Digital Marketing, Sixth Edition. Pearson

Digital Marketing, Sixth Edition. Pearson

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Strategy, Implementation and Practice 

Dave Chaffey . Fiona Ellis-Chadwick


Part 1 Digital marketing fundamentals
 Introducing digital marketing 
Online marketplace analysis: micro-environment
The online macro-environment 
Part 2 Digital marketing strategy development
Digital marketing strategy
The impact of digital media and technology on the marketing mix
Relationship marketing using digital platforms
Part 3 Digital marketing: implementation and practice
Delivering the online customer experience
Campaign planning for digital media
Marketing communications using digital media channels
Evaluation and improvement of digital channel performance
Business-to-consumer digital marketing practice
Business-to-business digital marketing practice

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Book Details
 4.00 USD
 729 p
 File Size
 22,789 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 978-1-292-07761-1 (print)
 978-1-292-07764-2 (PDF)
 978-1-292-07762-8 (eText)
 978-1-292-12564-0 (ePub)
 Pearson Education Limited 2012, 2016
 (print and electronic) 

About the Author
Dave Chaffey BSc, PhD, FCIM, MIDM
Dave is CEO of Smart Insights (www.smartinsights.com), an online publisher and analytics
company providing advice and alerts on best practice and industry developments for digital
marketers and e-commerce managers. The advice is also created to help readers of Dave’s
books. The most relevant information is highlighted at www.smartinsights.com/book-support.
Dave also works as an independent digital marketing trainer and consultant for Marketing Insights
Limited. He has consulted on digital marketing and e-commerce strategy for companies of a
range of sizes from larger organisations like 3M, Barclaycard, HSBC, Mercedes-Benz, Nokia and
The North Face to smaller organisations like Arco, Confused.com, Euroffice, Hornbill and i-to-i.
Dave’s passion is educating students and marketers about latest and best practices in digital
marketing, so empowering businesses to improve their online performance through getting the
most value from their web analytics and market insight. In other words, making
the most of online opportunities and avoiding waste.
He is proud to have been recognised by the Department of Trade and Industry as one of the
leading individuals who have provided input and influence on the development and growth of
e-commerce and the Internet in the UK over the last ten years. Dave has also been recognised
by the Chartered Institute of Marketing as one of 50 marketing ‘gurus’ worldwide who have
helped shape the future of marketing. He is also proud to be an Honorary Fellow of the IDM.
Dave is a visiting lecturer on e-commerce courses at different universities including Birmingham,
Cranfield, Derby, Manchester Metropolitan and Warwick Universities. He is also
a tutor on the IDM Diploma in Digital Marketing, for which he is senior examiner.
In total, Dave is author of five best-selling business books including Digital Business
and Ecommerce Management, Digital Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice,
eMarketing eXcellence (with P.R. Smith) and Total Email Marketing. Many of these books
have been published in new editions since 2000 and translations include Chinese, Dutch,
German, Italian and Serbian.
When offline Dave enjoys fell-running, indie guitar music and travelling with his family.
Fiona Ellis-Chadwick PhD, BSc, PGCE

Fiona-Ellis Chadwick (www.ellis-chadwick.com) is a Senior Lecturer at Loughborough University
School of Business & Economics, where she is the Director of the Institute of Consultancy
and Research Application and is an active researcher, lecturer and author. As part of her role
Fiona is a leading researcher in the field of online e-commerce in retailing and is an active member
of the Town Centre Research Interest Group. She is a leading thinker in the development of
innovative blended-learning for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching in the subject areas
of retailing and marketing, having built her expertise working with leading international publishers
and universities, particularly The Open University over the past 20 years. She had a successful
commercial career before becoming an academic and completing her PhD. Having made
a significant contribution in the area of online retailing she continues to focus her research and
academic publications in the areas of strategic adoption of the Internet. Her work on these topics
has been published in Industrial Marketing Management, Journal of Business Research, European
Journal of Marketing, Internet Research, International Journal of Retail Distribution
and Management, plus additional textbooks and practitioner journals. She is also a member of
the Independent Standards Board for The Retail Ombudsman. Fiona is passionate about how
technology and education can help business development in the future.

