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SPSS Statistics For Dummies, 3rd Edition

SPSS Statistics For Dummies, 3rd Edition

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by Keith McCormick and Jesus Salcedo with Aaron Poh

Contents at a Glance

Part I: Getting Started with SPSS
Introducing SPSS
Installing SPSS
A Simple Statistical Analysis Example
Part II: Getting Data in and out of SPSS
Entering and Defining Data
Opening Data Files
Getting Data and Results out of SPSS
More About Defining Your Data
Part III: Messing with Data in SPSS
The Transform and Data Menus
Using Functions
Manipulating Files
Part IV: Graphing Data
On the Menu: Graphing Choices in SPSS
Building Graphs Using the Chart Builder
Part V: Analyzing Data
Using Descriptive Statistics
Showing Relationships between Categorical Dependent and Independent Variables
Showing Relationships between Continuous Dependent and Categorical Independent Variables
Showing Relationships between Continuous Dependent and Independent Variables
Part VI: Making SPSS Your Own: Settings, Templates, and Looks
Changing Settings
Editing Charts and Chart Templates
Editing Tables
Part VII: Programming SPSS with Command Syntax
Getting Acquainted with Syntax
Adding Syntax to Your Toolkit
Part VIII: The Part of Tens
Ten (Or So) Modules You Can Add to SPSS
Ten (Or So) Useful SPSS Online Resources
Ten Professional Development Projects for SPSS Users

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Book Details
 Price
 3.00
 Pages
 387 p
 File Size 
 19,879 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 978‐1‐118‐98901‐2 (pbk)
 978‐1‐118‐98902‐9 (ebk)
 978‐1‐118‐98903‐6 (ebk)
 Copyright©   
 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc 

Introduction
Good news! You don’t have to know diddlysquat about the math behind
statistics to be able to come up with well‐calculated conclusions and
display them in fancy graphs. We won’t be doing any calculations by hand.
All you need is the IBM SPSS Statistics software and a bunch of numbers. This
book shows you how to type the numbers, click options in the menus, and
produce brilliant statistics. And interpret them properly, too! It really is as simple as that.

About This Book
This is fundamentally a reference book. Parts of the book are written as
stand‐alone tutorials to make it easy for you to get into whatever you’re after.
Once you’re up and running with SPSS, you can skip around and read just the
sections you need. You really don’t want to read straight through the entire
book. That way leads to boredom. We know — we went straight through
everything to write the book, and believe us, you don’t want to do that.
This book is not about math. It’s about statistics. You don’t derive anything.
You don’t do any math by hand or look up numbers in statistical tables. You
won’t find one explanation of how calculations are performed under the
hood. This book is about the things you can do to command SPSS to calculate
statistics for you. The inside truth is that you can be as dumb as a post
about statistical calculation techniques and still use SPSS to produce some nifty stats!

However, if you decide to study the techniques of statistical calculation,
you’ll be able to understand what SPSS does to produce numbers. Your main
advantage in understanding the process to that degree of detail is that you’ll
be able to choose a calculation method that more closely models the reality
you’re trying to analyze — if you’re interested in reality, of course.
Throughout the book you find examples that use data stored in files.
These files are freely available to you. Most of the files are installed with
IBM SPSS Statistics in the SPSS installation directory, which, by default, is
\Program Files\SPSS (unless you chose another location during installation).

A few files were designed for this book and are available on the book’s
companion website (see “Beyond the Book” for more information). In every
case, the files were especially designed to demonstrate some specific capability of SPSS.
Within this book, you may note that some web addresses break across two
lines of text. If you’re reading this book in print and want to visit one of these
web pages, simply key in the web address exactly as it’s noted in the text,
pretending as though the line break doesn’t exist. If you’re reading this as an
e‐book, you’ve got it easy — just click the web address to be taken directly to
the web page.

Finally, a technical note: The official name of the product is IBM SPSS
Statistics. Throughout this book, we refer to it simply as SPSS. Outside of this
book, that shortcut can be risky because there are other related products
also called SPSS — notably, IBM SPSS Modeler, which, though powerful and
part of the same brand, is not the subject of this book.

