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Philosophy Then and Now: A Look Back at 26 Centuries of Thought

Philosophy Then and Now: A Look Back at 26 Centuries of Thought

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A Look Back at 26 Centuries of Ideas That Have Shaped Our Thinking

by Zaine Ridling, Ph.D.


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 2001, Zaine Ridling 

Preface
The concepts that lie at the heart of philosophy antedate historical record
by thousands of years. In one form or another, the concept of immortality
probably extends back at least to the Neanderthals some tens of thousands of
years ago. They seem to have developed some notion of an afterlife, as is
evident in their burial sites and symbolism. In prehistory, magic also displays
unmistakable philosophical underpinnings: it appeals to causes unseen and not
yet understood. Abstraction and idealized forms can be traced back to the Cro-
Magnon, who lived more than ten thousand years ago. The ghastly practice of
human sacrifice, which already indicates some complex set of beliefs about
the world, can be traced back at least this far.

When did people first envision gods and goddesses who must be
appeased? When did they first believe in forces behind the scenes and
mysteries in the very stuff of life? When did they begin to speculate about the
creation of the world, and in what terms? When did they move beyond the
"facts" of nature to speculation, to spirituality, to wonder? When did these
beliefs and speculations begin to consolidate into that cantankerous discipline
that the Greeks called philosophy? How did the numerous gods and goddesses
of the early ancient world become one? In 1370 B.C.E., the Egyptian pharaoh
Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) proclaimed belief in one God, centuries before
the birth of Moses. Abraham, we are told, had such a belief in a single God
five hundred years earlier. How much of philosophy is an effort to come to
terms with that demand for unity and concern for that which is “beyond” us?
In the pages that follow, I have tried to write a history of philosophy that
is simple and straightforward but captures the complexity and diversity of the
subject. The reader may rightly wonder why this volume is so large, but when
I tried to cut, it was not my authorial egos that were bruised but the history
itself. What is sufficiently inessential to omit? Of course, I have made such
decisions, thousands of them, but, nevertheless, the richness of the subject was
persuasive. At the risk of massive oversimplification, we have tried for
inclusiveness. And we took heart as we read our German philosophical
counterpart, Hans Joachim Störig, whose “short history” weighs in at 750 pages.

I have tried to keep my own biases out of the text – not always
successfully. I have also tried to glean some sense of a global perspective on
philosophy, but have not made a false attempt to avoid taking a distinctively
“Western” perspective in doing so. There is no point in apologizing for this.
Philosophy in all its forms and cultures is wondrous.
Zaine Ridling, Ph.D.
Kansas City, Missouri, USA
June 2001


Table of Contents

Preface ................................................................................................................ iii
Introduction ........................................................................................................ vi
PART I: HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY ....................................... 2
The Writing of the History of Philosophy ................................................... 3
Ways of Ordering the History ............................................................... 3
Factors in Writing the History of Philosophy ....................................... 5
Shifts in the Focus and Concern of Philosophy .................................... 7
Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy ........................................................ 9
The Pre-Socratic Philosophers................................................................ 9
Cosmology and the Metaphysic of Matter ......................................... 9
Monistic Cosmologies ...................................................................... 9
Pluralistic Cosmologies ................................................................. 14
Epistemology of Appearance ............................................................... 16
Metaphysic of Number ........................................................................ 17
Anthropology and Relativism .............................................................. 19
The Seminal Thinkers of Greek Philosophy ............................................. 21
Socrates ................................................................................................. 21
Plato ...................................................................................................... 23
Life .................................................................................................... 24
Philosophy ......................................................................................... 25
Aristotle ................................................................................................ 28
Philosophy ......................................................................................... 28
Disciples and Commentators ............................................................ 32
Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy ............................................................ 32
Stoics .................................................................................................... 33
Epicureans ............................................................................................ 35
Sceptics ................................................................................................. 36
Neo-Pythagoreans and Neoplatonists .................................................. 37
Medieval Philosophy .................................................................................. 39
Early Medieval Philosophy .................................................................. 40
Augustine ........................................................................................... 41
Boethius ............................................................................................. 42
Greek Fathers of the Church and Erigena ........................................ 43
Anselm ............................................................................................... 44
Bernard of Clairvaux and Abelard .................................................... 45
Transition to Scholasticism ........................................................................ 47
Arabic Thought .................................................................................... 48
Jewish Thought .................................................................................... 49
The Age of the Schoolmen ......................................................................... 50
Robert Grosseteste and Roger Bacon .................................................. 50
William of Auvergne ............................................................................ 51
Bonaventure .......................................................................................... 52
Albertus Magnus .................................................................................. 53
Thomas Aquinas ................................................................................... 54
Averroists ............................................................................................. 56
Philosophy in the Late Middle Ages .......................................................... 57
Duns Scotus .......................................................................................... 58
William of Ockham .............................................................................. 59
Meister Eckhart .................................................................................... 60
