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Google Cloud Platform in Action. Manning

Google Cloud Platform in Action. Manning

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JJ GEEWAX 

BRIEF CONTENTS

PART 1 GETTING STARTED
■ What is “cloud”? ■ Trying it out: deploying WordPress on Google Cloud  
■ The cloud data center
PART 2 STORAGE
■ Cloud SQL: managed relational storage ■ Cloud Datastore: document storage
■ Cloud Spanner: large-scale SQL ■ Cloud Bigtable: large-scale structured data
■ Cloud Storage: object storage
PART 3 COMPUTING
■ Compute Engine: virtual machines ■ Kubernetes Engine: managed Kubernetes clusters
■ App Engine: fully managed applications ■ Cloud Functions: serverless applications
■ Cloud DNS: managed DNS hosting
PART 4 MACHINE LEARNING
■ Cloud Vision: image recognition ■ Cloud Natural Language: text analysis
■ Cloud Speech: audio-to-text conversion ■ Cloud Translation: multilanguage machine translation
 ■ Cloud Machine Learning Engine: managed machine learning
PART 5 DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYTICS
■ BigQuery: highly scalable data warehouse ■ Cloud Dataflow: large-scale data processing
■ Cloud Pub/Sub: managed event publishing

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Book Details
 Price
 3.50 USD
 Pages
 632 p
 File Size
 25,757 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 9781617293528
 Copyright   
 ©2018 by Manning Publications Co  

foreword
In the early days of Google, we were a victim of our own success. People loved our
search results, but handling more search traffic meant we needed more servers, which
at that time meant physical servers, not virtual ones. Traffic was growing by something
like 10% every week, so every few days we would hit a new record, and we had to
ensure we had enough capacity to handle it all. We also had to do it all from scratch.
When it comes to our infrastructural challenges, we’ve largely succeeded. We’ve
built a system of data centers and networks that rival most of the world, but until
recently, that infrastructure has been exclusively for us. Google Cloud Platform represents
the natural extension of our infrastructural achievements over the past 15
years or so by allowing everyone to benefit from the efficiency of Google’s data centers
and the years of experience we have running them.
All of this manifests as a collection of products and services that solve hard technical
problems (think data consistency) so that you don’t have to, but it also means
that instead of solving the hard technical problem, you have to learn how to use the
service. And while tinkering with new services is part of daily life at Google, most of
the world expects things to “just work” so they can get on with their business. For
many, a misconfigured server or inconsistent database is not a fun puzzle to solve—it’s a distraction.
Google Cloud Platform in Action acts as a guide to minimize those distractions, demonstrating
how to use GCP in practice while also explaining how things work under the
hood. In this book, JJ focuses on the most important aspects of GCP (like Compute
Engine) but also highlights some of the more recent additions to GCP (like Kubernetes
Engine and the various machine-learning APIs), offering a well-rounded collection of
all that GCP has to offer.
Looking back, Google Cloud Platform has grown immensely. From App Engine in
2008, to Compute Engine in 2012, to several machine-learning APIs in 2017, keeping up
can be difficult. But with this book in hand, you’re well equipped to build what’s next.
URS HÖLZLE
SVP, Technical Infrastructure
Google

preface
I was lucky enough to fall in love with building software all the way back in 1997. This
started with toy projects in Visual Basic (yikes) or HTML (yes, the <blink> and marquee
tags appeared from time to time), and eventually moved on to “real work” using
“more mature languages” like C#, Java, and Python. Throughout that time the infrastructure
hosting these projects followed a similar evolution, starting with free static
hosting and moving on to the “grown-up” hosting options like virtual private servers
or dedicated hosts in a colocation facility. This certainly got the job done, but scaling
up and down was frustrating (you had to place an order and wait a little bit), and the
minimum purchase was usually a full calendar year.
But then things started to change. Somewhere around 2008, cloud computing
became available using Amazon’s new Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). Suddenly you
had way more control over your infrastructure than ever before thanks to the ability to
turn computers on and off using web-based APIs. To make things even better, you
paid only for the time when the computer was actually running rather than for the
entire year. It really was amazing.
As we now know, the rest is history. Cloud computing expanded into generalized
cloud infrastructure, moving higher and higher up the stack, to provide more and
more value as time went on. More companies got involved, launching entire divisions
devoted to cloud services, bringing with them even more new and exciting products
to add to our toolbox. These products went far beyond leasing virtual servers by the
hour, but the principle involved was always the same: take a software or infrastructure
problem, remove the manual work, and then charge only for what’s used. It just so
happens that Google was one of those companies, applying this principle to its in-house
technology to build Google Cloud Platform.
Fast-forward to today, and it seems we have a different problem: our toolboxes are
overflowing. Cloud infrastructure is amazing, but only if you know how to use it effectively.
You need to understand what’s in your toolbox, and, unfortunately, there aren’t
a lot of guidebooks out there. If Google Cloud Platform is your toolbox, Google Cloud
Platform in Action is here to help you understand all of your tools, from high-level concepts
(like choosing the right storage system) to the low-level details (like understanding
how much that storage will cost).

