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Essentials of Medical Parasitology

Essentials of Medical Parasitology

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Apurba Sankar Sastry MD (JIPMER),DNB, MNAMS, PDCR
Assistant Professor
Department of Microbiology
Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER)
Pondicherry, India

Sandhya Bhat K MD, DNB, MNAMS, PDCR
Assistant Professor
Department of Microbiology
Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS)
(A Unit of Madras Medical Mission)
Pondicherry, India

Foreword
Reba Kanungo

JAYPEE BROTHERS MEDICAL PUBLISHERS (P) LTD


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Book Details
 Price
 2.50
 Pages
 358 p
 File Size 
 36,078 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 978-93-5152-329-1
 Copyright©   
 2014, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers 

Foreword
Our understanding of human diseases has been greatly benefited from the
rapid strides made in Medical Science. It is necessary to compile and document
these advances in textbooks for students who are pursuing medical and allied
courses. To add the existing resources of information on parasitic diseases,
Dr Apurba Sankar Sastry and Dr Sandhya Bhat k have conceptualized and
compiled this book entitled “Essentials of Medical Parasitology.” They have
addressed details of information required by a medical graduate to help him to
understand the subject and also keep abreast with latest developments in the
field of Medical Parasitology.
The book is divided into four sections that deal with Protozoa, Helminths,
etc that are of importance to human health and disease. Each section deals
with general concepts including commonly used terminologies and their
definitions which will help the reader to understand their implications when used later in the text. Every
chapter is designed in a thematic manner with a brief classification including classification based on the
habitat and site of infection. This is followed by description of the parasite’s morphology, epidemiology of the disease and pathogenesis. Clinical spectrum of the disease is described with emphasis on pathology, clinical features and stages of the parasite that are encountered in the human host. Life cycle outside the human host and natural habitat in the environment or animals have been explained in detail in the respective chapter.
Thee chapters are interspersed with relevant illustrations. Photomicrographs are clear emphasizing
the natural appearance in clinical material. Diagrams and flow charts of life cycles are clear and well
represented. The authors have collected original images from several sources to highlight the actual
microscopic images seen in the laboratory and in situ appearance in tissue sections.
Laboratory methods to detect the agents in relevant clinical material have been described in detail
in easy procedural steps. Several additional and supportive tests to diagnose the infections have been
mentioned in each chapter. Recent techniques and current tests including specific antigen and antibody
detection methods used in the laboratories have been described. This will help a fresh graduate in
clinical practice to use the information in day to day practice.
An interesting feature in each chapter is the preventive aspect of commonly encountered parasitic
diseases, with a note on vaccination. An additional feature of the book is an up-to-date information on
the parasitic diseases of public health importance in India including national programs for prevention
and control. Opportunistic parasitic infections in the immunocompromised patients including HIV
infected individuals have been described along with the specific indicators for detection.
Each chapter ends with a set of self assessment questions which will help a student to prepare for the
examination. This is a well planned and executed parasitology book which both MBBS undergraduate
students and postgraduates pursuing a course in Medical Microbiology will find useful. I congratulate
the authors for bringing out this comprehensive textbook on parasitology.
Reba Kanungo MD PhD
Dean Research and Professor and Head
Department of Clinical Microbiology
Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences
Puducherry
Past President, Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists
Former Editor-in-Chief, Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology

Preface
Medical parasitology is an interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of animal parasites which
infect and produce diseases in human beings. This book is designed specifically for undergraduate
medical and paramedical students as well as for postgraduate students.
Medical students always complain that there is no standard Indian textbook on parasitology at present
which can fulfil the need of the examination and for the management of the parasitic diseases.
Currently available Indian medical parasitology books are neither updated with recent advances nor
presented in a student‐friendly manner. Day-to-day developments in the field of parasitology and the
unavailability of a standard textbook fulfilling the needs and expectation of the students, motivated us
to write a book in an updated format with recent epidemiological data, laboratory techniques, treatment
strategies, etc in such a way that student can grasp it easily.
The whole content of the book has been arranged in a bulleted format and use of sub heads has
increased the readability. Entire book is divided into four sections—General introduction, Protozoology,
Helminthology and Miscellaneous. At the end, six appendices have been incorporated which will be of
immense use and initiate interest among the students. Expected questions including MCQs have been
added at the end of each chapter which will help to reinforce and understand the related topic in a
better way. Life cycles are drawn in lucid and easy-to-grasp manner, exactly according to the text. Real
microscopic images of parasites and specimens from various sources are being incorporated to correlate
their impressions with the related parasitic diseases. Laboratory diagnosis and treatment boxes are
introduced as a different entity for a quick review for students as well as for physicians.
Our endeavor will be successful, if the book is found to be useful for student as well as for the faculty.
Apurba Sankar Sastry
Sandhya Bhat K