Nicholas of Cusa .................................................................................. 61
Modern Philosophy .................................................................................... 62
The Renaissance and Early Modern Period ........................................ 62
Dominant Strands of Renaissance Philosophy .................................... 64
Political Theory ................................................................................. 65
Humanism ......................................................................................... 67
Philosophy of Nature ........................................................................ 70
Rise of Empiricism and Rationalism ................................................... 74
The Empiricism of Francis Bacon .................................................... 74
The Materialism of Thomas Hobbes ................................................ 75
Rationalism of Descartes .................................................................. 77
Rationalism of Spinoza and Leibniz ................................................. 81
Literary Forms and Sociological Conditions ....................................... 84
The Enlightenment ..................................................................................... 86
Classical British Empiricism and Its Basic Tasks ............................... 87
Origin and Nature of Reason in Locke and Berkeley ...................... 88
Basic Science of Man in Hume ........................................................ 91
Nonepistemological Movements in the Enlightenment ...................... 92
Materialism and Scientific Discovery .............................................. 92
Social and Political Philosophy ........................................................ 93
Professionalization of Philosophy .................................................... 95
Critical Examination of Reason in Kant ............................................. 98
Literary Forms .................................................................................... 100
The 19th Century ...................................................................................... 101
German Idealism of Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel ............................ 102
Positivism and Social Theory in Comte, Mill, and Marx ................. 106
Independent and Irrationalist Movements ......................................... 110
The 20th Century ...................................................................................... 113
Individual Philosophies of Bergson, Dewey, and Whitehead .......... 114
Marxist Thought ................................................................................. 116
Analytic Philosophy ........................................................................... 117
Logical Positivism ........................................................................... 117
Linguistic Analysis ......................................................................... 120
Continental Philosophy ...................................................................... 121
Phenomenology of Husserl and Others .......................................... 122
Existentialism of Jaspers and Sartre ............................................... 123
Conclusion ................................................................................................ 125
Bibliography ............................................................................................. 127
PART II: WESTERN PHILOSOPHICAL SCHOOLS ................................. 134
Introduction ............................................................................................... 135
Ancient and Medieval Schools ................................................................ 136
Aristotelianism ................................................................................... 136
The Hellenistic Age and Neoplatonism .......................................... 136
Aristotelianism in Arabic Philosophy ............................................ 138
Aristotelianism in Jewish Philosophy ............................................ 141
The Christian East ........................................................................... 141
The Christian West .......................................................................... 142
Conclusion ....................................................................................... 147
Atomism ...................................................................................................148
The Basic Nature of Atomism ........................................................... 148
Various Senses of Atomism ............................................................... 149
Two Basic Types of Atomism ........................................................ 149
Philosophical Atomism ................................................................ 150
Modern Atomic Theory ............................................................... 151
Extensions to Other Fields ................................................................. 151
Diverse Philosophical Characterizations of Atomism ...................... 153
The Intrinsic Nature of the Atoms .................................................. 153
Atoms as Lumpish Corpuscles ....................................................... 154
Atoms as Sheer Extension .............................................................. 157
Atoms as Centres of Force: Dynamic Particles .............................. 158
Atoms as Psychophysical Monads ................................................. 159
The Immutability of Atoms ............................................................... 160
Other Differences ............................................................................... 161
Number of Atoms ............................................................................ 161
Atoms in External Aggregation versus in Internal Relationship ... 163
History and Major Representatives of the Various Atomisms ............... 165
Philosophical Atomism ...................................................................... 165
Ancient Greek Atomism .................................................................... 165
The Elachista of the Early Aristotelian Commentators ................. 166
The Minima Naturalia of the Averroists ............................................ 167
Modern Scientific Atomism: Early Pioneering Work ....................... 167
The 17th century ............................................................................. 168
Founding of Modern Atomism ....................................................... 169
Recent and Contemporary Scientific Atomism .............................. 170
Atomism in the Thought of India ................................................... 171
Foundational Issues Posed By Atomism ........................................... 172
Atomism as a Metaphysical System ............................................... 172
Ancient Greek versus Contemporary Scientific Atomism ............ 175
Evaluation of Atomism ...................................................................... 176
Eleaticism ................................................................................................. 177
The Eleatic School Vis-À-Vis Rival Movements ............................. 178
The Rigorous Ontologism of Parmenides and Melissus ................... 180
Logical and Linguistic Approach ................................................... 180
Monistic Theory of Being ............................................................... 182
The Paradoxes of Zeno ...................................................................... 184
The Decline of Eleaticism .................................................................. 186
Epicureanism ............................................................................................ 187
The Nature of Epicureanism .............................................................. 188
History of Epicureanism .................................................................... 189