about this book
Google Cloud Platform in Action was written to provide a practical guide for using all of
the various cloud products and APIs available from Google. It begins by explaining
some of the fundamental concepts needed to understand how cloud works and proceeds
from there to build on these concepts one product at a time, digging into the
details of how different products work and providing realistic examples of how they
can be used.
Who should read this book
Google Cloud Platform in Action is for anyone who builds software products or deals with
hosting them. Familiarity with the cloud is not necessary, but familiarity with the basics
in the software development toolbox (such as SQL databases, APIs, and commandline
tools) is important. If you’ve heard of the cloud and want to know how best to use
it, this book is probably for you.
About the code
This book contains many examples of source code, both in numbered listings and inline
with normal text. In both cases, source code is formatted in a fixed-width font
like this to separate it from ordinary text. Sometimes boldface is used to highlight
code that has changed from previous steps in the chapter, such as when a new feature
adds to an existing line of code.
In many cases, the original source code has been reformatted; we’ve added line
breaks and reworked indentation to accommodate the available page space in the
book. In rare cases, even this was not enough, and listings include line-continuation
markers (➥). Additionally, comments in the source code have often been removed
from the listings when the code is described in the text. Code annotations accompany
many of the listings, highlighting important concepts.
About the author
JJ Geewax received his Bachelor of Science in Engineering in Computer Science from
the University of Pennsylvania in 2008. While an undergrad at UPenn he joined Invite
Media, a platform that enables customers to buy online ads in real time. In 2010 Invite
Media was acquired by Google and, as their largest internal cloud customer, became
the first large user of Google Cloud Platform. Since then, JJ has worked as a Senior
Staff Software Engineer at Google, currently specializing in API design, specifically for
Google Cloud Platform.

