Evolutionary Psychology, Fifth Edition

Evolutionary Psychology, Fifth Edition

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: The New Science of The Mind :

David M. Buss

1. Evolutionary psychology—Textbooks. 2. Human evolution—Textbooks.

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Book Details
 497 p
 File Size 
 10,976 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 9780205992126 (hbk) 
 978-0-205-99212-6 (alk. paper)
 0-205-99212-9 (alk. paper)
 2015, 2012, 2008
 Taylor & Francis

About the Author
David M. Buss received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley. He
began his career in academics at Harvard, later moving to the University of Michigan
before accepting his current position as professor of psychology at the University of
Texas. His primary research interests include human sexuality, mating strategies, conflict
between the sexes, homicide, stalking, and sexual victimization. 
The author of more than 300 scientific
articles and 6 books, Buss has won numerous awards including
the American Psychological Association (APA) Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career
Contribution to Psychology, the APA G. Stanley Hall Lectureship,
the APA Distinguished Scientist Lecturer Award, and a Robert
W. Hamilton Book Award for the first edition of Evolutionary
Psychology: The New Science of the Mind. He is also the editor
of the first comprehensive Handbook of Evolutionary
Psychology (Wiley) and co-editor (with Patricia Hawley) of
The Evolution of Personality and Individual Differences. In 2013,
he was named one of the 30 most influential living psychologists
in the world. He enjoys extensive cross-cultural research
collaborations and lectures widely within the United States
and abroad. His hobbies include tennis, squash, and disc golf,
and he is an avid film buff.

New to This Edition
In revising the book for this edition, I had two goals in mind. First, I sought to provide
a major update of new discoveries. Toward this end, roughly 300 new references have
been added to this edition. Second, I sought to fill in important omissions, based on an
explosion of new theories and research:
• Expanded coverage of cognitive psychology, including cognitive mechanisms that
interfere with understanding evolutionary processes and deep time.
• New studies on evidence for a small amount of interbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals.
• Meta-analysis on ovulation effects on women’s mate preferences.
• Discussion of evolutionary hypotheses that have been empirically disconfirmed.
• New discussion of the emotion of “disgust” as central to the behavioral immune
system; and “sexual disgust” as a specific evolved defense.
• Raft of new studies on spatial navigation abilities of women and men.
• New findings on the emotion of “sexual regret” and gender differences therein.
• Context effects on women’s mate preferences, including prevailing health status
within the culture.
• Discoveries of new cues to attractiveness, such as the white sclera of the eyes.
• “The lipstick effect” and other contextual shifts in women’s mating tactics.
• New research testing different theories of homosexuality.
• Cross-cultural studies in France and Denmark on sex differences in consenting to sex with strangers.
• Women’s “nesting” behavior when pregnant.
• “The Baby Effect” and other predictable shifts in men’s and women’s parenting psychology.
• Sibling competition as a function of magnitude of parental resources.
• Food sharing in Nicaragua, Tanzania, Indonesia, the Saami, and Norwegian reindeer herders.
• The importance of kin contact after marriage among Himba nomadic African pastoralists.
• Effects of grandmothers on grandchild survival.
• “Walk away” rule and its effect on cooperation strategies.
• The “newcomer effect.”
• Effect of free-riding on reputation among the Turkana.
• Friends as potential mate poachers.
• Competitive altruism.
• Morphological cues to “design for combat” in men.
• Empirical tests of the “Crazy Bastard Hypothesis.”
• Predictors of female–female aggression among the Tsimane of Bolivia. 
• New section on the puzzle of suicide terrorism.
• New section on sexual exploitation and cues to sexual exploitability.
• Studies of sexual jealousy in a small-group society, the Himba of Namibia.
• Predictors of men’s violence against women in the Tsimane of Bolivia.
• Added section on the “service for prestige” theory of leadership and followership.
• New box on Tactics of Hierarchy Negotiation.
• Eye tracking findings of attentional biases toward infants.
• New studies on “successful psychopaths.”
• A large new section titled “The Evolutionary Psychology of Religion.”
I have received many inspiring letters and e-mails from teachers and students who
have used previous editions of Evolutionary Psychology and hope that future readers will
also share their enthusiasm. The quest for understanding the human mind is a noble
undertaking. As the field of evolutionary psychology matures, we are beginning to gain
answers to the mysteries that have probably intrigued humans for hundreds of thousands
of years: Where did we come from? What is our connection with other life forms? And
what are the mechanisms of mind that define what it means to be a human being?

