Developmental Psychology, Eighth Edition

Developmental Psychology, Eighth Edition

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Childhood and Adolescence

David R. Shaffer University of Georgia

Katherine Kipp Gainesville State College

Brief Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Developmental Psychology and Its Research Strategies
Chapter 2 Theories of Human Development
Chapter 3 Hereditary Infl uences on Development
Chapter 4 Prenatal Development and Birth
Chapter 5 Infancy
Chapter 6 Physical Development: The Brain, Body, Motor Skills, and Sexual Development 199
Chapter 7 Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Viewpoint
Chapter 8 Cognitive Development: Information-Processing Perspectives 
Chapter 9 Intelligence: Measuring Mental Performance 
Chapter 10 Development of Language and Communication Skills
Chapter 11 Emotional Development, Temperament, and Attachment 
Chapter 12 Development of the Self and Social Cognition 
Chapter 13 Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development
Chapter 14 Aggression, Altruism, and Moral Development 
Chapter 15 The Context of Development

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Book Details
 785 p
 File Size 
 26,543 KB
 File Type
 PDF format

 2010, 2007 Wadsworth,
 Cengage Learning 

About the Authors
DAVID R. SHAFFER is a Josiah Meigs Distinguished Professor Emeritus, past chair of
the Undergraduate program, the Life-Span Developmental Psychology program, and the
Social Psychology program at the University of Georgia, where he has taught courses in
human development to graduate and undergraduate students for the past 36 years. His
many research articles have addressed such topics as altruism, attitudes and persuasion,
moral development, sex roles and social behavior, self-disclosure, and social psychology
and the law. He has also served as associate editor for the Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, Personality and Social Bulletin, and Journal of Personality. In 1990 Dr. Shaffer received
the Josiah Meigs Award for Excellence in Instruction, the University of Georgia’s
highest instructional honor.

KATHERINE KIPP is a Professor of Psychology at Gainesville State College. She was
previously an Associate Professor of Psychology in the Life-Span Developmental Psychology
program and the Cognitive/Experimental Psychology program at the University of
Georgia, where she taught courses in developmental psychology to graduate and undergraduate
students for 16 years. Her research publications cover topics in cognitive development
such as memory development, cognitive inhibition, and attention; individual differences
in cognitive development, such as differences in attention-defi cit/hyperactivity
disorder and giftedness in children; and research on the teaching of psychology. She is a
member of the Society for Research in Child Development, the American Psychological
Association, the American Psychological Society, and the Society for the Teaching of
Psychology. She is the recipient of numerous teaching and mentoring awards and fellowships
at the University of Georgia. She is also the mother of twin 22-year-old daughters,
who have shared their developmental journey with her.