table of contents
foreword xvii
preface xix
acknowledgments xxi
about this book xxiii
about the cover illustration xxvii
PART 1 GETTING STARTED
1 What is “cloud”? 3
1.1 What is Google Cloud Platform? 4
1.2 Why cloud? 4
Why not cloud? 5
1.3 What to expect from cloud services 6
Computing 6 ■ Storage 7 ■ Analytics (aka, Big Data) 8
Networking 8 ■ Pricing 9
1.4 Building an application for the cloud 9
What is a cloud application? 9 ■ Example: serving photos 10
Example projects 12
1.5 Getting started with Google Cloud Platform 13
Signing up for GCP 13 ■ Exploring the console 14
Understanding projects 15 ■ Installing the SDK 16
1.6 Interacting with GCP 18
In the browser: the Cloud Console 18 ■ On the command line:
gcloud 20 ■ In your own code: google-cloud-* 22
2 Trying it out: deploying WordPress on Google Cloud 24
2.1 System layout overview 25
2.2 Digging into the database 26
Turning on a Cloud SQL instance 27 ■ Securing your Cloud SQL
instance 28 ■ Connecting to your Cloud SQL instance 30
Configuring your Cloud SQL instance for WordPress 30
2.3 Deploying the WordPress VM 31
2.4 Configuring WordPress 33
2.5 Reviewing the system 36
2.6 Turning it off 37
3 The cloud data center 38
3.1 Data center locations 39
3.2 Isolation levels and fault tolerance 42
Zones 42 ■ Regions 42 ■ Designing for fault tolerance 43
Automatic high availability 45
3.3 Safety concerns 45
Security 46 ■ Privacy 47 ■ Special cases 48
3.4 Resource isolation and performance 48
PART 2 STORAGE
4 Cloud SQL: managed relational storage 53
4.1 What’s Cloud SQL? 54
4.2 Interacting with Cloud SQL 54
4.3 Configuring Cloud SQL for production 60
Access control 60 ■ Connecting over SSL 61 ■ Maintenance
windows 66 ■ Extra MySQL options 67
4.4 Scaling up (and down) 68
Computing power 69 ■ Storage 69
4.5 Replication 71
Replica-specific operations 75
4.6 Backup and restore 75
Automated daily backups 76 ■ Manual data export to
Cloud Storage 77
4.7 Understanding pricing 81
4.8 When should I use Cloud SQL? 83
Structure 83 ■ Query complexity 84 ■ Durability 84
Speed (latency) 84 ■ Throughput 84
4.9 Cost 85
Overall 85
4.10 Weighing Cloud SQL against a VM running MySQL 87
5 Cloud Datastore: document storage 89
5.1 What’s Cloud Datastore? 90
Design goals for Cloud Datastore 91 ■ Concepts 92
Consistency and replication 96 ■ Consistency with
data locality 99
5.2 Interacting with Cloud Datastore 101
5.3 Backup and restore 107
5.4 Understanding pricing 110
Storage costs 110 ■ Per-operation costs 110
5.5 When should I use Cloud Datastore? 111
Structure 111 ■ Query complexity 112 ■ Durability 112
Speed (latency) 112 ■ Throughput 113 ■ Cost 113
Overall 113 ■ Other document storage systems 115
6 Cloud Spanner: large-scale SQL 117
6.1 What is NewSQL? 118
6.2 What is Spanner? 118
6.3 Concepts 118
Instances 119 ■ Nodes 120 ■ Databases 120 ■ Tables 120
6.4 Interacting with Cloud Spanner 121
Creating an instance and database 122 ■ Creating a table 125
Adding data 127 ■ Querying data 127 ■ Altering database
schema 131
6.5 Advanced concepts 132
Interleaved tables 133 ■ Primary keys 136 ■ Split points 137
Choosing primary keys 138 ■ Secondary indexes 139
Transactions 145
6.6 Understanding pricing 152
6.7 When should I use Cloud Spanner? 153
Structure 154 ■ Query complexity 154 ■ Durability 154
Speed (latency) 154 ■ Throughput 154 ■ Cost 155
Overall 155
7 Cloud Bigtable: large-scale structured data 158
7.1 What is Bigtable? 159
Design goals 159 ■ Design nongoals 161
Design overview 162
7.2 Concepts 162
Data model concepts 163 ■ Infrastructure concepts 168
7.3 Interacting with Cloud Bigtable 173
Creating a Bigtable Instance 173 ■ Creating your schema 175
Managing your data 177 ■ Importing and exporting data 181
7.4 Understanding pricing 184
7.5 When should I use Cloud Bigtable? 185
Structure 185 ■ Query complexity 186 ■ Durability 186
Speed (latency) 186 ■ Throughput 186 ■ Cost 187
Overall 187
7.6 What’s the difference between Bigtable and HBase? 190
7.7 Case study: InstaSnap recommendations 191
Querying needs 191 ■ Tables 192 ■ Users table 192
Recommendations table 195 ■ Processing data 196
7.8 Summary 198
8 Cloud Storage: object storage 199
8.1 Concepts 200
Buckets and objects 200
8.2 Storing data in Cloud Storage 201
8.3 Choosing the right storage class 204
Multiregional storage 204 ■ Regional storage 205