Digital media and technology, an opportunity and threat
The development of the Internet, World Wide Web and other digital technologies have
transformed marketing. For consumers, they give a much wider choice of products, services
and prices from different suppliers and a more convenient way to select and purchase items.
There is also a choice of technology platforms from desktops and laptops to smartphone
and tablet devices for consumers to use. For organisations, digital media and new technology
platforms give the opportunity to expand into new markets, offer new services, apply
new online communications techniques and compete on a more equal footing with larger
businesses. For those working within these organisations it gives the opportunity to develop
new skills and to use these new tools to improve the competitiveness of the company.
At the same time, the Internet and related digital technology platforms give rise to many
threats to organisations. For example, online companies such as ASOS.com (clothing),
Amazon.com (books and retail), iTunes (music) and Expedia (travel) have captured a significant
part of their market and struck fear into the existing players. Many consumers
now regularly use social networks like Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn and Twitter as part
of their daily lives. Engaging these consumers is an ongoing challenge, but as we will see,
companies like ASOS have taken advantage of these opportunities to interact with customers
and this has helped them develop as a worldwide brand.

Management of digital marketing
With the success stories of companies capturing market share following the rapidly increasing
adoption of the Internet by consumers and business buyers has come a fast-growing
realisation that all organisations must have an effective online presence to prosper, or
possibly even survive! Michael Porter said in 2001:
The key question is not whether to deploy Internet technology – companies have no
choice if they want to stay competitive – but how to deploy it.
What are the techniques that businesses need to master to make effective use of digital
marketing? Figure P.1 gives an indication of the range of marketing activities that now
need to be managed effectively and which are covered in this text. RACE describes the
range of tactics needed to reach, interact with, convert and engage online audience across
the customer lifecycle from generating awareness, conversion to sale (online and offline)
and retention and growth of customers.
The figure shows the range of different marketing activities or operating processes
needed to support acquiring new customers through communicating with them on thirdparty
websites and social media, attracting them to a company website, converting website
visits into sales and then using online media to encourage further sales. You can see
that applying social media is a part of RACE and therefore is one of the key management
challenges in digital marketing, so we consider approaches to managing social media marketing
throughout the text. Applying digital platforms as part of multichannel marketing
to integrate customer journeys between traditional and ‘new’ media is also a major challenge
and a theme throughout this text. Management processes related to governance of
digital marketing include planning how digital marketing can be best resourced to contribute
to the organisation and integrating with other marketing activities. The increased
adoption of digital marketing also implies a significant programme of change that needs
to be managed. New objectives need to be set, new communications strategies developed
and staff developed through new responsibilities and skills.

