-->
Navigation
Essentials of Medical Physiology, 6th Edition

Essentials of Medical Physiology, 6th Edition

Now pay Easier and Secure using Paypal
Price:

Read more

K Sembulingam PhDPrema Sembulingam PhD

Madha Medical College & Research Institute

Kundrathur Main Road, Kovur, Thandalam (Near Porur)

Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Formerly
MR Medical College
Gulbarga, Karnataka, India
Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Kelantan, Malaysia
Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences
Puducherry, India
Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital
Puducherry, India
and
Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute
Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India

e-books shop
e-books shop
Purchase Now !
Just with Paypal



Book Details
 Price
 5.00
 Pages
 1113 p
 File Size 
 36,588 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 978-93-5025-936-8  
 Copyright©   
 2012,
 Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers 

Preface to the Sixth Edition
With this Sixth edition, Sembulingam’s Essentials of Medical Physiology enters into its second decade and the core subject matter with updated physiological information remain as green as ever. We live in an era where the thirst for knowledge and urge for learning is so much increased that even a layman knows the fundamentals of common disorders like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, jaundice, etc. So, it becomes doubly important to fulfill the expectations of the educated mass, especially in medical field.
We are humbly thankful and heavenly happy for the popularity of this book among the undergraduate and postgraduate students of medical, dental and paramedical courses, doctors and other health professionals in and out of our country.
Like many other successful textbooks, this book also has sailed through the years smoothly, fruitfully and successfully. May be because, it meets the needs of every group of the readers. Students are happy because it is student-friendly while reading, and exam-friendly while revising. Knowledge seekers are happy because they get the updated and recent developments in the field of physiology. Doctors are happy because applied aspects are covered adequately.
Our thirst for improving this textbook is growing every year by seeing outright acceptance of this book by the students, and the appreciation and overwhelming support given by our fellow teachers. The most comments and the suggestions, we receive from our readers, are responsible for better shaping of this book in every edition. This edition is enriched with addition of many more flow charts, tables and descriptive diagrams to make the subject matter easier and approachable for all class of students. Many chapters are upgraded as per the suggestions from our colleagues and fellow teachers from various institutes and universities in and out of India.
Our thirst for improving this book is still alive. The improvement is possible only by the comments and suggestions expressed by the readers. So, we welcome the opinions, comments and valuable suggestions from one and all who happen to come across this book.
K Sembulingam
Prema Sembulingam

Introduction
Physiology is the most fascinating and ancient branch of science. It is fascinating because, it unfolds the mystery of complicated functional aspects of individual organs in the body. It is ancient because, it exists ever since the origin of life. Even before knowing the language, culture and society, man knew about the hunger, thirst, pain and fear which are the basics of physiology.
Physiology is defined as the study of functions of various systems and different organs of the body. Physiology is of different types namely, Human Physiology, Animal Physiology and Plant Physiology. Human Physiology and Animal Physiology are very much inter-related. Knowledge of Human Physiology is essential to understand the other allied subjects like Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Pathology, Medicine, etc. However, it is worthwhile to have a brief
know ledge of anatomy of different systems and various organs to understand the principles of Human Physiology. The basic physiological functions include, provision of oxygen and nutrients, removal of metabolites and other waste products, maintenance of blood pressure and body temperature, hunger and thirst, locomotor functions, special sensory functions, reproduction and the higher intellectual functions like learning and memory.
In the unicellular organisms, all the physiological functions are carried out by simple diffusion through the cell membrane. Because of the evolutionary and ecological changes over the years, individual system is developed for each function such as digestive system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, excretory system, etc. Every system in the body is independent structurally and functionally yet, all the systems are interdependent.
Human Physiology is usually studied under the following headings:
1. General Physiology
2. Blood and Body Fluids
3. Muscle Physiology
4. Digestive System
5. Renal Physiology and Excretion
6. Endocrinology
7. Reproductive System
8. Cardiovascular System
9. Respiratory System and Environmental Physiology
10. Nervous System
11. Special Senses