Table of Contents
Introduction.................................................................. 1
About This Book...............................................................................................1
Foolish Assumptions........................................................................................2
Icons Used in This Book..................................................................................2
Beyond the Book..............................................................................................3
Where to Go from Here....................................................................................3
Part I: Getting Started with SPSS................................... 5
Chapter 1: Introducing SPSS . 7
Garbage In, Garbage Out: Recognizing the
Importance of Good Data.............................................................................7
Talking to SPSS: Can You Hear Me Now?.....................................................10
The graphical user interface...............................................................10
Syntax.....................................................................................................11
Python programs..................................................................................11
Python scripts.......................................................................................11
How SPSS Works.............................................................................................11
Getting Help When You Need It....................................................................14
Chapter 2: Installing SPSS . 15
Getting SPSS onto Your Computer...............................................................15
What you need for running SPSS........................................................16
Cranking up the installer.....................................................................17
The SPSS installation sequence..........................................................17
Late registration....................................................................................21
Starting SPSS...................................................................................................21
Chapter 3: A Simple Statistical Analysis Example . 23
When the Tanana at Nenana Thaws.............................................................23
Entering the Data............................................................................................24
Entering the data definitions...............................................................24
Entering the actual data.......................................................................29
The Most Likely Hour.....................................................................................32
Transforming Data..........................................................................................34
The Two Kinds of Numbers...........................................................................37
The Day It’s Most Likely to Happen.............................................................40
Part II: Getting Data in and out of SPSS....................... 43
Chapter 4: Entering and Defining Data 45
Entering Variable Definitions on the Variable View Tab...........................45
Name.......................................................................................................46
Type........................................................................................................47
Width......................................................................................................51
Decimals.................................................................................................51
Label.......................................................................................................52
Values.....................................................................................................52
Missing...................................................................................................53
Columns.................................................................................................54
Align........................................................................................................55
Measure..................................................................................................55
Role.........................................................................................................56
Entering and Viewing Data Items on the Data View Tab...........................57
Filling In Missed Categorical Values.............................................................58
Chapter 5: Opening Data Files . 63
Getting Acquainted with the SPSS File Format...........................................63
Formatting a Text File for Input into SPSS...................................................64
Reading Simple Data from a Text File..........................................................65
Transferring Data from Another Program...................................................74
Reading an Excel file.............................................................................75
Reading from an unknown program type..........................................77
Saving Data and Images.................................................................................77
Chapter 6: Getting Data and Results out of SPSS 81
Printing............................................................................................................81
Exporting to a Database.................................................................................82
Using SPSS Statistics Viewer.........................................................................82
Simple copy and paste.........................................................................85
Creating an HTML web page file.........................................................86
Creating a text file.................................................................................87
Creating an Excel file............................................................................88
Creating a Word document file...........................................................89
Creating a PowerPoint slide document..............................................91
Creating a PDF document....................................................................92
Creating a Graphics File.................................................................................94
Creating a Web Report File............................................................................96
Chapter 7: More About Defining Your Data 99
Working with Dates and Times.....................................................................99
Using the Date Time Wizard........................................................................102
Creating and Using a Multiple‐ Response Set............................................105
Copying Data Properties..............................................................................108
Part III: Messing with Data in SPSS............................ 113
Chapter 8: The Transform and Data Menus 115
Sorting Cases.................................................................................................115
Selecting the Data You Want to Look At....................................................117
Splitting Your Data for Easier Analysis......................................................120
Counting Case Occurrences........................................................................121
Recoding Variables.......................................................................................125
Recoding into different variables.....................................................126
Automatic recoding............................................................................128
Binning...........................................................................................................130
Chapter 9: Using Functions 135
The LENGTH Function.................................................................................136
The ANY Function........................................................................................138
The MEAN Function and Missing Data.......................................................140
Chapter 10: Manipulating Files . 143
Merging Files Adding Cases.........................................................................143
Merging Files Adding Variables..................................................................148
Part IV: Graphing Data.............................................. 157
Chapter 11: On the Menu: Graphing Choices in SPSS 159
Building Graphs the Chart Builder Way....................................................160
The Gallery tab....................................................................................160
The Basic Elements tab......................................................................164
The Groups/Point ID tab....................................................................165
The Titles/Footnotes tab...................................................................166
The Element Properties dialog box..................................................166
The Options dialog box......................................................................171
Building Graphs with the Graphboard Template Chooser.....................172
Chapter 12: Building Graphs Using the Chart Builder 175
Simple Graphs...............................................................................................176
Simple scatterplots.............................................................................176
Simple dot plots..................................................................................177
Simple bar graphs...............................................................................178
Simple error bars................................................................................179
Simple histograms..............................................................................181
Population pyramids..........................................................................183
Stacked area charts............................................................................185
Fancy Graphs................................................................................................186
Charts with multiple lines..................................................................187
Colored scatterplots...........................................................................190
Scatterplot matrices...........................................................................191
Stacked bar charts..............................................................................192
Pie charts.............................................................................................194
Clustered range bar graphs...............................................................194
Differenced area graphs.....................................................................196
Dual‐axis graph....................................................................................197
Part V: Analyzing Data.............................................. 199
Chapter 13: Using Descriptive Statistics 201
Looking at Levels of Measurement.............................................................201