Table of Contents
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xviii
Part 1: Foundations of Evolutionary
1. The Scientific Movements Leading to Evolutionary
Psychology 2
Landmarks in the History of Evolutionary Thinking 3
Evolution before Darwin 3
Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection 4
Darwin’s Theory of Sexual Selection 6
The Role of Natural Selection and Sexual Selection in
Evolutionary Theory 7
The Modern Synthesis: Genes and Particulate Inheritance 9
The Ethology Movement 10
The Inclusive Fitness Revolution 11
Clarifying Adaptation and Natural Selection 13
Trivers’s Seminal Theories 15
The Sociobiology Controversy 15
Common Misunderstandings about Evolutionary Theory 16
Misunderstanding 1: Human Behavior Is Genetically
Determined 16
Misunderstanding 2: If It’s Evolutionary, We Cannot
Change It 17
Misunderstanding 3: Current Mechanisms Are Optimally
Designed 17
Milestones in the Origins of Modern Humans 18
Landmarks in the Field of Psychology 21
■ BOX 1.1: Out of Africa versus Multiregional Origins:
The Origins of Modern Humans 22
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory 23
William James and the Psychology of Instincts 24
The Rise of Behaviorism 25
The Astonishing Discoveries of Cultural Variability 25
The Garcia Effect, Prepared Fears, and the Decline of
Radical Behaviorism 26
Peering into the Black Box: The Cognitive Revolution 27
Summary 29
Critical Thinking Questions 31
Suggested Readings 32
2. The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology 33
The Origins of Human Nature 34
Three Theories of the Origins of Complex Adaptive
Mechanisms 34
The Three Products of Evolution 35
Levels of Evolutionary Analysis in Evolutionary
Psychology 38
The Core of Human Nature: Fundamentals of Evolved
Psychological Mechanisms 44
All Species Have a Nature 44
Definition of an Evolved Psychological Mechanism 45
Important Properties of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 48
Learning, Culture, and Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 53
Methods for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses 54
Comparing Different Species 55
Cross-Cultural Methods 55
Physiological and Brain Imaging Methods 56
Genetic Methods 57
Comparing Males and Females 57
Comparing Individuals within a Species 58
Comparing the Same Individuals in Different Contexts 58
Experimental Methods 59
Sources of Data for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses 59
Archeological Records 59
Data from Hunter-Gatherer Societies 60
Observations 60
Self-Reports 60
Life-History Data and Public Records 61
Human Products 61
Transcending the Limitations of Single Data Sources 61
Identifying Adaptive Problems 62
Guidance from Modern Evolutionary Theory 62
Guidance from Knowledge of Universal Human Structures 62
Guidance from Traditional Societies 63
Guidance from Paleoarcheology and Paleoanthropology 63
Guidance from Current Mechanisms 63
Guidance from Task Analysis 64
Organization of Adaptive Problems 64
Summary 64
Critical Thinking Questions 66
Suggested Readings 66
Part 2: Problems of Survival
3. Combating the Hostile Forces of Nature 68
Food Acquisition and Selection 70
Social and Cultural Aspects of Food 70
Food Preferences 71
Disgust: The Disease-Avoidance Hypothesis 71
Sickness in Pregnant Women: The Embryo Protection
Hypothesis 73
Fire and Cooking 74
Why Humans Like Spices: The Antimicrobial Hypothesis 75
Why Humans Like to Drink Alcohol: An Evolutionary
Hangover? 76
The Hunting Hypothesis 76
The Gathering Hypothesis 80
