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American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 2nd Edition

American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 2nd Edition

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Roberta Larson Duyff MS, RD, FADA, CFCS

About the ADA

The American Dietetic Association is the largest group of food and nutrition professionals in
the world. As the advocate of the profession, the ADA serves the public by promoting optimal
nutrition, health, and well-being.
For more information . . .
Visit the ADA’s Web site at http://www.eatright.org. The American Dietetic Association’s Web
site offers nutrition information for consumers and health professionals, and the Find a Dietitian
feature to locate a dietetics professional in your area. The ADA’s Consumer Nutrition Information
line, at (800) 366-1655, also provides referrals to local registered dietitians as well as
recorded nutrition messages in English and Spanish.

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Book Details
 Price
 4.00
 Pages
 673 p
 File Size 
 9,472 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 0-471-44144-9
 Copyright©   
 2002
 by The American Dietetic Association 

Foreword
Food nourishes us in many ways. Eating is one
of life’s pleasures. Food is tied to memories of
our youth and to social occasions, celebrations,
and other aspects of our culture. Food also
fuels our bodies. What we eat is a controllable factor
in keeping us as healthy and as fit as possible.
The fundamentals for fostering a healthy body
remain constant. A well-balanced approach to eating
and getting plenty of rest and physical activity are, and
always have been, keys to good health. Research about
nutrition and its impact on everything from childhood
development to disease control and prevention, however,
shows that our knowledge about the role of nutrition
in a healthful lifestyle is continually evolving.
Since the last published edition of this book, scientists
have made exciting discoveries about nutrition
and how much it can affect our overall health. We now
know more about health-promoting substances in
fruits, vegetables, and grain products called phytonutrients.
We have expanded the way we look at vitamins
and minerals. Consumers are increasingly turning to
“alternative” medicine and therapies to treat or prevent
disease. In addition, the impact of biotechnology on
the food supply is changing the way we think about
how our food is grown and processed.
All these important issues and more are discussed
in the second edition of the American Dietetic Association
Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. Written
and reviewed by qualified nutrition practitioners—
registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered—
the book is scientifically based. But more than
that, it is practical and easy to understand. Registered
dietitians counsel people to attain optimal health by
eating a variety of nutrient-rich foods with an emphasis
on taste, quality, moderation, balance, and food safety.
In the second edition of the American Dietetic
Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide,
Roberta Duyff shows you how to maximize your
health while enjoying food. Her practical suggestions
are backed up by the latest scientific evidence, as
well as by her extensive experience as a registered
dietitian. Best of all, the book can serve as a reference
for your entire family’s health—and it’s right at your fingertips.
Enjoy the book and optimize your health.
Julie O’Sullivan Maillet, RD, PhD, FADA
President, American Dietetic Association

Introduction
Food and Nutrition Guide has been created
for you as a practical, up-to-date resource
for healthful eating. From cover to cover,
you’ll see how smart eating—combined with physical
activity—promotes fitness. As important, you’ll
learn how healthful eating and taste go hand in hand!
To offer solutions for your everyday eating dilemmas,
this book is filled with practical advice—whatever
your lifestyle or needs. From weight control to
heart-healthy eating . . . supermarket shopping to eating
out . . . food safety to kitchen nutrition . . . vegetarian
eating to sports nutrition, you’ll find many tips
for ease, convenience, and good taste. Look for today’s
“hot” food issues, too: phytonutrients, functional
foods, dietary supplements, and food biotechnology, among others.
As your complete resource on nutrition, you can
refer to this book again and again at every age and
stage of your life—from choosing the healthiest baby
food or feeding a child or teen, to dealing with unique
nutrition needs in a woman’s life or challenges of
aging. It’s also filled with advice for preventing, slowing,
or dealing with heart disease, cancer, diabetes,
and other common health problems. This book is
meant for you, and for all those you care about . . .
perhaps a child, spouse, companion, aging parent, or friend.
For your personal nutrition “checkup,” you’ll find
opportunities to assess your own everyday food
choices. Start in chapter 1 with “Looking for ‘Healthy
Solutions’?” to identify your personal eating challenges.
For more information, each question refers
you to in-depth answers throughout the book. In fact,
in almost every chapter, “Your Nutrition Checkup”
gives you a close-up look at your own food decisions.
Whenever nutrition makes the news (print, television,
radio, or online), this book can help you judge
the headlines and separate sound fact from fad.
Its food and nutrition advice comes from the American
Dietetic Association, the authority the United
States turns to for food and nutrition advice, with
more than eighty-five years of nutrition expertise and research.
With questions posed to nutrition experts—in part
through the American Dietetic Association’s Knowledge
Center—thousands of consumers have helped
shape the focus and content of the American Dietetic
Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. We
hope the answers to their food and nutrition questions
will also answer many of yours!
Read, enjoy, be active, and eat healthy . . . for life!