Defining the four levels of measurement.........................................202
Defining summary statistics..............................................................203
Focusing on Frequencies for Categorical Variables.................................204
Understanding Frequencies for Continuous Variables............................210
Summarizing Continuous Variables with the
Descriptives Procedure............................................................................214
Chapter 14: Showing Relationships between Categorical
Dependent and Independent Variables ...217
Testing a Hypothesis to See If It’s Right....................................................218
Conducting Inferential Tests.......................................................................219
Running the Crosstabs Procedure.............................................................220
Running the chi‐square test..............................................................225
Comparing column proportions.......................................................228
Adding control variables...................................................................230
Chapter 15: Showing Relationships between Continuous
Dependent and Categorical Independent Variables 235
Hypothesis Testing Revisited.....................................................................235
Using the Compare Means Dialog Box.......................................................237
Running the Independent‐Samples T-Test Procedure.............................239
Running the Summary Independent‐Samples
T-Test Procedure......................................................................................244
Chapter 16: Showing Relationships between Continuous
Dependent and Independent Variables . 249
Running the Bivariate Procedure...............................................................250
Running the Linear Regression Procedure................................................255
Part VI: Making SPSS Your Own: Settings,
Templates, and Looks................................................. 263
Chapter 17: Changing Settings 265
General Options............................................................................................266
Language Options.........................................................................................268
Viewer Options.............................................................................................269
Data Options.................................................................................................270
Currency Options.........................................................................................272
Output Options.............................................................................................273
Chart Options................................................................................................274
Pivot Tables Options....................................................................................275
File Locations Options.................................................................................276
Scripts Options.............................................................................................277
Multiple Imputations Options.....................................................................279
Syntax Editor Options..................................................................................280
Chapter 18: Editing Charts and Chart Templates . 283
Changing and Editing Axes..........................................................................283
Changing the axis range.....................................................................283
Scaling the axis range.........................................................................286
Changing Style: Lines and Symbols............................................................287
Editing chart lines...............................................................................287
Editing data points..............................................................................288
Applying Templates.....................................................................................291
Chapter 19: Editing Tables . 293
Working with TableLooks............................................................................293
Style Output..................................................................................................297
Pivoting Trays...............................................................................................299
Part VII: Programming SPSS with Command Syntax..... 303
Chapter 20: Getting Acquainted with Syntax . 305
Pasting............................................................................................................306
Labeling..........................................................................................................307
Repeatedly Generating the Same Reports.................................................308
Opening and Saving Files.............................................................................309
GET.......................................................................................................309
SAVE.....................................................................................................310
Chapter 21: Adding Syntax to Your Toolkit . 311
Your Wish Is My Command.........................................................................311
Using Keywords............................................................................................313
Working with Variables and Constants.....................................................313
Declaring Data...............................................................................................314
Commenting Your Way to Clarity...............................................................315
Executing Commands...................................................................................316
Controlling Flow and Executing Conditionals...........................................318
IF ...........................................................................................................318
DO IF.....................................................................................................319
SELECT IF.............................................................................................320
Part VIII: The Part of Tens.......................................... 321
Chapter 22: Ten (Or So) Modules You Can Add to SPSS 323
The Advanced Statistics Module................................................................323
The Custom Tables Module........................................................................325
The Regression Module...............................................................................325
The Categories Module................................................................................325
The Data Preparation Module.....................................................................326
The Decision Trees Module........................................................................326
The Forecasting Module..............................................................................327
The Missing Values Module........................................................................328
The Bootstrapping Module.........................................................................328
The Complex Samples Module....................................................................328
The Conjoint Module....................................................................................329
The Direct Marketing Module.....................................................................329
The Exact Tests Module..............................................................................330
The Neural Networks Module.....................................................................330
Amos..............................................................................................................331
The Sample Power Module..........................................................................332
The Visualization Designer Module...........................................................332
Chapter 23: Ten (Or So) Useful SPSS Online Resources 333
The Statistics & Consultants Group on LinkedIn.....................................333
SPSSX‐L..........................................................................................................334
IBM SPSS Statistics Certification.................................................................335
Online Videos................................................................................................335
Twitter............................................................................................................336
Blogs...............................................................................................................337
Online Courses with Live Instruction........................................................338
Tutorials........................................................................................................339
SPSS Programming and Data Management: A Guide for SPSS
and SAS Users............................................................................................339
Chapter 24: Ten Professional Development Projects
for SPSS Users . 341
The Case Studies..........................................................................................341
Syntax.............................................................................................................342
IBM SPSS Tables............................................................................................342
Data Visualization.........................................................................................344
Better Presentations....................................................................................344
R .....................................................................................................................345
Graphics Production Language..................................................................345
Output Management System.......................................................................346
Python Programs..........................................................................................346
Python Scripting...........................................................................................346
Glossary................................................................... 347
Index........................................................................ 355

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Foolish Assumptions
This book is for anyone new to SPSS. No prior knowledge of statistics or
mathematics is needed or even expected. In specific terms, we made a few
assumptions about you, the reader of this book:
✓✓You may be a student who isn’t majoring in mathematics but has been
instructed to use SPSS by one of your professors.
✓✓You may be an office worker who has been told to use SPSS to analyze some data.
For most people who generate statistics, the complexity of using the software
becomes an obstacle. Our purpose in writing this book is to show you how to
move that obstacle out of the way with minimum effort.

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