Comparing the Hunting and Gathering Hypotheses 81
Adaptations to Gathering and Hunting: Sex Differences in
Specific Spatial Abilities 81
Finding a Place to Live: Shelter and Landscape
Preferences 83
The Savanna Hypothesis 84
Combating Predators and Other Environmental Dangers:
Fears, Phobias, Anxieties, and Adaptive Biases 85
Most Common Human Fears 87
Children’s Antipredator Adaptations 90
■ BOX 3.1: Evolved Navigation Theory and the Descent
Illusion 91
Darwinian Medicine: Combating Disease 92
Why Do People Die? 93
The Theory of Senescence 93
The Puzzle of Suicide 94
Homicide 96
Summary 97
Critical Thinking Questions 98
Suggested Readings 99
Part 3: C hallenges of Sex and
4.Women’s Long-Term Mating Strategies 102
Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Mate
Preferences 103
Parental Investment and Sexual Selection 103
Mate Preferences as Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 104
Preference for Economic Resources 105
Preference for Good Financial Prospects 107
Preference for High Social Status 110
Preference for Somewhat Older Men 111
Preference for Ambition and Industriousness 113
Preference for Dependability and Stability 113
Preference for Height and Athletic Prowess 114
Preference for Good Health: Symmetry and Masculinity 115
Love and Commitment 118
Preference for Willingness to Invest in Children 119
Preference for Similarity 121
Additional Mate Preferences: Kindness, Humor, Incest
Avoidance, and Voice 121
Context Effects on Women’s Mate Preferences 122
Effects of Women’s Personal Resources on Mate
Preferences 122
The Mere Presence of Attractive Others: Mate Copying 124
Effects of Temporal Context on Women’s Mate
Preferences 124
Effects of Women’s Mate Value on Mate Preferences 124
How Women’s Mate Preferences Affect Actual Mating
Behavior 125
Women’s Responses to Men’s Personal Ads 126
Women’s Marriages to Men High in Occupational
Status 126
Women’s Marriages to Men Who Are Older 127
Effects of Women’s Preferences on Men’s Behavior 127
Summary 128
■ BOX 4.1: What about Lesbian Sexual Orientation? 130
Critical Thinking Questions 131
Suggested Readings 131
5. Men’s Long-Term Mating Strategies 133
Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Men’s Mate
Preferences 133
Why Men Might Benefit from Commitment and
Marriage 134
The Problem of Assessing a Woman’s Fertility or Reproductive
Value 134
The Content of Men’s Mate Preferences 136
Preference for Youth 136
Evolved Standards of Physical Beauty 138
Body Fat, Waist-to-Hip Ratio, and Body Mass Index 142
Sex Differences in the Importance of Physical
Appearance 145
Do Men Have a Preference for Ovulating Women? 146
Solutions to the Problem of Paternity Uncertainty 148
■ BOX 5.1: Homosexual Orientation: An Evolutionary Puzzle 151
Context Effects on Men’s Mating Behavior 152
Men in Positions of Power 152
Contrast Effects from Viewing Attractive Models 153
Testosterone and Men’s Mating Strategies 154
The Necessities and Luxuries of Mate Preferences 156
Effect of Men’s Preferences on Actual Mating Behavior 156
Men’s Responses to Women’s Personal Ads 156
Marital Decisions and Reproductive Outcomes 157
Effect of Men’s Preferences on Attention, Vocalization, Tips, and
Engagement Rings 158
Effect of Men’s Mate Preferences on Women’s Competition
Tactics 158
Summary 160
Critical Thinking Questions 161
Suggested Readings 162
6. Short-Term Sexual Strategies 163
Theories of Men’s Short-Term Mating 164
Adaptive Benefits for Men of Short-Term Mating 164
Potential Costs of Short-Term Mating for Men 165