Table of Contents
Preface xiii
About the authors xxiv
Acknowledgements xxv
Part 1 Digital marketing fundamentals 2
1 Introducing digital marketing 4
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 4
Introduction – how have digital technologies
transformed marketing? 6
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Nick Dutch,
Head of Digital at Domino’s Pizza 9
Definitions – what are digital marketing and
multichannel marketing? 11
Paid, owned and earned media 11
The growing range of digital marketing platforms 12
Introduction to digital marketing strategy 16
Key features of digital marketing strategy 16
Applications of digital marketing 16
Benefits of digital marketing 17
Alternative digital business models 20
What is the difference between e-commerce
and e-business? 22
Different forms of online presence 24
Challenges in developing and managing digital marketing
strategy 25
A strategic framework for developing a digital marketing
strategy 27
Introduction to digital marketing communications 29
The relationship between digital and traditional
communications 30
Using digital media channels to support
business objectives 31
The key types of digital media channels 32
Different types of social media marketing tools 34
Benefits of digital media 37
Key challenges of digital communications 43
Key communications concepts for digital marketing 43
Case study 1
eBay thrives in the global marketplace 46
Summary 49
Exercises 49
Self-assessment exercises 49
Essay and discussion questions 50
Examination questions 50
References 50
Weblinks 52
2 Online marketplace analysis: micro-environment 54
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 54
Introduction 56
Situation analysis for digital marketing 56
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Michael Welch of
Blackcircles.com 57
The digital marketing environment 59
Understanding customer journeys 61
Customer analysis 68
Demand analysis and implications for
marketing planning 69
Implications for marketing planning:
conversion models 69
Consumer choice and digital influence 72
Consumer transactions 74
Online consumer behaviour and implications for
marketing 76
Customer characteristics 76
Consumer personas 79
The buying process 79
Competitors 88
The shape and nature of online competitive markets 88
Competitor analysis and benchmarking 91
Suppliers 93
Online marketing intermediaries 94
Portals 96
New channel structures 96
Business models for e-commerce 99
Revenue models 103
Case study 2
Boo hoo – learning from the largest European
dot-com failure 108
Summary 111
Exercises 112
Self-assessment exercises 112
Essay and discussion questions 112
Examination questions 112
References 113
Weblinks 116
3 The online macro-environment 118
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 118
Introduction 120
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Fred Bassett of
Blue Latitude 121
The rate of environment change 123
Technological forces 123
A short introduction to Internet technology 123
URL strategy 125
How does the Internet work? 125
Infrastructure components of the Internet 126
Web page standards 126
Text information – HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) 127
Text information and data – XML (eXtensible Markup
Language) 127
Graphical images (GIF, JPEG and PNG files) 128
Animated graphical information (Flash and plug-ins) 128
Audio and video standards 128
The difference between the Internet, intranets
and extranets 129
Web application frameworks and application servers 129
Digital security 130
Approaches to developing secure systems 133
Technology convergence 135
SMS messaging and applications 135
Mobile apps 136
QR codes 137
Wi-Fi 137
Bluetooth wireless applications 138
Emerging technologies 138
Assessing the marketing value of technology innovation 139
Economic forces 142
Market growth and employment 142
International market growth and emerging economies 143
Economic disruption 143
Political forces 144
Political control and democracy 145
Internet governance 145
Taxation 145
Tax jurisdiction 146
Legal forces 147
Legal activities can be considered unethical 147
1 Data protection and privacy law 148
2 Disability and discrimination law 159
3 Brand and trademark protection 159
4 Intellectual property rights 161
5 Contract law 162
6 Online advertising law 163
Social forces 164
Social exclusion 164
Cultural forces 165
Environmental and green issues related to Internet usage 165
Case study 3
Zopa launches a new lending model 167
Summary 169
Exercises 169
Self-assessment exercises 169
Essay and discussion questions 170
Examination questions 170
References 170
Weblinks 172
Part 2 Digital marketing strategy development 174
4 Digital marketing strategy 176
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 176
Introduction 178
Digital marketing strategy as a channel marketing strategy 178
The scope of digital marketing strategy 179
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Sajjad Bhojani
of Dunelm 182
The need for an integrated digital marketing strategy 184
How to structure a digital marketing strategy 186
Situation analysis 190
Internal audit for digital marketing 191
Customer research 192
Resource analysis 192
Stage models of the digital marketing capability 193
Competitor analysis 194
Intermediary analysis 194
Assessing opportunities and threats 195
Setting goals and objectives for digital marketing 196
The online revenue contribution 200
Setting SMART objectives 203
Frameworks for objective setting 205
Strategy formulation for digital marketing 208
Decision 1: Market and product development strategies 210
Decision 2: Business and revenue models strategies 213
Decision 3: Target marketing strategy 215
Decision 4: Positioning and differentiation strategy
(including the marketing mix) 220
Decision 5: Customer engagement and social
media strategy 223
Decision 6: Multichannel distribution strategy 225