Table of Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
PA R T I Eat Smart, Live Well: It’s About You!
CHAPTER 1 Food Choices for Fitness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Fitness: Your Overall Health! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
What’s Smart Eating? Guidelines for Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Your Food Choices: The Inside Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Solutions for Healthful Eating, Active Living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
PA R T I I Healthful Eating: The Basics
CHAPTER 2 Your Healthy Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Body Basics: What’s Your Healthy Weight? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Energy Basics: Calorie Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Weighing the Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Weight Management: Strategies That Work! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Too Thin—a Problem? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Disordered Eating: Problems, Signs, and Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
“Diets” That Don’t Work! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
When You Need Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
CHAPTER 3 Fat Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Fats Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Cholesterol: Different from Fat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Too Much of a Good Thing? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
CHAPTER 4 Vitamins, Minerals, and Phytonutrients:
Variety on Your Plate! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Vitamins and Minerals: Team Players! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Vitamins: The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Minerals—Not “Heavy Metal” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Phytonutrients—a “Crop” for Good Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
CHAPTER 5 Sweet Talk: Sugar and Other Sweeteners . . . . . . . . . 112
Sugars: The Sweet Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Sugars in Your Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Polyols: Sugar Replacers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Intense Sweeteners: Flavor without Calories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
CHAPTER 6 Fiber: Your Body’s Broom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Fiber: An Important Nonnutrient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
For Fiber—Variety! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
CHAPTER 7 Sodium: A Salty Subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Sodium and Your Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Sodium in Your Food Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Flavor . . . with Less Salt and Sodium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
CHAPTER 8 Fluids: Often Overlooked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
A Fluid Asset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
What’s to Drink? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
PA RT I I I Smart Eating: The Consumer Marketplace
CHAPTER 9 What’s on Today’s Table? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Food: What’s “in Store” for You? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Ensuring Your Food Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
CHAPTER 10 Planning to Eat Smart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
The Food Guide Pyramid: Your Healthful Eating Guide . . . . . . . 210
What’s Inside the Pyramid? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Health-Wise Eating Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
CHAPTER 11 Supermarket Smarts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Today’s Food Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Supermarket Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Your Shopping Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Food Safety: Start at the Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
CHAPTER 12 The Safe Kitchen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Foodborne Illness: More Common than You Think! . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Checklist for a Clean Kitchen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Safekeeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Safe Preparation and Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Quick Tips for Injury Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
The “Eco Kitchen” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
CHAPTER 13 Kitchen Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
“Resetting” Your Table . . . for Taste and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Simply Nutritious, Simply Delicious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Add Life to Your Spices—and Herbs, Too! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
CHAPTER 14 Your Food Away from Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Dining Out for Health and Pleasure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Eating Out Safely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Fast Food, Healthful Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Eating Out Ethnic Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Eating for Travelers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
PA R T I V Food for Health: Every Age, Every Stage of Life
CHAPTER 15 Off to a Healthy Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Breast-Feeding Your Baby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Another Healthful Option: Bottle-Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Solid Advice on Solid Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
CHAPTER 16 Food to Grow On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Toddlers and Preschoolers: Food for the Early Years . . . . . . . . . . 393
Eating ABCs for School-Age Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Feeding the Teen Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
CHAPTER 17 For Women Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Childbearing Years: Nutrition, Menstruation, and Prepregnancy 429
Congratulations! You’re Expecting! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
For Those Who Breast-Feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Now for Menopause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
CHAPTER 18 For Mature Adults: Healthful Eating! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Aged to Perfection! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
When Lifestyles Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
Changes That Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
PA R T V Healthful Eating: Special Issues
CHAPTER 19 Athlete’s Guide: Winning Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Nutrients for Active Living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
A High-Performance Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Making Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
The Game Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Ergogenic Aids: No Substitute for Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
CHAPTER 20 The Vegetarian Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Being Vegetarian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Vegetarian Diets: Nutritionally Speaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
Throughout the Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
“Vegging Out” the Healthful Way! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
CHAPTER 21 Sensitive about Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
Food Intolerances and Other Adverse Food Reactions:
Copycat Symptoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
Food Allergies: Commonly Uncommon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
CHAPTER 22 Smart Eating to Prevent and Treat Disease . . . . . . . . 536
Your Healthy Heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Blood Pressure: Under Control? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
Cancer Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
Diabetes: A Growing Health Concern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
Osteoporosis: Reduce the Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
Gastrointestinal Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572
Anemia: “Tired Blood” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Food and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
CHAPTER 23 Supplements: Use and Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
Dietary Supplements: What Are They? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
Supplements: Safe? Effective? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595
If You Take a Supplement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600
PA R T V I Resources: More about Healthful Eating
CHAPTER 24 Well Informed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609
Need Nutrition Advice? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609
Be Your Own Judge! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613
Case against Health Fraud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619
Resources You Can Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
1997–2001 Dietary Reference Intakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
Protein: 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
Growth Charts: Body Mass Index for Children and Teens . . . . . . 633
Body Mass Index for Adults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
Carbohydrates in Common Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635
% Daily Values: What Are They Based On? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637
Health Claims on Food Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637
Functions of Selected Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641