Nearline storage 205 ■ Coldline storage 206
8.4 Access control 207
Limiting access with ACLs 207 ■ Signed URLs 213
Logging access to your data 217
8.5 Object versions 219
8.6 Object lifecycles 223
8.7 Change notifications 225
URL restrictions 227
8.8 Common use cases 228
Hosting user content 228 ■ Data archival 229
8.9 Understanding pricing 230
Amount of data stored 231 ■ Amount of data transferred 232
Number of operations executed 233 ■ Nearline and Coldline
pricing 234
8.10 When should I use Cloud Storage? 236
Structure 236 ■ Query complexity 236 ■ Durability 236
Speed (latency) 237 ■ Throughput 237 ■ Overall 237
To-do list 237 ■ E*Exchange 238 ■ InstaSnap 238
PART 3 COMPUTING
9 Compute Engine: virtual machines 243
9.1 Launching your first (or second) VM 244
9.2 Block storage with Persistent Disks 245
Disks as resources 246 ■ Attaching and detaching disks 247
Using your disks 250 ■ Resizing disks 252 ■ Snapshots 253
Images 258 ■ Performance 259 ■ Encryption 261
9.3 Instance groups and dynamic resources 264
Changing the size of an instance group 269 ■ Rolling
updates 270 ■ Autoscaling 274
9.4 Ephemeral computing with preemptible VMs 276
Why use preemptible machines? 277 ■ Turning on preemptible
VMs 278 ■ Handling terminations 278 ■ Preemption
selection 279
9.5 Load balancing 280
Backend configuration 282 ■ Host and path rules 285
Frontend configuration 286 ■ Reviewing the configuration 287
9.6 Cloud CDN 289
Enabling Cloud CDN 290 ■ Cache control 293
9.7 Understanding pricing 294
Computing capacity 294 ■ Sustained use discounts 295
Preemptible prices 298 ■ Storage 298 ■ Network traffic 299
9.8 When should I use GCE? 301
Flexibility 301 ■ Complexity 302 ■ Performance 302
Cost 302 ■ Overall 302 ■ To-Do List 303
E*Exchange 303 ■ InstaSnap 304
10 Kubernetes Engine: managed Kubernetes clusters 306
10.1 What are containers? 307
Configuration 307 ■ Standardization 307 ■ Isolation 309
10.2 What is Docker? 310
10.3 What is Kubernetes? 310
Clusters 312 ■ Nodes 312 ■ Pods 313 ■ Services 314
10.4 What is Kubernetes Engine? 315
10.5 Interacting with Kubernetes Engine 315
Defining your application 315 ■ Running your container
locally 317 ■ Deploying to your container registry 319
Setting up your Kubernetes Engine cluster 320 ■ Deploying
your application 321 ■ Replicating your application 323
Using the Kubernetes UI 325
10.6 Maintaining your cluster 327
Upgrading the Kubernetes master node 327 ■ Upgrading
cluster nodes 329 ■ Resizing your cluster 331
10.7 Understanding pricing 332
10.8 When should I use Kubernetes Engine? 332
Flexibility 332 ■ Complexity 333 ■ Performance 333
Cost 334 ■ Overall 334 ■ To-Do List 334
E*Exchange 335 ■ InstaSnap 335
11 App Engine: fully managed applications 337
11.1 Concepts 338
Applications 339 ■ Services 341 ■ Versions 342
Instances 342
11.2 Interacting with App Engine 343
Building an application in App Engine Standard 344
On App Engine Flex 353
11.3 Scaling your application 361
Scaling on App Engine Standard 362 ■ Scaling on App
Engine Flex 367 ■ Choosing instance configurations 368
11.4 Using App Engine Standard’s managed services 371
Storing data with Cloud Datastore 371 ■ Caching ephemeral
data 372 ■ Deferring tasks 374 ■ Splitting traffic 375
11.5 Understanding pricing 379
11.6 When should I use App Engine? 380
Flexibility 380 ■ Complexity 381 ■ Performance 381
Cost 381 ■ Overall 382 ■ To-Do List 382
E*Exchange 382 ■ InstaSnap 383
12 Cloud Functions: serverless applications 385
12.1 What are microservices? 385
12.2 What is Google Cloud Functions? 386
Concepts 388
12.3 Interacting with Cloud Functions 391
Creating a function 391 ■ Deploying a function 392
Triggering a function 394
12.4 Advanced concepts 395
Updating functions 395 ■ Deleting functions 396
Using dependencies 396 ■ Calling other Cloud APIs 399
Using a Google Source Repository 401
12.5 Understanding pricing 403
13 Cloud DNS: managed DNS hosting 406
13.1 What is Cloud DNS? 407
Example DNS entries 409
13.2 Interacting with Cloud DNS 410
Using the Cloud Console 410 ■ Using the Node.js client 414
13.3 Understanding pricing 418
Personal DNS hosting 418 ■ Startup business DNS hosting 418
13.4 Case study: giving machines DNS names at boot 419
PART 4 MACHINE LEARNING
14 Cloud Vision: image recognition 427