Our purpose in writing this book has been to produce a current and comprehensive
overview of child and adolescent development that refl ects the best theories, research,
and practical advice that developmentalists have to offer. Throughout our many years of
teaching, we have looked for a substantive developmental text that was also interesting,
accurate, up to date, and written in clear, concise language that an introductory student
could easily understand. At this level, a good text should talk “to” rather than “at” its
readers, anticipating their interests, questions, and concerns and treating them as active
participants in the learning process. In the fi eld of developmental psychology, a good
text should also stress the processes that underlie developmental change so that students
come away from the course with a fi rm understanding of the causes and complexities of
development. Finally, a good text is a relevant text—one that shows how the theory and
the research that students are asked to digest can be applied to real-life settings.
The present volume represents our attempt to accomplish all of these objectives.
We have tried to write a book that is both rigorous and applied—one that challenges students
to think about the fascinating process of developmental psychology, to share in the
excitement of our young and dynamic discipline, and to acquire a knowledge of developmental
principles that will serve them well in their roles as parents, teachers, nurses,
day-care workers, pediatricians, psychologists, or in any other capacity by which they
may one day infl uence the lives of developing persons.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to Developmental 
Psychology and Its Research Strategies 1
Introduction to Developmental Psychology 2
What Is Development? 2
Research Strategies: Basic Methods and Designs 8
Research Methods in Child and Adolescent Development 8
Detecting Relationships: Correlational, Experimental, and Cross-Cultural Designs 19
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Gender Roles 26
Research Strategies and Studying Development 28
Research Designs for Studying Development 28
Ethical Considerations in Developmental Research 34
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Becoming a Wise Consumer of Developmental Research 36
Summary 37
Practice Quiz 38
Key Terms 39
Media Resources 39
Chapter 2 Theories of Human Development 41
The Nature of Scientifi c Theories 41
The Psychoanalytic Viewpoint 42
Freud’s Psychosexual Theory 42
Contributions and Criticisms of Freud’s Theory 43
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development 44
Contributions and Criticisms of Erikson’s Theory 45
Psychoanalytic Theory Beyond Freud and Erikson 46
The Learning Viewpoint 46
Watson’s Behaviorism 46
Skinner’s Operant Learning Theory 47
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory 48
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • An Example of Observational Learning 50
Contributions and Criticisms of Learning Theories 51
The Cognitive-Developmental Viewpoint 53
Piaget’s View of Intelligence and Intellectual Growth 54
Contributions and Criticisms of Piaget’s Viewpoint 55
Sociocultural Infl uences: Lev Vygotsky’s Viewpoint 56
The Information-Processing Viewpoint 57
Contributions and Criticisms of the Information-Processing Viewpoint 57
The Ethological and Evolutionary Viewpoints 58
Assumptions of Classical Ethology 58
Ethology and Human Development 59
Modern Evolutionary Theory 60
Contributions and Criticisms of Ethological and Evolutionary Viewpoints 61
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Is Altruism Part of Human Nature? 62
The Ecological Systems Viewpoint 62
Bronfenbrenner’s Contexts for Development 63
Contributions and Criticisms of Ecological Systems Theory 67
Themes in the Study of Human Development 68
The Nature/Nurture Theme 68
The Active/Passive Theme 69
The Continuity/Discontinuity Theme 69
The Holistic Nature of Development Theme 70
Summary 72
Practice Quiz 74
Key Terms 75
Media Resources 75
Chapter 3 Hereditary Infl uences on Development 77
Principles of Hereditary Transmission 77
The Genetic Material 77
Growth of the Zygote and Production of Body Cells 78
The Germ (or Sex) Cells 79
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Crossing-Over and Chromosome
Segregation During Meiosis 80
Multiple Births 82
Male or Female? 83
What Do Genes Do? 83
How Are Genes Expressed? 84
and Recessive Traits in Human Heredity 86
Hereditary Disorders 89
Chromosomal Abnormalities 90
Genetic Abnormalities 92
Predicting, Detecting, and Treating Hereditary Disorders 93
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Ethical Issues Surrounding
Treatments for Hereditary Disorders 97
Hereditary Infl uences on Behavior 98
Behavioral Genetics 99
Theories of Heredity and Environment Interactions in Development 108
Contributions and Criticisms of the Behavioral Genetics Approach 112
Applying Developmental Themes to Hereditary Infl uences on Development 114
Summary 115
Practice Quiz 116
Key Terms 117
Media Resources 117
Chapter 4 Prenatal Development and Birth 119
From Conception to Birth 120
The Period of the Zygote 120
The Period of the Embryo 122
The Period of the Fetus 122
Potential Problems in Prenatal Development 126
Teratogens 126
Characteristics of the Pregnant Woman 138
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Fetal Programming Theory 139
Prevention of Birth Defects 143
Birth and the Perinatal Environment 144
The Birth Process 144
The Baby’s Experience 145
Labor and Delivery Medications 147
The Social Environment Surrounding Birth 147