Adaptive Problems Men Must Solve When Pursuing Short-Term
Mating 165
■ BOX 6.1: Functions versus Beneficial Effects of Short-Term
Mating 165
Evidence for an Evolved Short-Term Mating
Psychology 166
Physiological Evidence for Short-Term Mating 167
Psychological Evidence for Short-Term Mating 168
Behavioral Evidence of Short-Term Mating 175
Women’s Short-Term Mating 176
Evidence for Women’s Short-Term Mating 176
Hypotheses about the Adaptive Benefits to Women of Short-Term
Mating 178
Costs to Women of Short-Term Mating 180
Empirical Tests of Hypothesized Benefits to Women 181
Context Effects on Short-Term Mating 184
Individual Differences in Short-Term Mating 184
Other Contexts Likely to Affect Short-Term Mating 186
Summary 189
Critical Thinking Questions 190
Suggested Readings 190
Part 4: C hallenges of Parenting
and Kinship 7. Problems of Parenting 194
Why Do Mothers Provide More Parental Care Than
Fathers? 196
The Paternity Uncertainty Hypothesis 196
The Mating Opportunity Cost Hypothesis 197
An Evolutionary Perspective on Parental Care 198
Genetic Relatedness to Offspring 199
Offspring’s Ability to Convert Parental Care into Reproductive
Success 208
Alternative Uses of Resources Available for Investment in
Children 213
The Theory of Parent–Offspring Conflict 218
Mother–Offspring Conflict in Utero 219
Mother-Child Conflict and Sibling Relatedness 220
Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mating 221
■ BOX 7.1: Killing Parents and the Asymmetry of Valuing Parents
and Children 222
Summary 222
Critical Thinking Questions 224
Suggested Readings 224
8. Problems of Kinship 225
Theory and Implications of Inclusive Fitness 226
Hamilton’s Rule 226
Theoretical Implications of Hamilton’s Rule 227
Empirical Findings that Support the Implications of Inclusive
Fitness Theory 230
Alarm Calling in Ground Squirrels 231
Kin Recognition and Kin Classifications in Humans 232
Patterns of Helping in the Lives of Los Angeles
Women 233
Life-or-Death Helping among Humans 234
Genetic Relatedness and Emotional Closeness: Is Blood Thicker
Than Water? 236
Vigilance over Kin’s Romantic Relationships 237
Kinship and Stress 237
Kinship and Survival 237
Patterns of Inheritance—Who Leaves Wealth
to Whom? 238
Investment by Grandparents 240
■ BOX 8.1: Investment by Aunts, Uncles, and Cousins 244
A Broader Perspective on the Evolution of the Family 245
The Dark Side of Families 248
Summary 250
Critical Thinking Questions 252
Suggested Readings 253
Part 5: Problems of Group Living
9. Cooperative Alliances 256
The Evolution of Cooperation 257
The Problem of Altruism 257
A Theory of Reciprocal Altruism 257
Tit for Tat 258
■ BOX 9.1: Strategies for Promoting Cooperation 260
Cooperation among Nonhumans 260
Food Sharing in Vampire Bats 260
Chimpanzee Politics 261
Cooperation and Altruism among Humans 262
Social Contract Theory 262
Evidence for Cheater-Detection Adaptations 264
Do People Remember Cheaters? 267
The Detection of Prospective Altruists 268
Indirect Reciprocity Theory 269
Costly Signaling Theory 269
The Psychology of Friendship 270
Costs and Benefits of Friendship 275
Cooperative Coalitions 278
Summary 282
Critical Thinking Questions 283
Suggested Readings 284
10. Aggression and Warfare 285
Aggression as a Solution to Adaptive Problems 286
Co-opt the Resources of Others 286
Defend against Attack 287
Inflict Costs on Intrasexual Rivals 287
Negotiate Status and Power Hierarchies 288
Deter Rivals from Future Aggression 288
Deter Long-Term Mates from Sexual Infidelity 288
The Context-Specificity of Aggression 289