Table of Contents
SECTIoN 1
GENERAL PHySIoLoGy
1. Cell .....................................................................................................................................3
2. Cell Junctions .................................................................................................................22
3. Transport through Cell Membrane ................................................................................27
4. Homeostasis ...................................................................................................................38
5. Acid-Base Balance .........................................................................................................42
SECTIoN 2
BLooD AND BoDy FLUIDS
6. Body Fluids .....................................................................................................................51
7. Blood ...............................................................................................................................58
8. Plasma Proteins..............................................................................................................61
9. Red Blood Cells ..............................................................................................................66
10. Erythropoiesis ................................................................................................................71
11. Hemoglobin and Iron Metabolism .................................................................................77
12. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate ...................................................................................83
13. Packed Cell Volume and Blood Indices ........................................................................86
14. Anemia.............................................................................................................................89
15. Hemolysis and Fragility of Red Blood Cells ................................................................95
16. White Blood Cells ...........................................................................................................97
17. Immunity ........................................................................................................................107
18. Platelets .........................................................................................................................122
19. Hemostasis ...................................................................................................................127
20. Coagulation of Blood ...................................................................................................129
21. Blood Groups ................................................................................................................139
22. Blood Transfusion ........................................................................................................146
23. Blood Volume ................................................................................................................148
24. Reticuloendothelial System and Tissue Macrophage ...............................................151
25. Spleen ............................................................................................................................153
26. Lymphatic System and Lymph ....................................................................................155
27. Tissue Fluid and Edema ..............................................................................................159
SECTIoN 3
MUSCLE PHySIoLoGy
28. Classification of Muscles.............................................................................................167
29. Structure of Skeletal Muscle .......................................................................................169
30. Properties of Skeletal Muscle......................................................................................176
31. Changes during Muscular Contraction ......................................................................188
32. Neuromuscular Junction .............................................................................................200
33. Smooth Muscle .............................................................................................................204
34. Electromyogram and Disorders of Skeletal Muscle ..................................................210
35. Endurance of Muscle ...................................................................................................214
SECTIoN 4
DIGESTIVE SySTEM
36. Introduction to Digestive System ...............................................................................219
37. Mouth and Salivary Glands .........................................................................................223
38. Stomach ........................................................................................................................230
39. Pancreas........................................................................................................................241
40. Liver and Gallbladder ...................................................................................................249
41. Small Intestine ..............................................................................................................261
42. Large Intestine ..............................................................................................................266
43. Movements of Gastrointestinal Tract .........................................................................270
44. Gastrointestinal Hormones .........................................................................................281
45. Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism of Carbohydrates .......................................287
46. Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism of Proteins ..................................................290
47. Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism of Lipids ......................................................292
SECTIoN 5
RENAL PHySIoLoGy AND SKIN
48. Kidney ............................................................................................................................301
49. Nephron .........................................................................................................................304
50. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus .........................................................................................309
51. Renal Circulation ..........................................................................................................312
52. Urine Formation ............................................................................................................315
53. Concentration of Urine .................................................................................................325
54. Acidification of Urine and Role of Kidney in Acid-Base Balance ............................330
55. Renal Function Tests ...................................................................................................333
56. Renal Failure .................................................................................................................337
57. Micturition .....................................................................................................................339
58. Dialysis and Artificial Kidney ......................................................................................346
59. Diuretics ........................................................................................................................348
60. Structure of Skin ...........................................................................................................351
61. Functions of Skin .........................................................................................................354
62. Glands of Skin ..............................................................................................................356
63. Body Temperature ........................................................................................................359
SECTIoN 6
ENDoCRINoLoGy
64. Introduction to Endocrinology ....................................................................................367
65. Hormones ......................................................................................................................371
66. Pituitary Gland ..............................................................................................................375
67. Thyroid Gland ...............................................................................................................388
68. Parathyroid Glands and Physiology of Bone ............................................................399
69. Endocrine Functions of Pancreas ..............................................................................415
70. Adrenal Cortex ..............................................................................................................425
71. Adrenal Medulla ............................................................................................................439
72. Endocrine Functions of other organs .......................................................................444
73. Local Hormones ...........................................................................................................447
SECTIoN 7
REPRoDUCTIVE SySTEM
74. Male Reproductive System ..........................................................................................455
75. Seminal Vesicles...........................................................................................................467
76. Prostate Gland ..............................................................................................................468
77. Semen ............................................................................................................................470
78. Female Reproductive System .....................................................................................473
79. ovary .............................................................................................................................476
80. Menstrual Cycle ............................................................................................................482
81. ovulation .......................................................................................................................492
82. Menopause ....................................................................................................................494
83. Infertility .......................................................................................................................496
84. Pregnancy and Parturition ...........................................................................................498
85. Placenta .........................................................................................................................505
86. Pregnancy Tests ...........................................................................................................508
87. Mammary Glands and Lactation .................................................................................510
88. Fertility Control .............................................................................................................513
SECTIoN 8
CARDIoVASCULAR SySTEM
89. Introduction to Cardiovascular System .....................................................................519