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Cultural and Historical Variations in Birthing Practices 148
Potential Problems at Birth 151
Anoxia 151
Prematurity and Low Birth Weight 152
Reproductive Risk and Capacity for Recovery 155
Applying Developmental Themes to Prenatal Development and Birth 156
Summary 157
Practice Quiz 158
Key Terms 159
Media Resources 159
Chapter 5 Infancy 161
The Newborn’s Readiness for Life 161
Newborn Refl exes 162
Infant States 164
Developmental Changes in Infant States 164
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 166
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Methods of Soothing a Fussy Baby 167
Research Methods Used to Study the Infant’s Sensory and Perceptual Experiences 168
The Preference Method 169
The Habituation Method 169
The Method of Evoked Potentials 170
The High-Amplitude Sucking Method 170
Infant Sensory Capabilities 171
Hearing 171
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Causes and Consequences of Hearing Loss 173
Taste and Smell 174
Touch, Temperature, and Pain 174
Vision 175
Visual Perception in Infancy 176
Perception of Patterns and Forms 177
Perception of Three-Dimensional Space 179
Intermodal Perception 182
Are the Senses Integrated at Birth? 182
Development of Intermodal Perception 183
Explaining Intermodal Perception 184
Cultural Infl uences on Infant Perception 185
Basic Learning Processes in Infancy 186
Habituation: Early Evidence of Information-Processing and Memory 186
Classical Conditioning 187
Operant Conditioning 187
Newborn Imitation or Observational Learning 190
Applying Developmental Themes to Infant Development, Perception, and Learning 192
Summary 193
Practice Quiz 195
Key Terms 196
Media Resources 196
Chapter 6 Physical Development: 
The Brain, Body, Motor Skills, and Sexual Development 199
An Overview of Maturation and Growth 200
Changes in Height and Weight 200
Changes in Body Proportions 200
Skeletal Development 201
Muscular Development 202
Variations in Physical Development 202
Development of the Brain 203
Neural Development and Plasticity 203
Brain Differentiation and Growth 205
Motor Development 208
Basic Trends in Locomotor Development 209
Fine Motor Development 212
Psychological Implications of Early Motor Development 213
Beyond Infancy: Motor Development in Childhood and Adolescence 214
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Sports Participation and Self-Esteem among Adolescent
Females 216
Puberty: The Physical Transition from Child to Adult 217
The Adolescent Growth Spurt 217
Sexual Maturation 217
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Renegotiating the Parent-Child
Relationship During Adolescence 220
The Psychological Impacts of Puberty 222
Adolescent Body Image and Unhealthy Weight Control Strategies 222
Social Impacts of Pubertal Changes 226
Does Timing of Puberty Matter? 227
Adolescent Sexuality 228
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • The Origins of Sexual Orientation 230
Personal and Social Consequences of Adolescent Sexual Activity 233
Causes and Correlates of Physical Development 236
Biological Mechanisms 236
Environmental Infl uences 237
Applying Developmental Themes to Physical Development 241
Summary 243
Practice Quiz 245
Key Terms 245
Media Resources 246
Chapter 7 Cognitive Development: 
Piaget’s Theory and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Viewpoint 249
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development 249
What Is Intelligence? 250
How We Gain Knowledge: Cognitive Schemes and Cognitive Processes 250
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 253
The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 Years) 253
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Why Infants Know More about
Objects than Piaget Assumed 258
The Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 Years) and the Emergence of Symbolic Thought 261
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Play Is Serious Business 262
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Cognitive Development and Children’s Humor 267
The Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years) 272
The Formal-Operational Stage (11 to 12 Years and Beyond) 273
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Children’s Responses to a Hypothetical Proposition 274
An Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory 277
Piaget’s Contributions 278
Challenges to Piaget 278
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective 281
The Role of Culture in Intellectual Development 281
The Social Origins of Early Cognitive Competencies and the Zone of Proximal
Development 282
Implications for Education 288
The Role of Language in Cognitive Development 289
Vygotsky in Perspective: Summary and Evaluation 290
Applying Developmental Themes to Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories 293
Summary 294
Practice Quiz 295
Key Terms 296
Media Resources 297
Chapter 8 Cognitive Development: Information-Processing Perspectives 299
The Multistore Model 300
Development of the Multistore Model 302
Developmental Differences in “Hardware”: Information-Processing Capacity 302
Developmental Differences in “Software”: Strategies and What Children Know about
“Thinking” 303
The Development of Attention 311
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Attention-Defi cit/Hyperactivity Disorder 312
Development of Memory: Retaining and Retrieving Information 315
The Development of Event and Autobiographical Memory 316
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • What Happened to Our Early Childhood
Memories? 317
Children as Eyewitnesses 319
The Development of Memory Strategies 322
