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Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity

Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity

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Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease

PHILIP J. VAN DER EIJK


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Book Details
 Price
 3.00
 Pages
 419 p
 File Size 
 4,330 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 eISBN-13
 eISBN-10
 978-0-511-11329-1 (MyiLibrary) 
 0-511-11329-3 (MyiLibrary)
 Copyright©   
 Philip van der Eijk 2005 

MEDICINE AND PHILOSOPHY
IN CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY
This work makes available for the first time in one dedicated volume
Philip van der Eijk’s selected papers on the close connections that existed
between medicine and philosophy throughout antiquity.Medical
authors such as the Hippocratic writers, Diocles, Galen, Soranus and
CaeliusAurelianus elaborated on philosophical methods such as causal
explanation, definition and division, applying concepts such as the notion
of nature to their understanding of the human body. Similarly,
philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle were highly valued for their
contributions to medicine. This interaction was particularly striking
in the study of the human soul in relation to the body, as illustrated by
approaches to topics such as intellect, sleep and dreams, and diet and
drugs. With a detailed introduction surveying the subject as a whole
and a new chapter on Aristotle’s treatment of sleep and dreams, this
wide-ranging collection is essential reading for students and scholars
of ancient philosophy and science.

PHILIP J. VAN DER EIJK is Professor of Greek at the University
of Newcastle upon Tyne. He has published widely on ancient
philosophy, medicine and science, comparative literature and
patristics. He is the author of Aristoteles. De insomniis. De divinatione
per somnum (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1994) and of Diocles of Carystus.
A Collection of the Fragments with Translation and Commentary
(2 vols., Leiden: Brill, 2000–1).He has edited and co-authored Ancient
Histories of Medicine. Essays in Medical Doxography and Historiography
in Classical Antiquity (Leiden: Brill, 1999) and co-edited Ancient
Medicine in its Socio-Cultural Context (2 vols., Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 1995).

Introduction
Few areas in classical scholarship have seen such rapid growth as the study
of ancient medicine. Over the last three decades, the subject has gained
broad appeal, not only among scholars and students of Greek and Roman
antiquity but also in other disciplines such as the history of medicine
and science, the history of philosophy and ideas, (bio-)archaeology and
environmental history, and the study of the linguistic, literary, rhetorical
and cultural aspects of intellectual ‘discourse’. The popularity of the subject
even extends beyond the confines of academic communities, and ancient
medicine has proved to be an effective tool in the promotion of the public
understanding of medicine and its history.
The reasons for these changes are varied and complex, and to do justice
to all would require a much fuller discussion than I can offer here.1 In this
introductory chapter, I will concentrate on what I perceive to be the most
important developments and in so doing set out the rationale of the present
collection of papers. Evidently, ancient medicine possesses remarkable flexibility
in attracting interest from a large variety of people approaching the
field from a broad range of disciplines, directions and backgrounds, for a
number of different reasons and with a wide variety of expectations. The
purpose of publishing these papers in the present form is to make them
more easily accessible to this growing audience.

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements page ix
Note on translations xiii
Note on abbreviations xiv
Introduction 1
hippocratic corpus and diocles of carystus
1 The ‘theology’ of the Hippocratic treatise On the Sacred Disease 45
2 Diocles and the Hippocratic writings on the method of
dietetics and the limits of causal explanation 74
3 To help, or to do no harm. Principles and practices of
therapeutics in the Hippocratic Corpus and in the work
of Diocles of Carystus 101
4 The heart, the brain, the blood and the pneuma:Hippocrates,
Diocles and Aristotle on the location of cognitive processes 119
5 Aristotle on melancholy 139
6 Theoretical and empirical elements in Aristotle’s treatment of
sleep, dreams and divination in sleep 169
7 The matter of mind: Aristotle on the biology of ‘psychic’
processes and the bodily aspects of thinking 206
8 Divine movement and human nature in Eudemian Ethics 8.2 238
9 On Sterility (‘Hist. an. 10’), a medical work by Aristotle? 259
10 Galen’s use of the concept of ‘qualified experience’ in his
dietetic and pharmacological works 279
11 TheMethodism of Caelius Aurelianus: some epistemological issues 299
Bibliography 328
Index of passages cited 379
General index 396


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Note on translations
All translations of Greek and Latin texts are my own, except in those cases
where I have used the following:
the translations of the Hippocratic writings by W. H. S. Jones and P.
Potter (quoted in the introduction and throughout part one), published
by Harvard University Press in the Loeb Classical Library as Hippocrates,
volumes 2/148 (1923), 4/ 150 (1931), 5/472 (1988) and 6/473 (1988);
the translation of Theophrastus’ On the Causes of Plants by B. Einarson
and G. K. K. Link (quoted in chapter 2), published by Harvard University
Press in the Loeb Classical Library as Theophrastus, De causis plantarum,
volumes 1/471 (1976) and 3/475 (1990);
the translation of Aristotle’sHistory of Animals, Book 10, by D. M. Balme
(quoted in chapter 9), published by Harvard University Press in the Loeb
Classical Library as Aristotle,History of Animals, Books VII-X, volume 11/439
(1991);
the translation of Theophrastus’ fragments byW.W. Fortenbaugh et al.
(quoted in chapter 2), published by Brill in 1992;
the translation of Theophrastus’ Metaphysics by M. van Raalte (quoted
in chapter 2), published by Brill in 1993;
the translation of Galen’s On Medical Experience by R. Walzer (quoted
in chapter 2), published by Oxford University Press in 1944 and reprinted
by Hackett in 1985;
the translation of Caelius Aurelianus’ On Acute Affections by I. Drabkin
(quoted in chapter 4), published by theUniversity of Chicago Press in 1950;
and the translation of Plato’s Republic by G.Grube and D. Reeve (quoted
in chapter 6), published by Hackett in 1997.

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