Encyclopedia of Society and Culture in the Ancient World

Encyclopedia of Society and Culture in the Ancient World

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Volume I

(adornment to crime and punishment)

Peter Bogucki, Editor in Chief

1. Civilization, Ancient—Encyclopedias

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Book Details
 1381 p
 File Size 
 26,037 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 2008 by Infobase Publishing 

World, a four-volume set that provides comprehensive
coverage of the ancient world from prehistory through the
fall of Rome in 476 c.e. For coverage aft er that point, readers
are urged to consult our companion set, the Encyclopedia of
Society and Culture in the Medieval World, which covers the
period from the fall of Rome to the start of the Renaissance.
Th e Encyclopedia of Society and Culture in the Ancient World
contains 69 separate entries, each devoted to a specifi c cultural
or societal topic. Of these 69 entries, 14 comprise “major”
topics with longer, more in-depth coverage than the standard
entries. Th e entries are arranged in alphabetical order by topic; 
readers may consult the Contents page for a listing of these topics.
Each entry includes a discussion of the topic from the
perspective of the following centers of civilization:
• Africa
• Egypt
• Th e Middle East
• Asia and the Pacifi c
• Europe
• Greece
• Rome
• Th e Americas
Readers will note that there is some overlap in this list:
Egypt is part of Africa, of course, just as Greece and Rome are
part of Europe. However, because the civilizations of ancient
Egypt, Rome, and Greece are so oft en studied separately, we
decided to treat them as such in this encyclopedia. Entries devoted
to Europe will thus not discuss Rome and Greece, while
those devoted to Africa will not discuss Egypt.
In addition, we understand that the term Middle East
has not traditionally been used to refer to the ancient regions
of the Levant (Israel, Jordan, parts of Syria, the Palestinian
Authority, and Lebanon), Anatolia (Turkey), Armenia,
Persia (Iran), and Mesopotamia (Iraq and parts of Syria).
However, some educators and scholars, especially those
involved in comparative history, are beginning to adopt
the term when discussing this region. We decided to use
the term Middle East for this encyclopedia in light of that
increasing usage.

Each entry begins with an introductory essay that outlines
the major developments on a given topic in the ancient world.
Following that introduction are separate essays on the topic
from the perspective of the named centers of civilization. At
the end of the main text of each entry is a list of “see also”
references to related entries, followed by a further reading list
of books, articles, and Web sites on the topic.

In addition to the main text, the encyclopedia incorporates
sidebars on topics that do not fi t neatly into the central
discussion as well key primary source excerpts scattered
throughout the set. Th ese primary source documents appear
at the end of many entries. Our goal in identifying and
including these primary sources is to facilitate additional
comparative study between cultures on a given topic. Readers
may consult the List of Primary Source Documents in
the front matter for a guide to the individual sources found
in the encyclopedia. Th e set also features more than 250
maps and illustrations. Th e front matter lists these maps
and illustrations.
Aside from detailing the maps, illustrations, and primary
source documents, the front matter includes a section about
the set’s advisers and contributors and a general introduction
to the ancient world by Dr. Peter Bogucki of Princeton University,
who served as the editor in chief of the encyclopedia.
At the back of the set, readers will fi nd a glossary of key
terms, a general bibliography, a chronology by region, and a
general subject index.

In addition to Dr. Peter Bogucki and the members of the advisory
board, we wish to thank the more than 100 scholars,
journalists, and writers who contributed to this work. At
Facts On File, Claudia Schaab provided essential guidance
throughout the project. A special note of thanks is due to Paul
Halsall, who operates the Internet History Sourcebooks. Th is
Web site supplied many of the primary source documents included
in the encyclopedia.

Table of Contents
Advisers and Contributors v
List of Illustrations xiii
List of Maps and
Primary Source Documents xx
Preface xxiii
Introduction xxv
Volume I
adornment 3
agriculture 15
architecture 52
art 87
astronomy 123
borders and frontiers 139
building techniques and materials 150
calendars and clocks 163
ceramics and pottery 174
children 187
cities 201
climate and geography 234
clothing and footwear 272
craft s 284
crime and punishment 296
Volume II
death and burial practices 311
drama and theater 327
economy 341
education 375
empires and dynasties 387
employment and labor 425
exploration 435
family 447
festivals 461
food and diet 472
foreigners and barbarians 483
gender structures and roles 493
government organization 507
health and disease 545
household goods 560
hunting, fi shing, and gathering 571
illumination 583
inventions 592
Volume III
language 609
laws and legal codes 621
literature 639
metallurgy 677
migration and population movements 688
military 725
mining, quarrying, and salt making 741
money and coinage 751
music and musical instruments 762
natural disasters 775
nomadic and pastoral societies 786
numbers and counting 797
occupations 807
pandemics and epidemics 819
religion and cosmology 831
resistance and dissent 869
roads and bridges 882
Volume IV
sacred sites 897
scandals and corruption 908
science 921
seafaring and navigation 952
settlement patterns 961
ships and shipbuilding 974
slaves and slavery 985
social collapse and abandonment 998
social organization 1010
sports and recreation 1047
storage and preservation 1061
textiles and needlework 1073
towns and villages 1085
trade and exchange 1095
transportation 1110
war and conquest 1121
weaponry and armor 1161
weights and measures 1172
writing 1183
Glossary 1195
Chronology by Region 1220
General Bibliography 1231
Index 1235


Peter Bogucki
Associate Dean for Undergraduate Aff airs,
School of Engineering and Applied Science
Princeton University
Lisa R. Brody
Assistant Professor of Art
Queens College, City University of New York
R. Hunt Davis
Professor Emeritus of History and African Studies
University of Florida
Leo Depuydt
Associate Professor of Egyptology
Brown University
Paul R. Goldin
Associate Professor of East Asian Languages
and Civilizations
University of Pennsylvania
Eloise Quiñones Keber
Professor of Art History
Baruch College, City University of New York
Amelie Kuhrt
Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History
University College, London
Daniel Potts
Edwin Cuthbert Hall Professor of
Middle Eastern Archaeology
University of Sydney