Delevopment of Other Cognitive Skills 328
Analogical Reasoning 328
Arithmetic Skills 331
Evaluating the Information-Processing Perspective 336
Applying Developmental Themes to Information-Processing Perspectives 337
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Some Educational Implications of Information-
Processing Research 338
Summary 339
Practice Quiz 340
Key Terms 341
Media Resources 341
Chapter 9 Intelligence: Measuring Mental Performance 343
What Is Intelligence? 343
Psychometric Views of Intelligence 344
A Modern Information-Processing Viewpoint 348
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences 350
How Is Intelligence Measured? 351
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale 351
The Wechsler Scales 352
Group Tests of Mental Performance 353
Newer Approaches to Intelligence Testing 354
Assessing Infant Intelligence 354
Stability of IQ in Childhood and Adolescence 355
What Do Intelligence Tests Predict? 357
IQ as a Predictor of Scholastic Achievement 357
IQ as a Predictor of Vocational Outcomes 358
IQ as a Predictor of Health, Adjustment, and Life Satisfaction 358
Factors That Infl uence IQ Scores 362
The Evidence for Heredity 362
The Evidence for Environment 362
The Evidence for the Transaction of Heredity and Environment 363
Social and Cultural Correlates of Intellectual Performance 364
Home Environment and IQ 364
Social-Class and Ethnic Differences in IQ 367
Why Do Groups Differ in Intellectual Performance? 368
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Do Socioeconomic Differences Explain Ethnic
Differences in IQ? 372
Improving Cognitive Performance Through Compensatory Education 373
Long-Term Follow-Ups 374
The Importance of Parental Involvement 374
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • An Effective Compensatory
Intervention for Families 375
The Importance of Intervening Early 376
Creativity and Special Talents 377
What Is Creativity? 377
The Psychometric Perspective 377
The Multicomponent (or Confl uence) Perspective 378
Applying Developmental Themes to Intelligence and Creativity 381
Summary 381
Practice Quiz 383
Key Terms 384
Media Resources 384
Chapter 10 Development of Language and Communication Skills 387
Five Components of Language 388
Phonology 388
Morphology 388
Semantics 389
Syntax 389
Pragmatics 389
Theories of Language Development 390
The Learning (or Empiricist) Perspective 390
The Nativist Perspective 391
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • On the “Invention” of Language by Children 394
The Interactionist Perspective 395
The Prelinguistic Period: Before Language 399
Early Reactions to Speech 399
What Do Prelinguistic Infants Know about Language and Communication? 401
The Holophrase Period: One Word at a Time 402
Early Semantics: Building a Vocabulary 403
Attaching Meaning to Words 404
When a Word Is More than a Word 407
The Telegraphic Period: From Holophrases to Simple Sentences 408
A Semantic Analysis of Telegraphic Speech 409
The Pragmatics of Early Speech 409
Gestural Language 410
Language Learning During the Preschool Period 412
Grammatical Development 412
Semantic Development 415
Development of Pragmatics and Communication Skills 416
Language Learning During Middle Childhood and Adolescence 417
Later Syntactic Development 417
Semantics and Metalinguistic Awareness 417
Further Development of Communication Skills 418
Bilingualism: Challenges and Consequences of Learning Two Languages 421
Applying Developmental Themes to Language Acquisition 423
Summary 424
Practice Quiz 426
Key Terms 427
Media Resources 427
Chapter 11 Emotional Development, Temperament, and Attachment 429
Emotional Development 430
Displaying Emotions: The Development (and Control) of Emotional Expressions 430
Recognizing and Interpreting Emotions 436
Emotions and Early Social Development 438
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Assessing Emotional Competence in Young Children 439
Temperament and Development 440
Hereditary and Environmental Infl uences on Temperament 441
Stability of Temperament 442
Early Temperamental Profi les and Later Development 443
Attachment and Development 445
Attachments as Reciprocal Relationships 446
How Do Infants Become Attached? 447
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Combating Stranger Anxiety: Some Helpful
Hints for Caregivers, Doctors, and Child-Care Professionals 452
Individual Differences in Attachment Quality 455
Fathers as Caregivers 458
Factors That Infl uence Attachment Security 459
Attachment and Later Development 464
Working Moms, Day Care, and Early Emotional Development 468
Diversity in Family Life and Attachment 471
Applying Developmental Themes to Emotional Development, Temperament,
and Attachment 473
Summary 473
Practice Quiz 475
Key Terms 475
Media Resources 476
Chapter 12 Development of the Self and Social Cognition 479
Development of the Self-Concept 479
Self-Differentiation in Infancy 480
Self-Recognition in Infancy 480
Who Am I? Responses of Preschool Children 483
Conceptions of Self in Middle Childhood and Adolescence 484
Cultural Infl uences on the Self-Concept 486
Self-Esteem: The Evaluative Component of Self 487
Origins and Development of Self-Esteem 487
Social Contributors to Self-Esteem 491
Development of Achievement Motivation and Academic Self-Concepts 494
Early Origins of Achievement Motivation 495
Achievement Motivation During Middle Childhood and Adolescence 496
Beyond Achievement Motivation: Development of Achievement Attributions 500
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Helping the Helpless to Achieve 504
Who Am I to Be?: Forging an Identity 504
