Ancient Turkey

Antonio Sagona and Paul Zimansky

Routledge World Archaeology

Prehistoric Britain, 2nd edition, Timothy C. Darvill
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Book Details
 433 p
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 18,618 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 978–0–415–48123–6 (pbk)
 978–0–415–28916–0 (hbk)
 978–0–203–88046–0 (ebk)
 Antonio Sagona and Paul Zimansky 

This book was written because of the continuing dearth of general, accessible, and up-to-date
surveys on ancient Turkey before the Classical period. While there are a number of excellent
period- and site-specific works, students and teachers have faced the persistent difficulty of reading
and synthesizing an enormous and often bewildering amount of literature before they can
formulate a general narrative on the principal periods and areas of innovation and culture. The
task of covering in one volume so vast a topic—from the earliest arrivals to the end of the Iron
Age—is daunting to say the least, but we have decided to take the plunge and divided the task
between us: AS is responsible for the periods up to the end of the third millennium BC (Chapters
1–5), whereas PZ continues the story to the arrival of Persian influence at the end of the Iron
Age (Chapters 6–10). This exposition makes no claim to be comprehensive, neither is it a detailed
narrative. Rather, we hope that it provides a readable and well-balanced book for those who wish
to understand the main cultural expressions of Turkey’s ancient past. Hence, it would be pedantic
and uncalled for to load the text with the heavy apparatus of scholarship. Nonetheless, we hope
that the references provided will enable the curious to make their own way into the various topics.
Anyone who writes a book as wide ranging as this, ventures, often with trepidation, into areas
outside their comfort zone. We have been fortunate and grateful that many friends and colleagues
have helped us during the writing and preparation of this book, and, although we cannot
mention them all, we are sincerely grateful to them. The debts we have incurred are many and
range from permission to reproduce photographs and drawings (even though not all were used
owing to limitations of space), through providing information on topics less familiar to us, to
sustained conversations over many years. All these played an important part in shaping this book
and accordingly we would like to express our sincere gratitude to the following: Mikheil Abramishvili,
Guillermo Algaze, Ruben Badalyan, Nur Balkan-Altı, Scott Branting, Charles Burney, Stuart Campbell,
Elizabeth Carter, Özlem Çevik, Altan Çilingirog˘ lu, Simon Connor, Ben Claasz Coockson, S¸ evket
Dönmez, Bleda Düring, Refik Duru, Turan Efe, Aslı Erim-Özdog˘ an, Marcella Frangipane, David
French, Christoph Gerber, Savas¸ Harmankaya, Ömür Harmans¸ah, Harald Hauptmann, Ian Hodder,
Mehmet I˙s¸ iklı, Peter Jablonka, John Kappelman, Kakha Kakhiani, Steve Kuhn, Clemens Lichter,
Catherine Marro, Timothy Matney, Roger Matthews, Marcel Otte, Mihriban Özbas¸aran, Mehmet
Özdog˘ an, Aynur Özfırat, Vecihi Özkaya, Aliye Öztan, Giulio Palumbi, Anneliese Peschlow-
Bindokat, Jacob Roodenberg, Christopher Roosevelt, Michael Rosenberg, Mitchell Rothman, Curtis
Runnels, Claudia Sagona, Oya Sarı, Klaus Schmidt, Ulf-Dietrich Schoop, Veli Sevin, Ludovic Slimak,
Sharon Steadman, Gil Stein, Françoise and Geoffrey Summers, Mary Voigt, and Aslıhan Yener. We
are very appreciative to the staff of various museums in Turkey, too many to list here, for their
support over the years in allowing us to study material held in their collections.

Special thanks are owed to Sharon Steadman, Mary Voigt and Aslıhan Yener, who generously
made available to AS papers in advance of their publication, a gesture for which he is most grateful.
Among those who read and commented on various parts in draft, providing excellent advice
and counsel, we thank Claudia Sagona, Caroline Spry, and Elizabeth Stone. We would also like to
thank the cohorts of students, who, over the years, have acted as sounding boards for our formative
ideas. Their questions and insightful comments have helped to sharpen our focus.
In a book of this type, images are immensely important. Three individuals have played a key role
in standardizing, adapting, and redrawing the illustrations:
• Claudia Sagona spent many hours preparing the drawings and photographs for Chapters 1–5,
and many more again reformatting them as AS changed his mind, often on a regular basis
• Chandra Jayasuriya drew the illuminating maps, and we are grateful for her care and professionalism
• Elizabeth Stone created almost all of the plans in Chapters 6–10 and several of the line drawings,
taking time off from her own work on Iraq and remote sensing to apply her considerable graphic skills to the illustrations.