Epicurus’ Own Life and Teachings ................................................... 189
Doctrine of Epicurus .......................................................................... 190
The Epicurean School ........................................................................ 194
Epicureanism and Egoism in Modern Philosophy ............................ 196
Epicureanism in Contemporary Philosophy ...................................... 197
Criticism and Evaluation ................................................................... 198
Platonism .................................................................................................. 201
Aristotle’s Account of Platonism ...................................................... 201
The Academy after Plato: The Rise of Neoplatonism ...................... 205
Influence of Platonism on Christian Thought ................................... 207
Pythagoreanism ........................................................................................ 210
General Features of Pythagoreanism ................................................. 210
Major Concerns and Teachings ......................................................... 212
Religion and Ethics ............................................................................ 212
Metaphysics and Number Theory ..................................................... 214
The Harmony of the Cosmos ............................................................. 215
The Doctrine of Opposites ................................................................. 216
Mathematics and Science .................................................................. 217
Arithmetic ....................................................................................... 217
Geometry ......................................................................................... 220
Music ............................................................................................... 221
Astronomy ....................................................................................... 222
History of Pythagoreanism ................................................................ 222
Early Pythagoreanism ........................................................................ 223
Background ..................................................................................... 224
Pythagorean Communities .............................................................. 224
Two Pythagorean Sects ................................................................... 225
4th-Century Pythagoreanism .......................................................... 226
The Hellenistic Age ........................................................................ 226
Neo-Pythagoreanism ....................................................................... 227
Medieval and Modern Trends ......................................................... 228
Evaluation ........................................................................................... 229
Realism .....................................................................................................230
Nature and Scope of Realism ............................................................. 231
Realism and the Problem of Knowledge ........................................... 231
Philosophical Senses of Realism ....................................................... 233
Basic Kinds of Realism ...................................................................... 234
Distinctions Among the Realisms ..................................................... 235
History of Western Realism ............................................................... 237
Ancient Realism .............................................................................. 237
Medieval Realism ............................................................................ 238
Modern Realism .............................................................................. 239
Major Issues and Evaluation of Realism ........................................ 240
Scholasticism ............................................................................................ 242
Nature and Significance ..................................................................... 243
History and Issues .............................................................................. 246
Roots of Scholasticism .................................................................... 246
Early Scholastic Period ................................................................... 251
Maturity of Scholasticism ............................................................... 256
Late Scholastic Period ..................................................................... 261
Enduring Features ........................................................................... 262
Thomism ............................................................................................. 265
William of Ockham ............................................................................ 268
Scepticism ................................................................................................. 269
Various Senses and Applications ...................................................... 270
Ancient Scepticism ............................................................................ 271
Medieval Scepticism .......................................................................... 274
Modern Scepticism ............................................................................ 275
In the Reformation .......................................................................... 275
In the 17th Century ......................................................................... 276
In the 18th Century ......................................................................... 279
In Recent and Contemporary Philosophy ...................................... 282
Criticism and Evaluation ................................................................... 284
Sophists ..................................................................................................... 286
History of the Name ........................................................................... 286
The 5th-Century Sophists .................................................................. 287
Nature of Sophistic Thought .............................................................. 290
Writings .............................................................................................. 294
Particular Doctrines ............................................................................ 295
Theoretical Issues ............................................................................... 296
Humanistic Issues .............................................................................. 298
The Second Sophistic Movement ...................................................... 300
Stoicism .................................................................................................... 301
Nature and Scope of Stoicism ........................................................... 302
Ancient Stoicism ................................................................................ 304
Early Greek Stoicism ...................................................................... 304
Later Roman Stoicism .................................................................... 308
Stoic Elements in Pauline and Patristic Thought ........................... 310
Stoicism in Medieval and Modern Philosophy ................................. 312
Stoic Undercurrents in Medieval Thought ..................................... 312
Renascence of Stoicism in Modern Times ..................................... 314
Modern Schools ........................................................................................ 318
Analytic and Linguistic Philosophy ................................................... 318
General Viewpoint of Analytic Philosophy ................................ 321
Nature, Role, and Method of Analysis ........................................ 321