Decision 7: Multichannel communications strategy 228
Decision 8: Online communications mix and budget 231
Decision 9: Organisational capabilities (7S framework)
and governance 232
Strategy implementation 236
Assessing different Internet projects 236
The online lifecycle management grid 238
Case study 4
Tesco online development strategy supports
global expansion 239
Summary 242
Exercises 242
Self-assessment exercises 242
Essay and discussion questions 243
Examination questions 243
References 243
Weblinks 246
5 The impact of digital media and
technology on the marketing mix 248
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 248
Introduction 250
What is the marketing mix? 250
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Roberto Hortal 252
Product 255
1 Options for varying the core product 256
2 Options for offering digital products 257
3 Options for changing the extended product 258
4 Conducting research online 259
5 Velocity of new product development 260
6 Velocity of new product diffusion 260
The long tail concept 261
Branding in a digital environment 262
Price 267
1 Increased price transparency 269
2 Downward pressure on price 270
3 New pricing approaches (including auctions) 274
4 Alternative pricing structure or policies 276
Place 277
1 Place of purchase 277
2 New channel structures 280
3 Channel conflicts 281
4 Virtual organisations 282
Promotion 284
People, process and physical evidence 285
People 286
Process 288
Physical evidence 288
Case study 5
Spotify streaming develops new revenue models 290
Summary 293
Exercises 293
Self-assessment exercises 293
Essay and discussion questions 293
Examination questions 293
References 294
Weblinks 297
6 Relationship marketing using
digital platforms 298
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 298
Introduction 300
From e-CRM to social CRM 302
Structure of this chapter 303
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview:
Guy Stephens of IBM 304
The challenge of customer engagement 308
Benefits of using e-CRM to support
customer engagement 308
Marketing applications of e-CRM 311
CRM technologies and data 311
Customer lifecycle management 311
Permission marketing 313
‘Right touching’ through developing online
contact strategies 319
The ‘emotionally unsubscribed’ email list members 320
Personalisation and mass customisation 322
Using digital media to increase customer
loyalty and value 324
Determining what customers value 324
The relationship between satisfaction and loyalty 325
Measuring the voice of the customer in
digital media 327
Differentiating customers by value and engagement 328
Lifetime value modelling 331
Recency–frequency–monetary value (RFM) analysis 335
The ‘Big Data’ concept 339
Product recommendations and propensity modelling 340
Applying virtual communities and social
networks for CRM 340
Marketing to consumers using independent
social networks 343
Customer experience – the missing element
required for customer loyalty 343
Case study 6
Dell gets closer to its customers through
its social media strategy 344
Summary 347
Exercises 347
Self-assessment exercises 347
Essay and discussion questions 347
Examination questions 348
References 348
Weblinks 350
Part 3 Digital marketing:
implementation and practice 352
7 Delivering the online customer experience 354
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 354
Introduction 356
Creating effective digital experiences 356
Structure of the chapter 359
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Ben Jesson and
Karl Blanks of agency Conversion Rate Experts 360
Planning website design and redesign projects 362
Who should be involved in a website project? 364
Prototyping and agile software development 366
Initiation of the website project 370
Domain name selection and registration 370
Uniform resource locators (URLs) 371
Selecting a hosting provider 372
Website performance optimisation 372
The availability of the website 373
Defining site or app requirements 374
Business requirements 374
Usability requirements 375
Web accessibility requirements 378
Localisation 379
Reviewing competitors’ websites 380
Designing the information architecture 381
Card sorting 382
Blueprints 383
Wireframes 383
Landing pages 386
Designing the user experience 388
Evaluating designs 389
Elements of site design 389
Mobile design considerations and techniques 391
Site navigation schemes 395
Development and testing of content 400
Criteria for selecting a content management system 400
Testing the experience 401
Online retail merchandising 402
Site promotion or ‘traffic building’ 404
Service quality 404
Tangibles 407
Reliability 407
Assurance 407
Multichannel communications preferences 407
Empathy 408
The relationship between service quality, customer
satisfaction and loyalty 410
Case study 7
Refining the online customer experience
at i-to-i.com 410
Summary 412
Exercises 413
Self-assessment exercises 413
Essay and discussion questions 413
Examination questions 413
References 414
Weblinks 416
8 Campaign planning for
digital media 418
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 418
Introduction 420
The structure of this chapter 421
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview:
Mike O’Brien of the Jam Partnership 422
The characteristics of digital media 424
1 From push to pull 424
2 From monologue to dialogue to trialogue 424
3 From one-to-many to one-to-some and one-to-one 425
4 From one-to-many to many-to-many
communications 426
5 From ‘lean-back’ to ‘lean-forward’ 427
6 The medium changes the nature of standard
marketing communications tools such
as advertising 427
7 Increase in communications intermediaries 428
8 Integration 428
9 Timing of campaign communications have
additional ‘always-on’ and real-time marketing
components 428
Step 1. Goal setting and tracking for
interactive marketing communications 432
Terminology for measuring digital campaigns 432