Developmental Trends in Identity Formation 505
How Painful Is Identity Formation? 506
Infl uences on Identity Formation 507
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Exploring Identity in an Online World 508
Identity Formation among Minority Youth 509
The Other Side of Social Cognition: Knowing about Others 511
Age Trends in Person Perception 512
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Racial Categorization and Racism in Young
Children 513
Theories of Social-Cognitive Development 515
Applying Developmental Themes to the Development of the Self and Social Cognition 520
Summary 520
Practice Quiz 522
Key Terms 522
Media Resources 523
Chapter 13 Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development 525
Defi ning Sex and Gender 525
Categorizing Males and Females: Gender-Role Standards 527
Some Facts and Fictions about Sex Differences 528
Actual Psychological Differences Between the Sexes 528
Cultural Myths 531
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Do Gender Stereotypes Infl uence Children’s Memory? 532
Do Cultural Myths Contribute to Sex Differences in Ability (and Vocational Opportunity)? 533
Developmental Trends in Gender Typing 535
Development of the Gender Concept 535
Development of Gender-Role Stereotypes 535
Development of Gender-Typed Behavior 538
Theories of Gender Typing and Gender-Role Development 542
Evolutionary Theory 542
Money and Ehrhardt’s Biosocial Theory of Gender Differentiation and
Development 544
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Is Biology Destiny? Sex Assignment Catastrophes 547
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory 548
Social Learning Theory 549
Kohlberg’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory 551
An Integrative Theory 554
Psychological Androgyny: A Prescription for the 21st Century? 556
Do Androgynous People Really Exist? 556
Are There Advantages to Being Androgynous? 556
Applications: On Changing Gender Role Attitudes and Behavior 558
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Combating Gender Stereotypes with Cognitive
Interventions 559
Applying Developmental Themes to Sex Differences and Gender Role Development 560
Summary 561
Practice Quiz 562
Key Terms 563
Media Resources 563
Chapter 14 Aggression, Altruism, and Moral Development 565
The Development of Aggression 565
Origins of Aggression in Infancy 566
Developmental Trends in Aggression 566
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • How Girls Are More Aggressive Than Boys 568
Individual Differences in Aggressive Behavior 569
Cultural and Subcultural Infl uences on Aggression 573
Coercive Home Environments: Breeding Grounds for Aggression 574
Methods of Controlling Aggression in Young Children 576
Altruism: Development of the Prosocial Self 578
Origins of Altruism 578
Developmental Trends in Altruism 579
Sex Differences in Altruism 579
Social-Cognitive and Affective Contributors to Altruism 579
Cultural and Social Infl uences on Altruism 582
Moral Development: Affective, Cognitive, and Behavioral Components 584
How Developmentalists Look at Morality 585
The Affective Component of Moral Development 585
The Cognitive Component of Moral Development 586
The Behavioral Component of Moral Development 597
How Consistent Are Moral Conduct and Moral Character? 597
Learning to Resist Temptation 597
Who Raises Children Who Are Morally Mature? 600
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • How Should I Discipline My Children? 602
Applying Developmental Themes to the Development of Aggression, Altruism, and
Morality 604
Summary 604
Practice Quiz 606
Key Terms 606
Media Resources 607
Chapter 15 The Context of Development 609
Parental Socialization During Childhood and Adolescence 609
Two Major Dimensions of Parenting 610
Four Patterns of Parenting 610
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Parenting Styles and Developmental Outcomes 612
Peers as Agents of Socialization 613
Who Is a Peer and What Functions Do Peers Serve? 614
The Development of Peer Sociability 614
Peer Acceptance and Popularity 618
School as a Socialization Agent 620
APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE • Should Preschoolers Attend School? 620
Determinants of Effective Schooling 621
The Effects of Television on Child Development 627
Development of Television Literacy 628
Some Potentially Undesirable Effects of Television 629
FOCUS ON RESEARCH • Do The Mighty Morphin Power Rangers Promote Children’s Aggression? 630
Television as an Educational Tool 634
Child Development in the Computer Age 636
Computers in the Classroom 636
Beyond the Classroom: Benefi ts of Internet Exposure 637
Concerns about Computers 639
Final Thoughts on the Context of Development 641
Applying Developmental Themes to the Context of Development 643
Summary 644
Practice Quiz 646
Key Terms 646
Media Resources 647
Church, synagogue Child School Family Day-care center
Peers Doctor’s office
Neighborhood play area Community health and welfare services
Mass media Friends of family Neighbors Legal services
School board
Broadideology, laws,andcustomsofone's culture,subculture, or socialclass
Extended family
Workplace Time
(Changes in persons or environments over time)
Appendix A–1
Glossary G–1
References R–1
Index I–1

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  • We Believe in Theoretical Eclecticism
  • The Best Information about Human Development Comes from Systematic Research
  • A Strong “Process” Orientation
  • A Strong “Contextual” Orientation
  • Human Development Is a Holistic Process
  • A Developmental Text Should Be a Resource Book for Students—One That Refl ects Current Knowledge