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Praise for
“. . . jam-packed with practical eating and food safety tips.”
—USA Today
“It’s always refreshing to find a nutritionist interested in good taste!”
—Julia Child, author, culinary expert, TV personality
“[A] remarkable reference.”
—Graham Kerr
“[The book] may be the ultimate healthy-eating primer. How often can it be
said of a book that it may extend your life?”
—Fitness magazine
“. . . brimming with tips from baby food to eating for healthy aging.”
—Shape magazine
“Duyff really covers nutrition and healthy eating from all angles . . . without
overusing the ‘d’word [‘don’t’].”
—Tufts University Health & Nutrition Letter
“Intelligent advice about sensible eating.”
—Washington Times
“Everything you ever wanted to know about everything you ever wanted to
eat is in this guide.”
—Food Management magazine
“. . . a must for everyone’s kitchen, from the teenager learning about food and
nutrition to adults changing their eating styles.”
—Cheri Svoboda, The Oregonian
“. . . in short, it’s a winner!”
—Washington Post
“. . . set out so anyone, even those not nutritionally inclined, can open the book
and find something interesting.”
—Janice Denham, food editor, St. Louis Journal Publications
“. . . covers everything from deciphering food labels to maintaining a familyfriendly
kitchen to changing dietary needs as we age.”
—St. Louis Post-Dispatch
“An essential resource for consumers seeking to make healthy food choices,
and nutrition professionals requiring a science-based reference tool.”
—Susan Lerner Barr, M.S., R.D., contributing nutrition editor, Self magazine
“. . . solid all-around guide to nutrition that’s fun just to pick up and peruse . . .
sure to become dog-eared over time.”
—Environmental Nutrition
“Translates nutrition science into the everyday food advice people need to
make healthy choices when grocery shopping, cooking dinner, or ordering from
a restaurant menu.”
—Carolyn O’Neil, MS, RD, award-winning television food journalist,
former CNN nutrition news correspondent
“. . . tackles most of the nutritional issues that concern Americans today . . .
up-to-date and helpful.”
—Seattle Times
“Readable and timely. . . . Duyff gives sound advice.”
—Library Journal
“A wealth of practical information [to] refer to time and time again.”
—Journal of Nutrition Education
“Excellent and thorough . . . Includes solid, science-based content on many
nutrition topics, up-to-date healthy eating guidance, and ways to evaluate
current nutrition research.”
—Johanna Dwyer, DSc, RD, professor, School of Nutrition and Medicine, Tufts University,
and director of Frances Stern Nutrition Center

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