Status of Philosophy in the Empiricist Tradition ........................ 321
Conceptual, Linguistic, and Scientific Analysis ......................... 323
Therapeutic Function of Analysis ............................................... 325
Formal versus Ordinary Language .............................................. 327
Development of Mathematical Logic .......................................... 327
Divergence of Ordinary Language from Formal Logic .............. 329
Interpretations of the Relation of Logic to Language ................. 329
Early History of Analytic Philosophy ............................................ 331
Reaction Against Idealism ........................................................... 331
Founding Fathers: Moore and Russell ......................................... 333
G.E. Moore ................................................................................... 334
Bertrand Russell ........................................................................... 336
Logical Atomism: Russell and the Early Wittgenstein ............... 339
Logical Positivism: Carnap and Schlick ..................................... 341
Later History of the Movement ...................................................... 344
Philosophical Investigations: the Later Wittgenstein ................. 344
Language and Following Rules ................................................... 345
Relation Between Mental and Physical Events ........................... 347
Recent Trends in England ............................................................ 349
Wittgensteinians ........................................................................ 349
Oxford Philosophers ................................................................. 350
Recent Trends in the United States ............................................. 353
Analytic Philosophy Today ......................................................... 355
Empiricism ............................................................................................... 356
Various Meanings of Empiricism ...................................................... 358
Broader Senses ................................................................................ 358
Stricter Senses ................................................................................. 359
Fundamental Distinctions ............................................................... 360
Degrees of Empiricism ................................................................... 362
History of Empiricism ....................................................................... 365
In Ancient Philosophy .................................................................... 365
In Medieval Philosophy .................................................................. 366
In Modern Philosophy .................................................................... 367
In Contemporary Philosophy .......................................................... 370
Criticism and Evaluation ................................................................... 371
Existentialism ........................................................................................... 375
Nature of Existentialist Thought and Manner ................................... 375
Historical Survey of Existentialism ................................................... 379
Precursors of Existentialism .............................................................. 379
The Immediate Background and Founding Fathers .......................... 381
Emergence as a Movement ................................................................ 382
Methodological Issues in Existentialism ........................................... 385
Substantive Issues in Existentialism .................................................. 387
Fundamental Concepts and Contrasts ............................................ 387
Ontic Structure of Human Existence .............................................. 387
Manner and Style of Human Existence .......................................... 390
Problems of Existentialist Philosophy ............................................... 392
Man and Human Relationships ...................................................... 392
The Human Situation in the World ................................................ 394
Significance of Being and Transcendence ..................................... 397
Problems of Existentialist Theology ................................................. 398
Social and Historical Projections of Existentialism .......................... 400
Idealism ..................................................................................................... 403
Approaches to Understanding Idealism ............................................. 404
Basic Doctrines and Principles ....................................................... 404
Basic Questions and Answers ......................................................... 407
Ultimate Reality ........................................................................... 408
The Given ..................................................................................... 408
Change .......................................................................................... 409
Basic Arguments ............................................................................. 410
The Reciprocity Argument .......................................................... 411
The Mystical Argument ............................................................... 411
The Ontological Argument .......................................................... 413
Types of Philosophical Idealism ........................................................ 413
Types Classed by Culture ............................................................... 413
Western Types .............................................................................. 414
Eastern Types ............................................................................... 418
Types Classed by Branches of Philosophy ................................. 421
Criticism and Appraisal ...................................................................... 422
Materialism ............................................................................................... 424
Types of Materialist Theory ............................................................... 425
Types Distinguished by Departures from the Paradigm ................ 425
Types Distinguished by Its View of History .................................. 427
Types Distinguished by Their Account of Mind ............................ 428
History of Materialism ....................................................................... 430
Greek and Roman Materialism ....................................................... 430
Modern Materialism ........................................................................ 431
Contemporary Materialism ............................................................. 433
Translation Central-State Theories .............................................. 434
Disappearance Central-State Theories ........................................ 436
Eastern Materialism ........................................................................ 438
Substantive Issues in Materialism ...................................................... 438
Reductionism, Consciousness, and Brain ....................................... 438
Logic, Intentionality, and Psychical Research ............................... 440
Phenomenology ........................................................................................ 442
Characteristics of Phenomenology .................................................... 442
Essential Features and Variations ...................................................... 443
Contrasts with Related Movements ................................................... 444
Origin and Development of Husserl’s Phenomenology ................... 446
Basic Principles ............................................................................... 446
Basic Method .................................................................................. 449
