for Manufacturing and Assembly 55
Gordon Lewis
3. Design-for-Environment Processes and Tools 75
Daniel P. Fitzgerald, Thornton H. Gogoll, Linda C. Schmidt, Jeffrey W. Herrmann,
and Peter A. Sandborn
4. Design Optimization: An Overview 97
A. Ravi Ravindran and G. V. Reklaitis
5. Total Quality Management in Mechanical System Design 125
B. S. Dhillon
6. Reliability in the Mechanical Design Process 149
B.S. Dhillon
7. Product Design and Manufacturing Processes for Sustainability 177
I. S. Jawahir, P. C. Wanigarathne, and X. Wang
8. Life-Cycle Design 207
Abigail Clarke and John K. Gershenson
9. Design for Maintainability 249
O. Geoffrey Okogbaa and Wilkistar Otieno
10. Design for Remanufacturing Processes 301
Bert Bras
11. Design for Manufacture and Assembly with Plastics 329
James A. Harvey
12. Design for Six Sigma: A Mandate for Competitiveness 341
James E. McMunigal and H. Barry Bebb
13. Engineering Applications of Virtual Reality 371
Wenjuan Zhu, Xiaobo Peng, and Ming C. Leu
14. Physical Ergonomics 417
Maury A. Nussbaum and Jaap H. van Dieën

15. Electric Circuits 439
Albert J. Rosa
16. Measurements 565
E. L. Hixson and E. A. Ripperger
17. Signal Processing 579
John Turnbull
18. Data Acquisition and Display Systems 597
Philip C. Milliman
19. Systems Engineering: Analysis, Design, and Information Processing for Analysis
and Design 625
Andrew P. Sage
20. Mathematical Models of Dynamic Physical Systems 667
K. Preston White Jr.
21. Basic Control Systems Design 747
William J. Palm III
22. General-Purpose Control Devices 805
James H. Christensen, Robert J. Kretschmann, Sujeet Chand, and Kazuhiko Yokoyama
23. Neural Networks in Feedback Control Systems 843
K. G. Vamvoudakis, F.L. Lewis, and Shuzhi Sam Ge
24. Mechatronics 895
Shane Farritor and Jeff Hawks
25. Introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS):
Design and Application 943
M. E. Zaghloul
Index 955


Cover image: © denisovd / Thinkstock
Cover design: Wiley
This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
Published simultaneously in Canada
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