To the staff at Routledge, we extend our thanks for their patience and understanding in the
long gestation of this book. AS would like to thank the University of Melbourne for financial
support and research leave, especially in 2007, which enabled him to undertake the writing of his
chapters. We also acknowledge with gratitude that the publication of this work was assisted by a
publication grant from the University of Melbourne.
Finally, we must express the huge debt of appreciation we owe to our wives, Claudia Sagona
and Elizabeth Stone, for their constant support.
Antonio Sagona
University of Melbourne
Paul Zimansky
Stony Brook University, NY

Table of Contents
Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
1 Introduction 1
The land and its water 2
Climate and vegetation 5
2 Earliest arrivals: The Palaeolithic and Epipalaeolithic (1,000,000–9600 BC) 10
Lower Palaeolithic (ca. 1,000,000–250,000 bc) 12
Middle Palaeolithic (ca. 250,000–45,000 bc) 19
Upper Palaeolithic and Epipalaeolithic (ca. 45,000–9600 bc) 21
Rock art and ritual 27
3 A new social order: Pre-Pottery Neolithic (9600–7000 BC) 37
The Neolithic: A synergy of plants, animals, and people 38
New perspectives on the Neolithic from Turkey 41
Beginnings of sedentary life 44
Origin of the village 46
Southeastern Anatolia 49
North of the Taurus Mountains 54
Ritual, art, and temples 57
Southeastern Anatolia 57
Central Anatolia 64
Economy 65
Contact and exchange: The obsidian trade 69
Stoneworking technologies and crafts 74
Collapse of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic 76
Concluding remarks 78
4 Anatolia transformed: From Pottery Neolithic through Middle Chalcolithic
(7000–4000 BC) 82
Pottery Neolithic (ca. 7000–6000 bc) 83
Houses and ritual 83
Southeastern Anatolia and Cilicia 83
Central Anatolia 85
Western Anatolia and the Aegean coast 99
Northwest Anatolia 103
Seeing red 107
Invention of pottery 109
Cilicia and the southeast 111
Central Anatolia 112
Western Anatolia 113
Northwest Anatolia 115
Other crafts and technology 118
Economy 119
Concluding remarks on the Ceramic Neolithic 121
Spread of farming into Europe 122
Early and Middle Chalcolithic (ca. 6000–4000 bc) 124
Regional variations 125
Eastern Anatolia 125
The central plateau 127
Western Anatolia 130
Northwest Anatolia 136
Metallurgy 139
5 Metalsmiths and migrants: Late Chalcolithic and the Early Bronze Age
(ca. 4000–2000 BC) 144
Late Chalcolithic (ca. 4000–3100 bc) 145
Euphrates area and southeastern Anatolia 145
Late Chalcolithic 1 and 2 (LC 1–2): 4300–3650 bc 149
Late Chalcolithic 3 (LC 3): 3650–3450 bc 150
Late Chalcolithic 4 (LC 4): 3450–3250 bc 153
Late Chalcolithic 5 (LC 5): 3250–3000/2950 bc 155
Eastern Highlands 163
Western Anatolia 168
Northwestern Anatolia and the Pontic Zone 170
Central Anatolia 170
Early Bronze Age (ca. 3100–2000 bc) 172
Cities, centers, and villages 174
Regional survey 178
Southeast Anatolia 178
East-central Anatolia (Turkish Upper Euphrates) 182
Eastern Anatolia 187
Western Anatolia 191
Central Anatolia 198
Cilicia 199
Metallurgy and its impact 200
Wool, milk, traction, and mobility: Secondary products revolution 210
Burial customs 212
6 Foreign merchants and native states: Middle Bronze Age (2000–1650 BC) 225
The Karum Kanesh and the Assyrian trading network 227
Middle Bronze Age city-states of the Anatolian plateau 234
Central Anatolian material culture of the Middle Bronze Age 240
Indo-Europeans in Anatolia and the origins of the Hittites 244
Middle Bronze Age Anatolia beyond the horizons of literacy 247
The end of the trading colony period 248
7 Anatolia’s empire: Hittite domination and the Late Bronze Age (1650–1200 BC) 253
The rediscovery of the Hittites 253
Historical outline 259
The imperial capital 266
Hittite sites in the empire’s heartland 273
Yazılıkaya and Hittite religion 276
Hittite architectural sculpture and rock reliefs 280
Hittite glyptic and minor arts 283
Fringes of empire: Hittite archaeology beyond the plateau 284
8 Legacy of the Hittites: Southern Anatolia in the Iron Age (1200–600 BC) 291
The concept of an Iron Age 292
Assyria and the history of the Neo-Hittite principalities 294
Key Neo-Hittite sites 297
Carchemish 299
Malatya 302
Ain Dara 304
Zincirli 307
Karatepe 309
Land of Tabal 312
9 A kingdom of fortresses: Urartu and eastern Anatolia in the Iron Age (1200–600 BC) 316
Early Urartu, Nairi, and Biainili 317
Historical developments in imperial Biainili, the Kingdom of Van 321
Fortresses, settlements, and architectural practices 331
Smaller artefacts and decorative arts 335
Bronzes 336
Stone reliefs 338
Seals and seal impressions 338
Language and writing in Urartu 339
Urartian religion and cultic activities 342
Demise 344
10 New cultures in the west: The Aegean coast, Phrygia, and Lydia (1200–550 BC) 348
The Trojan War as prelude 348
The Aegean coast 351
The Phrygians 352
The Lydians 362
The Achaemenid conquest and its antecedents 367
Bibliography 373
Index 408


First published 2009
by Routledge
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