Examples of digital campaign measures 436
Campaign response mechanisms 438
Step 2. Campaign insight 441
Customer insight for digital marketing campaigns 442
Step 3. Segmentation and targeting 443
Step 4. Offer, message development and creative 447
Focus on content marketing 449
Step 5. Budgeting and selecting the
digital media mix 451
1 Level of investment in digital media techniques in
comparison to offline promotion 451
2 Selecting the right mix of digital media
communications tools 454
3 Level of investment in digital assets 460
Step 6. Integration into overall media
schedule or plan 463
Planning integrated marketing communications 463
Key activities in media selection and planning 464
Case Study 8
A short history of Facebook 468
Summary 472
Exercises 472
Self-assessment exercises 472
Essay and discussion questions 472
Examination questions 473
References 473
Weblinks 475
9 Marketing communications
using digital media channels 476
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 476
Introduction 478
How is this chapter structured? 478
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Kate Webb,
online marketing manager at Vision Express 480
Search engine marketing 484
What is SEO? 485
Advantages and disadvantages of SEO 488
Best practice in planning and managing SEO 489
Paid search marketing 495
Advantages and disadvantages of paid
search marketing 498
Best practice in planning and managing paid search
marketing 499
Online public relations 502
What is online public relations (e-PR)? 502
Advantages and disadvantages of online
public relations 504
Best practice in planning and managing
online public relations 506
Online partnerships including affiliate marketing 510
Affiliate marketing 510
Advantages and disadvantages of affiliate marketing 511
Best practice in planning and managing
affiliate marketing 512
Online sponsorship 513
Interactive display advertising 515
What is display advertising? 515
Advantages and disadvantages of display advertising 516
Best practice in planning and managing
display ad campaigns 519
Opt-in email marketing and mobile
text messaging 522
What is email marketing? 522
Opt-in email options for customer acquisition 522
Opt-in email options for prospect conversion
and customer retention (house list) 523
Advantages and disadvantages of email marketing 524
Best practice in planning and managing
email marketing 525
Mobile text messaging 528
Social media and viral marketing 528
Developing a social media communications strategy 529
Viral marketing 529
Advantages and disadvantages of social media
and viral marketing 532
Best practice in planning and managing viral marketing 534
Offline promotion techniques 535
Advantages and disadvantages of using offline
communications to support e-commerce 536
Incidental and specific advertising of the
online presence 537
Public relations 537
Direct marketing 538
Other physical reminders 538
Word-of-mouth marketing 538
Case study 9
Innovation at Google 539
Summary 541
Exercises 543
Self-assessment exercises 543
Essay and discussion questions 543
Examination questions 543
References 544
Weblinks 546
10 Evaluation and improvement of
digital channel performance 548
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 548
Introduction 550
Digital marketing in practice
The Smart Insights interview: Avinash Kaushik,
analytics evangelist at Google 551
Performance management for digital channels 553
Stage 1: Creating a performance management system 553
Stage 2: Defining the performance metrics framework 555
Stage 3: Tools and techniques for collecting metrics
and summarising results 560
Customer experience and content
management process 573
How often should content be updated? 574
Responsibilities for customer experience and
site management 575
Who owns the process? 576
Who owns the content? 577
Who owns the format? 579
Who owns the technology? 580
Content management systems 581
Case study 10
Learning from Amazon’s culture of metrics 582
Summary 587
Exercises 588
Self-assessment exercises 588
Essay and discussion questions 588
Examination questions 588
References 589
Weblinks 590
11 Business-to-consumer digital
marketing practice 592
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 592
Introduction 594
Key themes and concepts 596
The consumer perspective: online
consumer behaviour 596
Who are the online customers? 596
The retail perspective: online retailing 606
Development of online retailing 607
Online retail formats and strategic approaches 609
Implications for e-retail marketing strategy 612
Case study 11
ASOS leads the way with social media
and reinvents fashion
retailing online 614
Summary 617
Exercises 618
Mapping your path to purchase 618
Self-assessment exercises 618
Essay and discussion questions 618
Examination questions 619
References 619
12 Business-to-business
digital-marketing practice 622
Learning objectives / Questions for marketers /
Links to other chapters 622
Introduction 624
Key themes and concepts 625
Types of B2B organisational marketing and
trading environments 625
Using digital marketing to support customer
acquisition in B2B marketing 627
Lead-generation and conversion optimisation
for B2B marketing 629
Customer retention in B2B marketing 630
Options for online inter-organisational trading 633
B2B e-marketplaces 635
Drivers of adoption of e-marketplaces 636
Case study 12.1
Covisint – a typical history of a
B2B marketplace? 637
How digital technologies can support
B2B marketing 639
How organisations make efficiency gains 640
Analysing the factors which influence the
degree of adoption of Internet technologies 640
Digital marketing strategies 642
Case study 12.2
B2B adoption of the Internet:
Inspirational Cosmetics 645
Summary 646
Exercises 646
Self-assessment exercises 646
Essay and discussion questions 647
Examination questions 647
References 647
Glossary 649
Index 679