90. Properties of Cardiac Muscle ......................................................................................525
91. Cardiac Cycle ................................................................................................................533
92. Heart Sounds ................................................................................................................544
93. Cardiac Murmur ............................................................................................................549
94. Electrocardiogram (ECG).............................................................................................551
95. Vector.............................................................................................................................558
96. Arrhythmia ....................................................................................................................562
97. Effect of Changes in Electrolyte Concentration on Heart ........................................570
98. Cardiac output ..............................................................................................................572
99. Heart-Lung Preparation ...............................................................................................582
100. Cardiac Function Curves .............................................................................................584
101. Heart Rate......................................................................................................................587
102. Hemodynamics .............................................................................................................595
103. Arterial Blood Pressure ...............................................................................................602
104. Venous Pressure ..........................................................................................................617
105. Capillary Pressure ........................................................................................................620
106. Arterial Pulse ................................................................................................................622
107. Venous Pulse ................................................................................................................627
108. Coronary Circulation ....................................................................................................629
109. Cerebral Circulation .....................................................................................................634
110. Splanchnic Circulation .................................................................................................638
111. Capillary Circulation.....................................................................................................640
112. Circulation through Skeletal Muscle ..........................................................................644
113. Cutaneous Circulation .................................................................................................646
114. Fetal Circulation and Respiration ...............................................................................648
115. Hemorrhage ..................................................................................................................651
116. Circulatory Shock and Heart Failure ..........................................................................654
117. Cardiovascular Adjustments during Exercise ...........................................................664
SECTIoN 9
RESPIRAToRy SySTEM AND ENVIRoNMENTAL PHySIoLoGy
118. Physiological Anatomy of Respiratory Tract .............................................................673
119. Pulmonary Circulation .................................................................................................678
120. Mechanics of Respiration ............................................................................................682
121. Pulmonary Function Tests ...........................................................................................690
122. Ventilation .....................................................................................................................700
123. Inspired Air, Alveolar Air and Expired Air ..................................................................703
124. Exchange of Respiratory Gases .................................................................................705
125. Transport of Respiratory Gases .................................................................................711
126. Regulation of Respiration ............................................................................................716
127. Disturbances of Respiration ........................................................................................723
128. High Altitude and Space Physiology ..........................................................................737
129. Deep Sea Physiology ...................................................................................................743
130. Effects of Exposure to Cold and Heat ........................................................................746
131. Artificial Respiration ....................................................................................................749
132. Effects of Exercise on Respiration .............................................................................751
SECTIoN 10
NERVoUS SySTEM
133. Introduction to Nervous System .................................................................................757
134. Neuron ...........................................................................................................................759
135. Classification of Nerve Fibers .....................................................................................764
136. Properties of Nerve Fibers...........................................................................................766
137. Degeneration and Regeneration of Nerve Fibers ......................................................770
138. Neuroglia .......................................................................................................................773
139. Receptors ......................................................................................................................775
140. Synapse .........................................................................................................................780
141. Neurotransmitters ........................................................................................................787
142. Reflex Activity ...............................................................................................................795
143. Spinal Cord ...................................................................................................................803
144. Somatosensory System and Somatomotor System .................................................828
145. Physiology of Pain .......................................................................................................838
146. Brainstem ......................................................................................................................844
147. Thalamus .......................................................................................................................847
148. Internal Capsule............................................................................................................853
149. Hypothalamus ...............................................................................................................855
150. Cerebellum ....................................................................................................................863
151. Basal Ganglia ................................................................................................................878
152. Cerebral Cortex.............................................................................................................884
153. Limbic System ..............................................................................................................898
154. Reticular Formation ......................................................................................................901
155. Preparations of Animals for Experimental Studies ...................................................906
156. Proprioceptors ..............................................................................................................908
157. Posture and Equilibrium ..............................................................................................913
158. Vestibular Apparatus ....................................................................................................919
159. Electroencephalogram (EEG) ......................................................................................929
160. Physiology of Sleep .....................................................................................................931
161. Epilepsy .........................................................................................................................935
162. Higher Intellectual Functions ......................................................................................937
163. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) ...........................................................................................949
164. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) .............................................................................954
SECTIoN 11
SPECIAL SENSES
165. Structure of the Eye .....................................................................................................965
166. Visual Process ..............................................................................................................978
167. Field of Vision ...............................................................................................................987
168. Visual Pathway .............................................................................................................989
169. Pupillary Reflexes.........................................................................................................994
170. Color Vision ..................................................................................................................999
171. Errors of Refraction ....................................................................................................1004
172. Structure of Ear ..........................................................................................................1007
173. Auditory Pathway .......................................................................................................1013
174. Mechanism of Hearing ...............................................................................................1016
175. Auditory Defects .........................................................................................................1022
176. Sensation of Taste ......................................................................................................1024
177. Sensation of Smell .....................................................................................................1028
• Index ..................................................................................................................................1033


Bookscreen
e-books shop

Essentials of Medical Physiology
First Edition: 1999
Second Edition: 2000
Third Edition: 2004
Fourth Edition: 2006
Fifth Edition: 2010
Sixth Edition: 2012

0