Basic Concepts ................................................................................ 452
Later Developments ........................................................................... 455
Phenomenology of Essences .......................................................... 455
Heidegger’s Hermeneutic Phenomenology ................................... 456
Other Developments ....................................................................... 459
Dissemination of Phenomenology ..................................................... 459
Phenomenology in Various Countries ........................................... 459
In France ...................................................................................... 459
In Germany .................................................................................. 463
In Other European Countries ....................................................... 463
In the United States ...................................................................... 464
Phenomenology in Other Disciplines ................................................ 465
Conclusion .......................................................................................... 466
Positivism and Logical Empiricism ......................................................... 466
The Social Positivism of Comte and Mill ......................................... 468
The Critical Positivism of Mach and Avenarius ............................... 471
Logical Positivism and Logical Empiricism ..................................... 476
The Earlier Positivism of Viennese Heritage .................................... 477
Language and the Clarification of Meaning .................................. 478
The Verifiability Criterion of Meaning and Its Offshoots ............. 480
Other Issues ........................................................................................ 483
The Later Positivism of Logical Empiricism .................................... 486
The Status of the Formal and A Priori .............................................. 487
Developments in Linguistic Analysis and Their Offshoots .............. 489
Current Criticisms and Controversies ............................................... 492
Pragmatism ............................................................................................... 494
Major Theses of Philosophic Pragmatism ......................................... 495
History of Pragmatism ....................................................................... 498
Antecedents in Modern Philosophy ................................................ 498
The Metaphysical Club ................................................................... 500
The Classical Pragmatists ............................................................... 500
Other American Pragmatists ........................................................... 507
Pragmatism in Europe ..................................................................... 508
Later Tendencies ............................................................................. 510
Evaluation of Pragmatism .................................................................. 512
Rationalism ............................................................................................... 513
Types and Expressions of Rationalism .............................................. 514
History of Rationalism ....................................................................... 518
Epistemological Rationalism in Ancient Philosophies .................. 518
Epistemological Rationalism in Modern Philosophies .................. 521
Ethical Rationalism............................................................................. 523
Religious Rationalism ........................................................................ 525
Expansion of Religious Rationalism ................................................. 525
Four Waves of Religious Rationalism ............................................... 526
Status of Rationalism ......................................................................... 529
Religious .......................................................................................... 529
Ethical .............................................................................................. 529
Metaphysical ................................................................................... 530
Challenges to Epistemological Rationalism ...................................... 532
Utilitarianism ............................................................................................ 534
The Nature of Utilitarianism .............................................................. 535
Basic Concepts ................................................................................... 535
Methodologies .................................................................................... 536
Criticisms ............................................................................................ 537
Historical Survey ................................................................................ 539
Antecedents of Utilitarianism Among the Ancients ...................... 539
Growth of Classical English Utilitarianism .................................... 539
Late 19th- and 20th-century Utilitarianism .................................... 541
Effects of Utilitarianism in Other Fields ........................................... 542
Summary and Evaluation ................................................................... 544
Bibliography ............................................................................................. 546
PART III: PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY .................................... 588
Introduction .............................................................................................. 589
The Concept of Human Nature ................................................................ 590
Ancient Greece ................................................................................... 596
Medieval Period ................................................................................. 599
Renaissance ........................................................................................ 601
The 16th and 17th Centuries: The Rise of Scientific Thought ............... 602
Rationalism versus Scepticism .......................................................... 602
Work of Descartes .......................................................................... 604
Work of Locke ................................................................................ 607
Development of Anthropological Studies ......................................... 609
Work of Tyson ................................................................................ 609
Emergence of Cultural Anthropology ............................................ 611
The 18th-Century Enlightenment ............................................................ 612
The Natural History of Man .............................................................. 612
Man the Rational Subject ................................................................... 615
The 19th Century ...................................................................................... 620
The 20th Century: Emergence of Philosophical Anthropology .............. 625
Frege and Empiricist Anthropology .................................................. 626
Husserl and Philosophical Anthropology .......................................... 629
Work of Heidegger ......................................................................... 631
Work of Sartre and Other Existentialists ........................................ 632
Philosophical Anthropology and Theology ................................... 636
Saussure, Freud, and Antihumanism ................................................. 637
Humanism ................................................................................................ 641
Introduction .............................................................................................. 641