Why Are Men More Violently Aggressive than Women? 290
■ BOX 10.1: The Recalibration Theory of Anger 292
Empirical Evidence for Distinct Adaptive Patterns of
Aggression 292
Evidence for Sex Differences in Same-Sex Aggression 293
Contexts Triggering Men’s Aggression against Men 297
Contexts Triggering Women’s Aggression against
Women 299
Contexts Triggering Men’s Aggression against Women 300
Contexts Triggering Women’s Aggression against Men 301
Warfare 301
■ BOX 10.2: Yanomamö Warfare 302
■ BOX 10.3: The Puzzle of Suicide Terrorism 309
Do Humans Have Evolved Homicide Mechanisms? 309
Summary 312
Critical Thinking Questions 313
Suggested Readings 314
11. Conflict between the Sexes 315
Strategic Interference Theory 316
Conflict about the Occurrence and Timing of Sex 318
Conflict over Sexual Access 318
Sexual Aggression, Sexual Exploitation, and Women’s
Coevolved Defenses 322
Sexual Harassment 322
Sexual Exploitation and Cues to Sexual Exploitability 323
Sexual Aggressiveness 324
Do Men Have Evolved Rape Adaptations? 325
Individual Differences in Rape Proclivity 326
Do Women Have Evolved Antirape Adaptations? 328
Jealous Conflict 329
Sex Differences in Jealousy 330
From Vigilance to Violence: Tactics of Mate
Retention 336
Sex Differences in the Use of Mate-Retention Tactics 337
Contexts Influencing the Intensity of Mate-Retention
Tactics 337
Violence toward Partners 340
Conflict over Access to Resources 342
Causes of Resource Inequality: Women’s Mate Preferences
and Men’s Competitive Tactics 343
■ BOX 11.1: Are All Men United to Control Women? 344
Summary 344
Critical Thinking Questions 347
Suggested Readings 347
12. Status, Prestige, and Social Dominance 348
The Emergence of Dominance Hierarchies 349
Dominance and Status in Nonhuman Animals 350
Evolutionary Theories of Dominance, Prestige, and
Status 351
An Evolutionary Theory of Sex Differences in Status Striving 354
■ BOX 12.1: Tactics of Hierarchy Negotiation 355
Dominance Theory 360
Social Attention-Holding Theory 362
Indicators of Dominance 364
■ BOX 12.2: Facial Dominance 367
Self-Esteem as a Status-Tracking Mechanism 369
Strategies of Submissiveness 371
Summary 374
Critical Thinking Questions 375
Suggested Readings 376
Part 6: A n Integrated Psychological
Science 13. Toward a Unified Evolutionary Psychology 378
Evolutionary Cognitive Psychology 379
Attention and Memory 381
Problem Solving: Heuristics, Biases, and Judgment under
Uncertainty 383
The Evolution of Language 388
The Evolution of Extraordinary Human Intelligence 390
Evolutionary Social Psychology 393
Capitalizing on Evolutionary Theories about Social
Phenomena 394
The Evolution of Moral Emotions 395
The Return of Group Selection as Multilevel Selection Theory 397
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology 398
Theory of Mind Mechanisms 399
Life-History Strategies 400
Evolutionary Personality Psychology 402
Alternative Niche Picking or Strategic Specialization 403
Adaptive Assessment of Heritable Qualities 403
Frequency-Dependent Adaptive Strategies 404
Evolutionary Clinical Psychology 407
Causes of Mechanism Failure 407
Evolutionary Insights into Problems Erroneously Thought
to Be Dysfunctions 408
Evolutionary Cultural Psychology 410
Evoked Culture 411
Transmitted Culture 413
The Evolutionary Psychology of Religion 415
The Evolution of Art, Fiction, Movies, and Music 416
Toward a Unified Psychology 418
Critical Thinking Questions 419
Suggested Readings 420
Bibliography 421
Credits 463
Index 470

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