Table of Contents
Section 1: Introducion
Chapter 1: General Introduction To Parasitology 3–15
• Taxonomy of parasites 3
• Parasite 3
• Host 4
• Host-parasite relationship 4
• Transmission of parasites 5
• Life cycle of the parasites 6
• Pathogenesis of parasitic diseases 6
• Immunology of parasitic diseases 8
• Laboratory diagnosis of parasitic diseases 9
• Treatment of parasitic diseases 10
Section 2: Protozoology
Chapter 2: Introduction to Protozoa 19–23
Chapter 3: Amoeba 24–48
• General features of protozoa 19 • Classification of protozoa 19
• Classification of amoeba 24
• Intestinal amoeba 24
hh Pathogenic intestinal amoeba 24
−− Entamoeba histolytica 24
hh Nonpathogenic intestinal amoeba 35
−− Entamoeba dispar 35
−− Entamoeba moshkovskii 36
−− Entamoeba coli 36
−− Entamoeba hartmanni 38
−− Entamoeba gingivalis 38
−− Entamoeba polecki 39
−− Endolimax nana 39
−− Iodamoeba butschlii 39
• Free-living (opportunistic) amoeba 40
hh Naegleria fowleri 40
hh Acanthamoeba species 43
hh Balamuthia mandrillaris 46
hh Sappinia diploidea 47
Chapter 4: Flagellates—I (Intestinal and Genital) 49–62
• Classification of flagellates 49
• Giardia lamblia 50
• Trichomonas vaginalis 55
• Pentatrichomonas hominis 58
• Trichomonas tenax 58
• Chilomastix mesnili 58
• Enteromonas hominis 59
• Retortamonas intestinalis 60
• Dientamoeba fragilis 60
Chapter 10: Cestodes 156–189
Chapter 5: Flagellates—II (Hemoflagellates) 63–89
Chapter 6: Sporozoa—I (Malaria and Babesiosis) 90–117
Chapter 7: Sporozoa—II (Opportunistic Coccidian Parasites) 118–139
Chapter 8: Miscellaneus Protozoa 140–150
• Introduction 63
• Morphology of hemofl agellates 63
• Leishmania 64
hh Old World Leishmaniasis 64
−− Leishmania donovani 64
−− Leishmania tropica complex 74
hh New World Leishmaniasis 76
−− Leishmania mexicana complex 77
−− Leishmania viannia braziliensis complex 77
−− Leishmania leishmania chagasi 78
• Trypanosoma 79
• Trypanosoma cruzi 79
• Trypanosoma brucei complex 85
• Classification 90
• Malaria parasite 90
• Babesia 114
• Introduction 118
• Toxoplasma gondii 118
• Cryptosporidium parvum 126
• Cyclospora cayetanensis 131
• Isospora belli 133
• Sarcocystis species 135
• Microsporidium species 140
• Balantidium coli 146
• Blastocystis hominis 149
• General characteristics of cestodes 156
hh Classification of cestodes 156
hh Morphology of cestodes 157
• Pseudophyllidean cestodes 160
hh Diphyllobothrium species 160
hh Spirometra species 163
• Cyclophyllidean cestodes 165
hh Taenia species 165, 175
hh Echinococcus species 176
hh Hymenolepis nana 184, 186
hh Dipylidium caninum 187
Section 3: Helminthology
Chapter 9: Introduction to Helminths 153–155
• General charactristics 153
• Morphology 154
• Life cycle 155
Chapter 14: Nematodes—III (Somatic Nematodes) 262–289
Chapter 13: Nematodes—II Nematodes of Lower Animals 248–261
that Rarely infect Man
Chapter 12: Nematodes—I (Intestinal Nematodes) 220–247
Chapter 11: Trematodes or Flukes 190–219
• Classification of trematodes 190
• General characteristics of trematodes 191
• Blood flukes 193
hh Schistosoma species 194, 201, 202
• Liver fluke 202
hh Fasciola species 202, 206
hh Clonorchis species 206
hh Opisthorchis species 208, 210
• Intestinal fluke 210
hh Fasciolopsis species 210
hh Gastrodiscoides species 213
hh Watsonius species 213
hh Heterophyes species 214
hh Metagonimus species 214
hh Echinostoma species 214
hh Lung fluke 215
hh Paragonimus species 215
• General properties of nematodes 220
• Classification 220
• General description 221
• Large intestinal nematodes 224
hh Trichuris trichiura 224
hh Enterobius vermicularis 227
• Small intestinal nematodes 230
hh Hookworm 230
hh Strongyloides species 237, 242
hh Ascaris species 242, 246
• Classification 262
• Filarial nematode 262
• Lymphatic filarial nematodes 265
hh Wuchereria bancrofti 265
hh Brugia speices 274, 275
• Other filarial nematodes 276
hh Loa loa 276
hh Onchocerca volvulus 277
hh Mansonella species 280, 281
hh Dirofilaria species 282
• Other Somatic nematodes 282
hh Dracunculus medinensis 282
hh Trichinella spiralis 285
• Classification 248
• Larva migrans 248
• Toxocariasis 250
• Angiostrongylus species 252
• Baylisascaris procyonis 253
• Lagochilascaris minor 253
• Anisakiasis 253
• Gnathostoma species 254
• Capillaria species 255, 256, 257
• Trichostrongylus species 257
• Dioctophyme renale 258
• Oesophagostomum species 259
• Ternidens deminutus 259
• Mammomonogamus laryngeus 260
• Thelazia species 260
Section 4: Miscellaneous
Chapter 15: Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases 293–313
• Introduction 293
• Morphological identification techniques 293
• Culture techniques in parasitology 303
• Immunodiagnostic methods 307
• Molecular methods 309
• Intradermal skin tests 310
• Xenodiagnostic techniques 311
• Animal inoculation methods 311
• Imaging techniques 311
Chapter 16: Medical Entomology 314–321
Appendices 325–333
• Medical entomology 314
• Vector 314
• Class insecta 314
• Class arachnida 319
• Class crustacea 320
• Control of Arthropods 320
• Appendix I Clinical syndromes in parasitology 325
• Appendix II Common tropical parasitic diseases 327
• Appendix III Romanowsky stains, composition and staining procedures 327
• Appendix IV Laboratory-acquired parasitic infections 329
• Appendix V Biomedical waste management in parasitology 330
• Appendix VI Morphological forms of parasites seen in the fecal sample 331
Index 335–341


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First Edition: 2014

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