Origin and Meaning of the Term Humanism .......................................... 642
The Ideal of Humanitas ...................................................................... 642
Other Uses .......................................................................................... 644
Basic Principles and Attitudes ........................................................... 645
Classicism ........................................................................................... 646
Realism ..................................................................................................... 647
Critical Scrutiny and Concern with Detail ........................................ 649
The Emergence of the Individual and the Idea of the
Dignity of Man ................................................................................ 649
Active Virtue ................................................................................... 650
Early History ...................................................................................... 652
The 15th Century ......................................................................... 659
Leon Battista Alberti .................................................................... 660
The Medici and Federico da Montefeltro .................................... 662
Later Italian Humanism .................................................................. 664
Things and Words ........................................................................ 666
Idealism and the Platonic Academy of Florence ........................ 667
Machiavelli’s Realism ................................................................. 669
The Achievement of Castiglione ................................................. 670
Tasso’s Aristotelianism ................................................................ 671
Northern Humanism ........................................................................ 672
Desiderius Erasmus ...................................................................... 672
The French Humanists .................................................................... 673
François Rabelais ......................................................................... 674
Michel de Montaigne ................................................................... 675
The English Humanists ................................................................... 676
Sidney and Spenser ...................................................................... 678
Chapman, Jonson, and Shakespeare ............................................ 680
Humanism and the Visual Arts .......................................................... 683
Realism ............................................................................................ 683
Classicism ........................................................................................ 684
Anthropocentricity and Individualism ............................................ 685
Art as Philosophy ............................................................................ 686
Humanism, Art, and Science .......................................................... 687
Humanism and Christianity ............................................................... 690
Later Fortunes of Humanism ............................................................. 691
Conclusion .......................................................................................... 694
Marxism .................................................................................................... 694
The Thought of Karl Marx ................................................................. 695
Historical Materialism ........................................................................ 696
Analysis of Society .........................................................................698
Analysis of the Economy ................................................................ 702
Class Struggle .................................................................................. 704
The Contributions of Engels .............................................................. 706
German Marxism After Engels .......................................................... 709
The Work of Kautsky and Bernstein .............................................. 709
The Radicals .................................................................................... 711
The Austrians .................................................................................. 712
Russian and Soviet Marxism .......................................................... 713
Lenin ................................................................................................... 713
The Dictatorship of the Proletariat ................................................. 716
Stalin ................................................................................................... 717
Trotskyism .......................................................................................... 720
Variants of Marxism .......................................................................... 721
Maoism ............................................................................................ 721
Marxism in Cuba ............................................................................ 724
Marxism in the Third World ........................................................... 725
Marxism in the West ....................................................................... 726
Bibliography ............................................................................................. 729
PART IV: BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY ................................................ 742
Aesthetics ................................................................................................. 743
Introduction .............................................................................................. 743
The Nature and Scope of Aesthetics ........................................................ 743
Three Approaches to Aesthetics .............................................................. 745
The Aesthetic Recipient ..................................................................... 748
The Aesthetic Object .......................................................................... 750
The Aesthetic Experience .................................................................. 755
Relationship Between Form and Content ................................................ 760
The Role of Imagination .................................................................... 762
Emotion, Response, and Enjoyment .................................................. 766
The Work of Art ....................................................................................... 771
Understanding Art .............................................................................. 772
Representation and Expression in Art ............................................... 772
Symbolism in Art ............................................................................... 775
Form ................................................................................................... 779
The Ontology of Art ................................................................................. 781
The Value of Art ...................................................................................... 784
Taste, Criticism, and Judgment ................................................................ 786
Concepts Used in Aesthetic Evaluation ................................................... 788
The Development of Western Aesthetics ................................................ 794
The Contributions of the Ancient Greeks .......................................... 794
Medieval Aesthetics ........................................................................... 795
The Origins of Modern Aesthetics .................................................... 796
The Significance of Baumgarten’s Work ....................................... 798
Major Concerns of 18th-Century Aesthetics .................................. 799