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Digital marketing – new skills required?
The aim of this text is to provide you with a comprehensive guide to the concepts, techniques
and best practice to support all the digital marketing processes shown in Figure P.1. This text
is based on emerging academic models together with best practice from leading adopters of
digital media. The practical knowledge developed through reviewing these concepts and best
practice is intended to enable graduates entering employment and marketing professionals to
exploit the opportunities of digital marketing while minimising the risks.
Specifically, this text addresses the following needs:
●● There is a need to know to what extent digital technology and media changes existing
marketing models and whether new models and strategies can be applied to exploit the
medium effectively.
●● Marketing practitioners need practical digital marketing skills to market their products
effectively. Knowledge of the new jargon – terms such as ‘marketing automation’,
‘click-through’, ‘cookie’, ‘uniques’ and ‘page impressions’ – and of effective methods of
site design and promotion such as search engine marketing will be necessary, either for
direct ‘hands-on’ development of a site or to enable communication with other staff or
agencies that are implementing and maintaining the site.
●● Given the rapidly changing market characteristics and best practices of digital marketing,
web-based information sources are needed to update knowledge regularly. This text
and the supporting companion website contain extensive links to websites to achieve this.
The text assumes some existing knowledge of marketing in the reader, perhaps developed
through experience or by students studying introductory modules in marketing fundamentals,
marketing communications or buyer behaviour. However, basic concepts of marketing,
communications theory, buyer behaviour and the marketing mix are outlined.