14.1 Annotating images 428
Label annotations 429 ■ Faces 432 ■ Text recognition 435
Logo recognition 437 ■ Safe-for-work detection 440
Combining multiple detection types 441
14.2 Understanding pricing 443
14.3 Case study: enforcing valid profile photos 443
15 Cloud Natural Language: text analysis 446
15.1 How does the Natural Language API work? 447
15.2 Sentiment analysis 448
15.3 Entity recognition 452
15.4 Syntax analysis 455
15.5 Understanding pricing 457
15.6 Case study: suggesting InstaSnap hash-tags 459
16 Cloud Speech: audio-to-text conversion 463
16.1 Simple speech recognition 465
16.2 Continuous speech recognition 467
16.3 Hinting with custom words and phrases 468
16.4 Understanding pricing 469
16.5 Case study: InstaSnap video captions 469
17 Cloud Translation: multilanguage machine translation 473
17.1 How does the Translation API work? 475
17.2 Language detection 477
17.3 Text translation 479
17.4 Understanding pricing 481
17.5 Case study: translating InstaSnap captions 481
18 Cloud Machine Learning Engine: managed machine
learning 485
18.1 What is machine learning? 485
What are neural networks? 486 ■ What is TensorFlow? 488
18.2 What is Cloud Machine Learning Engine? 491
Concepts 492 ■ Putting it all together 495
18.3 Interacting with Cloud ML Engine 498
Overview of US Census data 498 ■ Creating a model 499
Setting up Cloud Storage 501 ■ Training your model 503
Making predictions 506 ■ Configuring your underlying
resources 509
18.4 Understanding pricing 514
Training costs 514 ■ Prediction costs 516
PART 5 DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYTICS
19 BigQuery: highly scalable data warehouse 521
19.1 What is BigQuery? 521
Why BigQuery? 522 ■ How does BigQuery work? 522
Concepts 525
19.2 Interacting with BigQuery 528
Querying data 528 ■ Loading data 533
Exporting datasets 542
19.3 Understanding pricing 544
Storage pricing 544 ■ Data manipulation pricing 545
Query pricing 545
20 Cloud Dataflow: large-scale data processing 547
20.1 What is Apache Beam? 549
Concepts 550 ■ Putting it all together 555
20.2 What is Cloud Dataflow? 556
20.3 Interacting with Cloud Dataflow 557
Setting up 557 ■ Creating a pipeline 559 ■ Executing
a pipeline locally 560 ■ Executing a pipeline using
Cloud Dataflow 561
20.4 Understanding pricing 565
21 Cloud Pub/Sub: managed event publishing 568
21.1 The headache of messaging 569
21.2 What is Cloud Pub/Sub? 569
21.3 Life of a message 569
21.4 Concepts 572
Topics 572 ■ Messages 572 ■ Subscriptions 574
Sample configuration 575
21.5 Trying it out 576
Sending your first message 576 ■ Receiving your
first message 578
21.6 Push subscriptions 581
21.7 Understanding pricing 583
21.8 Messaging patterns 584
Fan-out broadcast messaging 584 ■ Work-queue messaging 587
index 589


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about the cover illustration
The figure on the cover of Google Cloud Platform in Action is captioned, “Barbaresque
Enveloppe Iana son Manteaul.” The illustration is taken from a collection of
dress costumes from various countries by Jacques Grasset de Saint-Sauveur (1757–
1810), titled Costumes de différents pays, published in France in 1797. Each illustration is
finely drawn and colored by hand. The rich variety of Grasset de Saint-Sauveur’s collection
reminds us vividly of how culturally apart the world’s towns and regions were just
200 years ago. Isolated from each other, people spoke different dialects and languages.
In the streets or in the countryside, it was easy to identify where they lived and
what their trade or station in life was just by their dress.
The way we dress has changed since then, and the diversity by region, so rich at the
time, has faded away. It is now hard to tell apart the inhabitants of different continents,
let alone different towns, regions, or countries. Perhaps we have traded cultural
diversity for a more varied personal life—certainly for a more varied and fast-paced
technological life.
At a time when it is hard to tell one computer book from another, Manning celebrates
the inventiveness and initiative of the computer business with book covers
based on the rich diversity of regional life of two centuries ago, brought back to life by
Grasset de Saint-Sauveur’s pictures.

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