Kant, Schiller, and Hegel ................................................................ 802
Post-Hegelian Aesthetics ................................................................ 804
Expressionism ....................................................................................805
Marxist Aesthetics .............................................................................. 807
Eastern Aesthetics .............................................................................. 809
India ................................................................................................. 809
China ................................................................................................ 810
Japan ................................................................................................. 811
Epistemology ............................................................................................ 812
Introduction ............................................................................................... 812
Issues of Epistemology ......................................................................812
Epistemology as a Discipline ............................................................. 812
Two Epistemological Problems ............................................................... 814
Our Knowledge of the External World ............................................. 814
The ‘Other-Minds’ Problems ............................................................. 816
Implications .............................................................................................. 818
Relation of Epistemology to Other Branches of Philosophy .................. 820
The Nature of Knowledge ........................................................................ 822
Six Distinctions of Knowledge ................................................................ 825
Occurrent versus Dispositional Conceptions of Knowledge ............ 827
A Priori versus A Posteriori Knowledge ........................................... 828
Necessary versus Contingent Propositions ........................................ 829
Analytic versus Synthetic Propositions ............................................. 830
Tautological versus Significant Propositions .................................... 830
Logical versus Factual Propositions .................................................. 831
Knowledge by Acquaintance and Knowledge by Description ............... 833
Description versus Justification ............................................................... 836
Knowledge and Certainty ......................................................................... 838
Origins of Knowledge .............................................................................. 841
Innate versus Learned ........................................................................ 842
Rationalism versus Empiricism ......................................................... 843
Scepticism .......................................................................................... 846
The History of Epistemology ................................................................... 849
Ancient Philosophy ............................................................................ 849
Pre-Socratics ................................................................................... 849
Plato ................................................................................................. 850
Aristotle ........................................................................................... 854
Ancient Scepticism ............................................................................ 857
St. Augustine ...................................................................................... 860
Medieval Philosophy ......................................................................... 862
St. Anselm of Canterbury ............................................................... 862
St. Thomas Aquinas ........................................................................ 863
John Duns Scotus ............................................................................ 867
William of Ockham ........................................................................ 870
From Scientific Theology to Secular Science ................................... 871
Modern Philosophy ............................................................................ 873
Faith and Reason ............................................................................. 873
Impact of Modern Science on Epistemology ................................. 876
René Descartes ................................................................................ 877
John Locke ...................................................................................... 878
George Berkeley ............................................................................. 882
David Hume .................................................................................... 886
Kinds of Perceptions .................................................................... 886
Cause and Effect .......................................................................... 889
Substance ..................................................................................... 890
Relations of Ideas and Matters of Fact ........................................ 891
Scepticism .................................................................................... 892
Immanuel Kant ................................................................................ 895
G.F.W. Hegel .................................................................................. 898
Contemporary Philosophy .............................................................. 899
Continental Philosophy ................................................................... 900
Analytic Philosophy ........................................................................ 904
Commonsense Philosophy, Logical Positivism,
and Naturalized Epistemology .................................................... 905
Perception and Knowledge ............................................................. 907
Phenomenalism ............................................................................... 912
Philosophy of Mind and Epistemology ...................................................916
Philosophy of Mind ............................................................................ 917
Introduction ........................................................................................ 917
Philosophy of Mind as a Discipline ................................................... 918
The Search for a Criterion of the Mental ........................................... 919
Purposeful Behavior ........................................................................ 919
Intentionality ...................................................................................922
The Scope of Application of Intentionality .................................... 926
Subjective Experience ........................................................................ 929
Adequacy as a Criterion of the Mental ........................................... 931
Core Characteristics of Subjectivity ............................................... 934
Privileged Status of Subjectivity .................................................... 936
The Existence and Status of the Mind ............................................... 941
The Mind as Material ......................................................................... 942
Eliminative Materialism ..................................................................... 943
Behaviorism ........................................................................................ 944
Central-State Theory .......................................................................... 945
The Mind as Immaterial ..................................................................... 946
Dualism ............................................................................................... 947
Immaterialism ..................................................................................... 949
Neutral Theories ................................................................................. 950
The Analysis of Mental Phenomena .................................................. 952
The Cognitive .................................................................................. 953
The Affective ................................................................................... 954
The Volitional ................................................................................. 955
Some Metaphysical and Epistemological Issues ..................................... 956
Personal Identity Through Time ........................................................ 956
Personal Immortality .......................................................................... 958
Knowledge of Other Minds ............................................................... 959
Artificial Intelligence ......................................................................... 961
Ethics ........................................................................................................ 962
Introduction ........................................................................................ 962
The Origins of Ethics ......................................................................... 963
Mythical Accounts .......................................................................... 963
Introduction of Moral Codes ....................................................... 963
Problems of Divine Origin .......................................................... 965
Prehuman Ethics .......................................................................... 966
Nonhuman Behavior .................................................................... 966
Kinship and Reciprocity .............................................................. 967
Anthropology and Ethics ............................................................. 970
Ancient Ethics .................................................................................... 974
The Middle East ........................................................................... 974
India .............................................................................................. 977
China ............................................................................................ 982
Ancient Greece ............................................................................ 984
Western Ethics from Socrates to the 20th Century ........................... 987
The Classical Period of Greek Ethics ............................................. 987
Socrates ........................................................................................ 987
Plato .............................................................................................. 989
Aristotle ........................................................................................ 992
Later Greek and Roman Ethics ....................................................... 997
The Stoics ..................................................................................... 997
The Epicureans ............................................................................ 999
Christian Ethics from the New Testament to the Scholastics ...... 1001
Ethics in the New Testament ..................................................... 1001
Augustine ................................................................................... 1004
Aquinas and the Moral Philosophy of the Scholastics ............. 1005
Renaissance and Reformation ...................................................... 1010
Machiavelli ................................................................................ 1010
The First Protestants .................................................................. 1011
The British Tradition: from Hobbes to the Utilitarians ............... 1013
Hobbes ....................................................................................... 1013
Early Intuitionists: Cudworth, More, and Clarke ..................... 1016
Shaftesbury and the Moral Sense School .................................. 1018
Butler on Self-Interest and Conscience ..................................... 1019
The Climax of Moral Sense Theory: Hutcheson and Hume .... 1020
The Intuitionist Response: Price and Reid ............................. 1024
Utilitarianism ..........................................................................................1025
Paley .................................................................................................1025
Bentham ............................................................................................1026
Mill ...................................................................................................1027
Sidgwick ...........................................................................................1028
The Continental Tradition: from Spinoza to Nietzsche .........................1030
Spinoza .............................................................................................1030
Leibniz ..............................................................................................1031
Rousseau ...........................................................................................1032
Kant ...................................................................................................1033
Hegel .................................................................................................1039
Marx ..................................................................................................1042
Nietzsche ..........................................................................................1044
20th-Century Western Ethics ................................................................. 1046
Metaethics .........................................................................................1046
Moore and the Naturalistic Fallacy ..............................................1047
Modern Intuitionism .....................................................................1049
Emotivism .....................................................................................1050
Existentialism ................................................................................1052
Universal Prescriptivism ...............................................................1053
Modern Naturalism .......................................................................1056
Recent Developments in Metaethics ...............................................1059
Normative Ethics .............................................................................. 1066
The Debate Over Consequentialism .............................................1066
Varieties of Consequentialism ......................................................1067
An Ethic of Prima Facie Duties ....................................................1072
Rawls’s Theory of Justice ............................................................. 1073
Rights Theories ............................................................................. 1075
Natural Law Ethics ........................................................................ 1077
Ethical Egoism ..............................................................................1079
Applied Ethics .................................................................................. 1082
Applications of Equality ............................................................... 1084
Environmental Ethics ....................................................................1086
War and Peace ...............................................................................1087
Abortion, Euthanasia, and the Value of Human Life ...................1088
Bioethics ........................................................................................1089
Bibliography ...........................................................................................1093

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